[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymic lymphoid hyperplasia is often present with myasthenia gravis as well as other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Of the 4 cases of thymic lymphoid hyperplasia associated with Sjögren syndrome that have been reported, no case with a thymic lesion diagnosis that led to the diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome has been reported. We herein report a case of thymic lymphoid hyperplasia with multilocular thymic cysts, diagnosed before Sjögren syndrome.
A 37-year-old Japanese woman had an approximate 5-cm anterior mediastinal mass detected by chest imaging. The resected lesion revealed multilocular thymic cysts that were filled with colloid-like material. Histology showed lymph follicular hyperplasia with many epithelial cysts. The epithelium consisted of thymic medullary epithelium, and no epithelial proliferation was seen in the lymphoid tissue. Lymphocytes were composed of an organized mixed population of mature T and B cells without significant atypia. The infiltrated B cells did not reveal light chain restriction or immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. After the pathological diagnosis of thymic lesion, tests for the presence of autoantibodies were positive for antinuclear antibodies, rheumatic factor, and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies. The Schirmer's, chewing gum, and Saxon tests showed decreased salivary and lacrimal secretion. Lip biopsy showed focal lymphocytic sialadenitis. The signs and symptoms of Sjögren syndrome had not resolved, without aggravation, 1 year after the thymectomy.
When a case with thymic lymphoid hyperplasia without myasthenia gravis is encountered, it is essential to consider the presence of another autoimmune disease including Sjögren syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A bronchial fistula is one of the most serious complications that can occur following pulmonary lobectomy. We herein report a case of bronchial fistula that was successfully treated by endobronchial embolization using an Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot (EWS). A 72-year-old male underwent right lower lobectomy of the lung with nodal dissection for a pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. A bronchial fistula developed 53 days after surgery. Tube drainage was performed, and air leakage was apparent. Under endoscopic observation, intrathoracic injection of indigo carmine revealed that a fistula existed at the peripheral site of the B(2)ai bronchus. After one EWS (small) was inserted into the B(2)a bronchus tightly using a bronchoscope, the air leakage was stopped. Pleurodesis was further carried out, the thoracostomy tube was subsequently removed, and the patient was discharged. Endobronchial embolization using an EWS is an option for the treatment of a bronchial fistula after pulmonary resection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dear Editor:An iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is a relatively uncommon condition which indicates the status of retroperitoneal collection of pus involving the iliopsoas compartment. IPA sometimes arises following the direct expansion of adjacent infectious diseases, but there have been no previous reports in the English literature of an IPA that progressed to the thoracic cavity. We herein report a case of IPA that progressed to empyema and a posterior mediastinal abscess.Case reportA 64-year-old male with Crohn’s disease complained of general fatigue and a fever lasting for two days. After he was diagnosed as having Crohn’s disease 29 years previously, he received abdominal surgery several times due to Crohn’s disease, such as an ileocecal resection, sigmoidectomy and a partial resection of the small intestine. During this period, he developed a chronic ileocutaneous fistula despite the treatment with several drugs, including infliximab, adalimumab and methalazine. He did not have any other ...
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00384-015-2198-6 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is reported to be useful for detecting malignant lesions. The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristics of imaging, detection rate and sensitivity of DWI for recurrence or metastasis of lung cancer.
A total of 36 lung cancer patients with recurrence or metastasis were enrolled in this study. While 16 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), 17 underwent MRI and CT, and 3 underwent MRI and PET-CT.
Each recurrence or metastasis showed decreased diffusion, which was easily recognized in DWI. The detection rate for recurrence or metastasis was 100% (36/36) in DWI, 89% (17/19) in PET-CT and 82% (27/33) in CT. Detection rate of DWI was significantly higher than that of CT (p=0.0244) but not significantly higher than that of PET-CT (p=0.22). When the optimal cutoff value of the apparent diffusion coefficient value was set as 1.70?10-3 mm2/sec, the sensitivity of DWI for diagnosing recurrence or metastasis of lung cancer was 95.6%.
DWI is useful for detection of recurrence and metastasis of lung cancer.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 08/2014; 15(16):6843-8. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.16.6843 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) makes it possible to detect malignant tumors based on the diffusion of water molecules. However, it is uncertain whether DWI has advantages over FDG-PET for distinguishing malignant from benign pulmonary nodules and masses.
