Makoto Tanaka

Kanazawa Medical University, Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken, Japan

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Publications (18)19.7 Total impact

  • Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 08/2014; 41(8):955-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status of lung cancer is important because it means that EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment is indicated. The purpose of this prospective study is to determine whether EGFR mutation status could be identified with reference to preoperative factors. Materials and Methods: One hundred-forty eight patients with lung cancer (111 adenocarcinomas, 25 squamous cell carcinomas and 12 other cell types) were enrolled in this study. The EGFR mutation status of each lung cancer was analyzed postoperatively. Results: There were 58 patients with mutant EGFR lung cancers (mutant LC) and 90 patients with wild-type EGFR lung cancers (wild-type LC). There were significant differences in gender, smoking status, maximum tumor diameter in chest CT, type of tumor shadow, clinical stage between mutant LC and wild-type LC. EGFR mutations were detected only in adenocarcinomas. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax:3.66±4.53) in positron emission tomography-computed tomography of mutant LC was significantly lower than that (8.26±6.11) of wild-type LC (p<0.0001). Concerning type of tumor shadow, the percentage of mutant LC was 85.7% (6/7) in lung cancers with pure ground glass opacity (GGO), 65.3%(32/49) in lung cancers with mixed GGO and 21.7%(20/92) in lung cancers with solid shadow (p<0.0001). For the results of discriminant analysis, type of tumor shadow (p=0.00036) was most significantly associated with mutant EGFR. Tumor histology (p=0.0028), smoking status (p=0.0051) and maximum diameter of tumor shadow in chest CT (p=0.047) were also significantly associated with mutant EGFR. The accuracy for evaluating EGFR mutation status by discriminant analysis was 77.0% (114/148). Conclusions: Mutant EGFR is significantly associated with lung cancer with pure or mixed GGO, adenocarcinoma, never-smoker, smaller tumor diameter in chest CT. Preoperatively, EGFR mutation status can be identified correctly in about 77 % of lung cancers.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(2):657-62. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is reported to be useful for detecting malignant lesions. The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristics of imaging, detection rate and sensitivity of DWI for recurrence or metastasis of lung cancer.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(16):6843-8. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To expand postoperative residual lungs after pulmonary lobectomy, thoracic drainage with two chest tubes has been recommended. Several studies recently demonstrated that postoperative drainage with one chest tube (PD1) was as safe as that with two chest tubes (PD2). However, most of the patients in those studies underwent lobectomy by standard thoracotomy. Although the number of pulmonary lobectomies by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been increasing in recent years, there have been no reports that compared PD1 with PD2 after pulmonary lobectomy, including that by VATS. To elucidate whether postoperative management with PD1 is as safe as that with PD2, we conducted a randomized controlled trial. Lung cancer patients who underwent lobectomies with mediastinal nodal dissection in our hospital were assigned to one of two groups: one chest tube placed in PD1 group and two chest tubes placed in PD2 group. A total of 108 patients were registered in the study. There were no significant differences in the age, gender, pathological stage or histological type between two groups. Since the residual lung expansion was good in both groups, there were no patients who needed thoracentesis. There were no significant differences in the number of cases with pleurodesis, the amount/duration of drainage or the pain of the patients between two groups. In conclusion, since PD1 has advantages in saving cost and time and in low risk of transcutaneous infection, PD1 is appropriate after pulmonary lobectomy by VATS and by open thoracotomy.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2014; 232(1):55-61. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) makes it possible to detect malignant tumors based on the diffusion of water molecules. However, it is uncertain whether DWI has advantages over FDG-PET for distinguishing malignant from benign pulmonary nodules and masses. Materials and Methods: One hundred- forty-three lung cancers, 17 metastatic lung tumors, and 29 benign pulmonary nodules and masses were assessed in this study. DWI and FDG-PET were performed. Results: The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (1.27±0.35 ?10-3 mm2/sec) of malignant pulmonary nodules and masses was significantly lower than that (1.66±0.58 ?10-3 mm2/sec) of benign pulmonary nodules and masses. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax: 7.47±6.10) of malignant pulmonary nodules and masses were also significantly higher than that (3.89±4.04) of benign nodules and masses. By using optimal cutoff values for ADC (1.44?10-3 mm2/sec) and for SUVmax (3.43), which were determined with receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC curves), the sensitivity (80.0%) of DWI was significantly higher than that (70.0%) of FDG-PET. The specificity (65.5%) of DWI was equal to that (65.5%) of FDG-PET. The accuracy (77.8%) of DWI was not significantly higher than that (69.3%) of FDG- PET for pulmonary nodules and masses. As the percentage of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) component in adenocarcinoma increased, the sensitivity of FDG-PET decreased. DWI could not help in the diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinomas as malignant, and FDG-PET could help in the correct diagnosis of 5 out of 6 mucinous adenocarcinomas as malignant. Conclusions: DWI has higher potential than PET in assessing pulmonary nodules and masses. Both diagnostic approaches have their specific strengths and weaknesses which are determined by the underlying pathology of pulmonary nodules and masses.