Materials and methods:
One hundred- forty-three lung cancers, 17 metastatic lung tumors, and 29 benign pulmonary nodules and masses were assessed in this study. DWI and FDG-PET were performed.
The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (1.27 ± 0.35 ?10-3 mm2/sec) of malignant pulmonary nodules and masses was significantly lower than that (1.66 ± 0.58 ?10-3 mm2/sec) of benign pulmonary nodules and masses. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max: 7.47 ± 6.10) of malignant pulmonary nodules and masses were also significantly higher than that (3.89 ± 4.04) of benign nodules and masses. By using optimal cutoff values for ADC (1.44?10-3 mm2/sec) and for SUV max (3.43), which were determined with receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC curves), the sensitivity (80.0%) of DWI was significantly higher than that (70.0%) of FDG-PET. The specificity (65.5%) of DWI was equal to that (65.5%) of FDG-PET. The accuracy (77.8%) of DWI was not significantly higher than that (69.3%) of FDG- PET for pulmonary nodules and masses. As the percentage of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) component in adenocarcinoma increased, the sensitivity of FDG-PET decreased. DWI could not help in the diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinomas as malignant, and FDG-PET could help in the correct diagnosis of 5 out of 6 mucinous adenocarcinomas as malignant.
DWI has higher potential than PET in assessing pulmonary nodules and masses. Both diagnostic approaches have their specific strengths and weaknesses which are determined by the underlying pathology of pulmonary nodules and masses.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 06/2014; 15(11):4629-35. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.11.4629 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To expand postoperative residual lungs after pulmonary lobectomy, thoracic drainage with two chest tubes has been recommended. Several studies recently demonstrated that postoperative drainage with one chest tube (PD1) was as safe as that with two chest tubes (PD2). However, most of the patients in those studies underwent lobectomy by standard thoracotomy. Although the number of pulmonary lobectomies by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been increasing in recent years, there have been no reports that compared PD1 with PD2 after pulmonary lobectomy, including that by VATS. To elucidate whether postoperative management with PD1 is as safe as that with PD2, we conducted a randomized controlled trial. Lung cancer patients who underwent lobectomies with mediastinal nodal dissection in our hospital were assigned to one of two groups: one chest tube placed in PD1 group and two chest tubes placed in PD2 group. A total of 108 patients were registered in the study. There were no significant differences in the age, gender, pathological stage or histological type between two groups. Since the residual lung expansion was good in both groups, there were no patients who needed thoracentesis. There were no significant differences in the number of cases with pleurodesis, the amount/duration of drainage or the pain of the patients between two groups. In conclusion, since PD1 has advantages in saving cost and time and in low risk of transcutaneous infection, PD1 is appropriate after pulmonary lobectomy by VATS and by open thoracotomy.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2014; 232(1):55-61. DOI:10.1620/tjem.232.55 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status of lung cancer is important because it means that EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment is indicated. The purpose of this prospective study is to determine whether EGFR mutation status could be identified with reference to preoperative factors.
Materials and methods:
One hundred-forty eight patients with lung cancer (111 adenocarcinomas, 25 squamous cell carcinomas and 12 other cell types) were enrolled in this study. The EGFR mutation status of each lung cancer was analyzed postoperatively.
There were 58 patients with mutant EGFR lung cancers (mutant LC) and 90 patients with wild-type EGFR lung cancers (wild-type LC). There were significant differences in gender, smoking status, maximum tumor diameter in chest CT, type of tumor shadow, clinical stage between mutant LC and wild-type LC. EGFR mutations were detected only in adenocarcinomas. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax:3.66±4.53) in positron emission tomography-computed tomography of mutant LC was significantly lower than that (8.26±6.11) of wild-type LC (p<0.0001). Concerning type of tumor shadow, the percentage of mutant LC was 85.7% (6/7) in lung cancers with pure ground glass opacity (GGO), 65.3%(32/49) in lung cancers with mixed GGO and 21.7%(20/92) in lung cancers with solid shadow (p<0.0001). For the results of discriminant analysis, type of tumor shadow (p=0.00036) was most significantly associated with mutant EGFR. Tumor histology (p=0.0028), smoking status (p=0.0051) and maximum diameter of tumor shadow in chest CT (p=0.047) were also significantly associated with mutant EGFR. The accuracy for evaluating EGFR mutation status by discriminant analysis was 77.0% (114/148).