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(11):4629-35. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to interpret diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) signals in lung cancers. They were converted into several three-dimensional DWI signals patterns, which represent the degree of DWI signal intensity by height and the degree of distribution by area: flat, low elevation, irregular elevation, single-peak elevation, multiple-peak elevation, and nodular elevation. There were 39 adenocarcinomas and 21 squamous cell carcinomas. Three-dimensional DWI signals decreased significantly in order of cell differentiation. Tumor cellular densities were increased according to the increase in three-dimensional DWI signals. DWI signal intensity and distribution can represent the amount of cancer cells and their distribution in the carcinoma.
    Clinical imaging 03/2013; 37(2):265-72. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The significance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is uncertain for the diagnosis of nodal involvement. The purpose of this study was to examine diagnostic capability of DWI compared with PET-CT for nodal involvement of lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 160 lung cancers (114 adenocarcinomas, 36 squamous cell carcinomas, and 10 other cell types) were analyzed in this study. DWI and PET-CT were performed preoperatively. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff values to diagnose metastatic lymph nodes were 1.70 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for ADC value and 4.45 for SUVmax. DWI correctly diagnosed N staging in 144 carcinomas (90 %) but incorrectly diagnosed N staging in 16 (10 %) [3 (1.9 %) had overstaging, 13 (8.1 %) had understaging]. PET-CT correctly diagnosed N staging in 133 carcinomas (83.1 %) but incorrectly diagnosed N staging in 27 (16.8 %) [4 (2.5 %) had overstaging, 23 (14.4 %) had understaging]. Sensitivity, accuracy, and negative predictive value for N staging by DWI were significantly higher than those by PET-CT. Of the 705 lymph node stations examined, 61 had metastases, and 644 did not. The maximum diameter of metastatic lesions in lymph nodes were 3.0 ± 0.9 mm in 21 lymph node stations not detected by either DWI or PET-CT: 7.2 ± 4.1 mm in 39 detected by DWI, and 11.9 ± 4.1 mm in 24 detected by PET-CT. There were significant differences among them. The sensitivity (63.9 %) for metastatic lymph node stations by DWI was significantly higher than that (39.3 %) by PET-CT. The accuracy (96.2 %) for all lymph node stations by DWI was significantly higher than that (94.3 %) by PET-CT. CONCLUSIONS: DWI has advantages over PET-CT in diagnosing malignant from benign lymph nodes of lung cancers.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to assess the efficacy of lung cancer screening using low-dose thoracic computed tomography, compared with chest roentgenography, in people aged 50-64 years with a smoking history of <30 pack-years, a randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Japan. The screening methods are randomly assigned individually. The duration of this trial is 10 years. In the intervention arm, low-dose thoracic computed tomography is performed for each participant in the first and the sixth years. In the control arm, chest roentgenography is performed for each participant in the first year. The participants in both arms are also encouraged to receive routine lung cancer screening using chest roentgenography annually. The interpretation of radiological findings and the follow-up of undiagnosed nodules are to be carried out according to the guidelines published in Japan. The required sample size is calculated to be 17 500 subjects for each arm.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2012; · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A certified method for lung cancer screening in Japan is the combination of chest X-ray and sputum cytology. The chest Xray examination is intended primarily for the detection of peripheral-type lung cancer. Interpretation of the films should be performed by two different physicians, and the films of screenees suspected to have abnormal shadow should be compared to the same screenee's films from previous screening visits. Sputum cytology is conducted for heavy smokers, and is useful for early detection of central lung cancer. The efficacy of this lung cancer screening method has been shown in several case control studies. There are some problems to solve i. e., a low rate of attendance and inadequate quality control. Low-dose thoracic CT screening is performed with an exposure within a single breath hold, and its interpretation can be conducted with films, CRT, or a LCD monitor. Even when taken at low doses, the radiation exposure dose is large compared to a chest X-ray, being about 3-10 times greater than the absorbed dose and 20-40 times greater than the effective dose. Since the radiation dose in a usual clinical condition is much higher, the clinical condition is not recommended for screening. Concerning the efficacy of low-dose CT screening for heavy-smokers, a positive result was reported in June 2011, and further detailed analyses are required. There are still some problems to solve i. e., the management of undiagnosed shadows, harm caused by the screening, quality control, and efficacy in non-smokers.
    Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 01/2012; 39(1):19-22.
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    ABSTRACT: It is uncertain whether the dissection of the pulmonary ligament is necessary in patients who undergo an upper lobectomy. A questionnaire was sent to the directors of Thoracic Surgery in 102 hospitals, asking whether dissection of the pulmonary ligament is performed in such patients, and the complications associated with dissecting or preserving the ligament. Seventy-eight directors (76%) returned the questionnaire. The preservation of the ligament is the current practice in 54 hospitals (69%), while 13 hospitals (17%) occasionally dissect, 9 hospitals (11%) regularly dissect, and 2 hospitals (3%) half dissect the ligament. Thirty directors experienced complications which were thought to be associated with dissecting the ligament: bronchial stenosis (21 directors), atelectasis (8), and bronchial obstruction (4). Twenty-six directors described complications thought to be associated with preserving the ligament: the pooling of pleural effusion (19 directors), insufficient expansion of lung (18), atelectasis (8), and empyema (7). Preservation of the ligament may therefore be useful in preventing bronchial stenosis and obstruction, while its dissection may be useful to prevent the pooling of pleural effusion.
    Surgery Today 11/2010; 40(11):1097-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine if glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) expression correlates with (18)F-FDG ((18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) in lung cancer and to examine the similarities and differences between them. A total of 34 patients with resected primary lung cancers were investigated in this study. There were 17 adenocarcinomas, 12 squamous cell carcinomas, and 5 cancers of other cell types. Immunohistochemical Glut1 intensity was categorized into three groups: negative, positive, and strongly positive. Glut1 frequency was defined by the proportion of positive cells among all cancer cells, and it was graded on a semiquantitative scale as 0-100% in 10% increments. The data are expressed as the mean +/- SD. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were 4.8 +/- 6.3 in "negative" Glut1 intensity cases, 4.7 +/- 3.1 in "positive" Glut1 intensity cases, and 11.2 +/- 5.2 in "strongly positive" Glut1 intensity cases. Although SUVmax correlated significantly with tumor size (correlation coefficient 0.58, P = 0.00033), Glut1 frequency did not correlate significantly with tumor size (correlation coefficient 0.18, P = 0.301). Cell type and cell differentiation correlated significantly with Glut1 expression and (18)F-FDG uptake. Glut1 expression correlates significantly with (18)F-FDG uptake. There are similarities in cell differentiation and cell type between Glut1 expression and (18)F-FDG uptake. (18)F-FDG uptake correlates significantly with tumor size, but Glut1 expression does not.
    General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 08/2010; 58(8):405-10.
  • The Journal of The Japanese Association for Chest Surgery. 01/2010; 24(2):225-228.
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of lung cancer screening should not be evaluated by the survival rate of lung cancer patients but by lung cancer mortality in a certain population because the survival rate can be greatly affected by several types of bias. Randomized controlled trials that were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s in Europe and the United States failed to prove the efficacy of lung cancer screening in decreasing the mortality rate; but recently the results of case-control studies in Japan have revealed that undergoing currently available screening decreases the risk of lung cancer deaths by 30%-60%. A system is now being created in Japan whereby the guidelines regarding cancer screening will continue to be updated. The preliminary reports concerning lung cancer screening using thoracic computed tomography revealed that not only the detection rate of lung cancer but also the survival rate of detected lung cancer patients were surprisingly high. However, the presence of some potential bias in these studies cannot be ignored; therefore, it is still unknown whether there is actual efficacy. Several randomized controlled trials are presently in progress overseas, but the interim results were not favorable. A randomized controlled trial should therefore immediately be started in Japan as well.