Mutant EGFR is significantly associated with lung cancer with pure or mixed GGO, adenocarcinoma, never-smoker, smaller tumor diameter in chest CT. Preoperatively, EGFR mutation status can be identified correctly in about 77 % of lung cancers.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(2):657-62. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.2.657 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in patients undergoing surgical treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.
Seventy-eight consecutive patients (58 with adenocarcinomas, 20 with squamous cell carcinomas) treated with potentially curative surgery were retrospectively reviewed.
The SUVmax was significantly higher in the patients with recurrent than with non-recurrent adenocarcinoma (p<0.01). However, among the patients with squamous cell carcinoma, there were no differences with or without recurrence (p=0.69). Multivariate analysis indicated that the SUVmax of adenocarcinoma lesions was a significant predictor of disease-free survival (p=0.04). In addition, an SUVmax of 6.19, the cut-off point based on ROC curve analysis of the patients with pathological IB or more advanced stage adenocarcinomas, was found to be a significant predictor of disease-free survival (p<0.01).
SUVmax is a useful predictor of disease-free survival in patients with resected adenocarcinoma, but not squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with adenocarcinoma exhibiting an SUVmax above 6.19 are candidates for more intensive adjuvant therapy.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(23):10171-4. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.23.10171 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to interpret diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) signals in lung cancers. They were converted into several three-dimensional DWI signals patterns, which represent the degree of DWI signal intensity by height and the degree of distribution by area: flat, low elevation, irregular elevation, single-peak elevation, multiple-peak elevation, and nodular elevation. There were 39 adenocarcinomas and 21 squamous cell carcinomas. Three-dimensional DWI signals decreased significantly in order of cell differentiation. Tumor cellular densities were increased according to the increase in three-dimensional DWI signals. DWI signal intensity and distribution can represent the amount of cancer cells and their distribution in the carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The significance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is uncertain for the diagnosis of nodal involvement. The purpose of this study was to examine diagnostic capability of DWI compared with PET-CT for nodal involvement of lung cancer.
A total of 160 lung cancers (114 adenocarcinomas, 36 squamous cell carcinomas, and 10 other cell types) were analyzed in this study. DWI and PET-CT were performed preoperatively.
The optimal cutoff values to diagnose metastatic lymph nodes were 1.70 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for ADC value and 4.45 for SUVmax. DWI correctly diagnosed N staging in 144 carcinomas (90 %) but incorrectly diagnosed N staging in 16 (10 %) [3 (1.9 %) had overstaging, 13 (8.1 %) had understaging]. PET-CT correctly diagnosed N staging in 133 carcinomas (83.1 %) but incorrectly diagnosed N staging in 27 (16.8 %) [4 (2.5 %) had overstaging, 23 (14.4 %) had understaging]. Sensitivity, accuracy, and negative predictive value for N staging by DWI were significantly higher than those by PET-CT. Of the 705 lymph node stations examined, 61 had metastases, and 644 did not. The maximum diameter of metastatic lesions in lymph nodes were 3.0 ± 0.9 mm in 21 lymph node stations not detected by either DWI or PET-CT: 7.2 ± 4.1 mm in 39 detected by DWI, and 11.9 ± 4.1 mm in 24 detected by PET-CT. There were significant differences among them. The sensitivity (63.9 %) for metastatic lymph node stations by DWI was significantly higher than that (39.3 %) by PET-CT. The accuracy (96.2 %) for all lymph node stations by DWI was significantly higher than that (94.3 %) by PET-CT.