    General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2009; 57(10):519-27.
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    ABSTRACT: Pure bronchioloalveolar carcinomas have no stromal, vascular or pleural invasion, and they are candidates for curative wedge resection, although standard operative procedure for lung cancer is a pulmonary lobectomy. Most lung cancers with ground glass opacity (GGO), namely faint homogeneous shadows with sharp margin, are pure bronchioloalveolar carcinomas. This report presents the results of a pilot study on wedge resection with candidate selection by high-resolution computed tomography and positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The criteria for wedge resection were; 1) clinically no nodal or distant metastasis, 2) the location of the tumor was peripheral enough to undergo wedge resection, 3) the diameter of the shadow was 8-20 mm, 4) GGO% (diameter of GGO area/diameter of whole tumor) was 80% or over, 5) FDG uptake of the tumor was less than that of the mediastinum, 6) the intraoperative pathological diagnosis was non-invasive bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, and 7) informed consent was obtained. Nine tumors from 8 patients were selected in the study. The maximum diameter of the tumors was 9-18 mm and GGO% was 82-100%. All of nine tumors were treated with a wedge resection under video-assisted thoracic surgery. The postoperative courses were uneventful and no recurrence has been detected after 19-50-month follow-up. The changes in pulmonary function before and after the surgery were minimal. In conclusion, wedge resections were safely performed without any recurrence, and the postoperative pulmonary function was well preserved, suggesting the advantage of wedge resections for non-invasive bronchioloalveolar carcinomas.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2009; 217(2):133-7. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic patients have a decreased incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome, but the mechanism responsible for the decreased incidence is uncertain. Reabsorption of alveolar edema fluid (alveolar fluid clearance) has been considered to play an important role in resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, little is known regarding alveolar fluid clearance in diabetes mellitus. Since the obese Zucker rat has been used as an experimental model for diabetes mellitus, we determined if alveolar fluid clearance increased in the obese Zucker rat. First, we compared alveolar fluid clearance in obese Zucker rats with that in lean Zucker rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Then, we determined the role of sodium channel, Na,K-ATPase, and beta(2)-adrenoceptor, which drives alveolar fluid clearance, in obese Zucker rats. Alveolar fluid clearance was estimated by the progressive increase in alveolar albumin concentrations in the isolated lungs. We found that basal alveolar fluid clearance in obese Zucker rats was two-fold greater than that in lean Zucker rats and SD rats. The mRNA expression of alpha(1)-, beta(1)-Na, K-ATPase and beta(2)-adrenoceptor, but not mRNA expression of sodium channel, increased in obese Zucker rats. A selective beta(2)-agrenergic antagonist, but not a Na, K-ATPase inhibitor, specifically inhibited the increase in alveolar fluid clearance in obese Zucker rats. These results indicate that overexpression of beta(2)-adrenoceptor primarily increases basal alveolar fluid clearance in the obese Zucker rat. We speculate that the stimulation of alveolar fluid clearance ameliorates acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with diabetes mellitus.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2008; 216(3):223-30. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 58-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of bloody sputum. He was diagnosed as having synchronous triple bronchogenic squamous cell carcinomas in the right upper lobe, from the right B(6) segmental bronchus to the intermediate trunk and the middle lobar bronchus, and in the spur of the left B(1+2)/B(3) segmental bronchus. He underwent sleeve resection of the right upper lobe, right middle lobe, and right S(6) segment, with an anastomosis between the right main and right basal bronchi. This was followed by YAG-laser treatment and external irradiation for the left tumour and the residual right tumour. Postoperatively, chest X-ray revealed adequate expansion of the right basal segment, and pulmonary function testing showed satisfactory results. Recurrence was not detected during an initial 6-month period, however careful follow-up is required.
    Lung Cancer 03/2008; 59(2):262-5. · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Bronchology 01/2008; 15(2):104-106.
  • The Journal of The Japanese Association for Chest Surgery. 01/2007; 21(7):961-964.