DWI has advantages over PET-CT in diagnosing malignant from benign lymph nodes of lung cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the efficacy of lung cancer screening using low-dose thoracic computed tomography, compared with chest roentgenography, in people aged 50-64 years with a smoking history of <30 pack-years, a randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Japan. The screening methods are randomly assigned individually. The duration of this trial is 10 years. In the intervention arm, low-dose thoracic computed tomography is performed for each participant in the first and the sixth years. In the control arm, chest roentgenography is performed for each participant in the first year. The participants in both arms are also encouraged to receive routine lung cancer screening using chest roentgenography annually. The interpretation of radiological findings and the follow-up of undiagnosed nodules are to be carried out according to the guidelines published in Japan. The required sample size is calculated to be 17 500 subjects for each arm.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2012; 42(12). DOI:10.1093/jjco/hys157 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Guidelines for Lung Cancer Screening based on the Evaluation of Efficacy" edited by the Sobue Team of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recommends that "if the screening is managed appropriately", "the current lung cancer screening in Japan is highly likely to contribute to decrease in mortality and should be implemented". Meanwhile, "Clinical Guidelines of Lung Cancer based on EBM (2005)" published by the Japan Lung Cancer Society describes that "the mortality reduction in the current lung cancer screening in Japan is under investigation, and evidence to recommend screening is lacking", which is different from the guidelines of the Sobue Team. In the evaluation process of the latter recommendation, studies other than randomized controlled trials were underestimated case-control studies were omitted from evaluation even though the studies are in the field of epidemiology/screening. In order to solve this discrepancy, a revised version was established in 2010 and was uploaded to website of the Japan Lung Cancer Society on November 26, 2010. It recommends the current lung cancer screening in Japan when it is managed with the standard system including double interpretation and comparative reading. Furthermore, the results of a recently reported PLCO study are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We encountered a rare case of extrapleural hematoma which developed into late-onset pleural effusion. The patient was a 52-year-old male. On admission to our hospital, we diagnosed him with traumatic hemothorax, and conducted chest tube drainage. The amount of drainage decreased rapidly (50 ml/day), and so the patient was extubated and discharged from the hospital. After one week, the patient presented with a noticeable increase of pleural effusion, for which we conducted chest tube drainage again.To identify the cause of the recurrent pleural effusion, we conducted VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery). We noted that a part of the parietal pleura was torn and a dark red liquid was flowing into the thoracic cavity from the tear. It was thought that a hematoma had formed outside the parietal pleura, and hemolysate from the hematoma flowed into the thoracic cavity, causing recurrent pleural effusion. The current case suggests that VATS may be a useful option in diagnosing and treating patients with extrapleural hematomas.
The Journal of the Japanese Associtation for Chest Surgery 01/2012; 26(1):056-059. DOI:10.2995/jacsurg.26.056
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A certified method for lung cancer screening in Japan is the combination of chest X-ray and sputum cytology. The chest Xray examination is intended primarily for the detection of peripheral-type lung cancer. Interpretation of the films should be performed by two different physicians, and the films of screenees suspected to have abnormal shadow should be compared to the same screenee's films from previous screening visits. Sputum cytology is conducted for heavy smokers, and is useful for early detection of central lung cancer. The efficacy of this lung cancer screening method has been shown in several case control studies. There are some problems to solve i. e., a low rate of attendance and inadequate quality control. Low-dose thoracic CT screening is performed with an exposure within a single breath hold, and its interpretation can be conducted with films, CRT, or a LCD monitor. Even when taken at low doses, the radiation exposure dose is large compared to a chest X-ray, being about 3-10 times greater than the absorbed dose and 20-40 times greater than the effective dose. Since the radiation dose in a usual clinical condition is much higher, the clinical condition is not recommended for screening. Concerning the efficacy of low-dose CT screening for heavy-smokers, a positive result was reported in June 2011, and further detailed analyses are required. There are still some problems to solve i. e., the management of undiagnosed shadows, harm caused by the screening, quality control, and efficacy in non-smokers.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 01/2012; 39(1):19-22.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is uncertain whether the dissection of the pulmonary ligament is necessary in patients who undergo an upper lobectomy. A questionnaire was sent to the directors of Thoracic Surgery in 102 hospitals, asking whether dissection of the pulmonary ligament is performed in such patients, and the complications associated with dissecting or preserving the ligament. Seventy-eight directors (76%) returned the questionnaire. The preservation of the ligament is the current practice in 54 hospitals (69%), while 13 hospitals (17%) occasionally dissect, 9 hospitals (11%) regularly dissect, and 2 hospitals (3%) half dissect the ligament. Thirty directors experienced complications which were thought to be associated with dissecting the ligament: bronchial stenosis (21 directors), atelectasis (8), and bronchial obstruction (4). Twenty-six directors described complications thought to be associated with preserving the ligament: the pooling of pleural effusion (19 directors), insufficient expansion of lung (18), atelectasis (8), and empyema (7). Preservation of the ligament may therefore be useful in preventing bronchial stenosis and obstruction, while its dissection may be useful to prevent the pooling of pleural effusion.
Surgery Today 11/2010; 40(11):1097-9. DOI:10.1007/s00595-009-4173-8 · 1.53 Impact Factor