Michael Riedel

St. Vinzenz-Hospital, Dinslaken, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (154)607.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Significant changes of schizophrenia patients during inpatient treatment were evalutaed and compared to established outcome criteria. The concept of reliable and clinically significant change methods was applied to three hundred and ninety-six patients suffering from a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. First, information on whether or not the change of the patient's condition is sufficient in order to declare that it is beyond a measurement error or random effect (= reliable change) was evaluated and in a second step it was observed if the reliable change was clinically meaningful (= clinically significant change). Different Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) thresholds were applied to define the clinically significant change (40, 45 and 50 points). These changes were then compared to established outcome criteria such as response and remission. Seventy-nine of the 396 patients (20%) showed a reliable improvement of symptoms, whereas 70% improved without achieving a reliable change of their condition. Of the 79 patients achieving a reliable change during treatment 8-15% concurrently showed a clinically significant change depending on the respective PANSS threshold. In contrast, 56% of the patients achieved response and 60% were in remission at discharge when applying established outcome criteria. Our results showed that a rather small number of schizophrenia patients were found to reliably change during inpatient treatment, with even less patients achieving a clinically significant change. The concept of reliable and clinically significant changes revealed to be a lot more stringent than today's established outcome criteria and should be critically evaluated regarding its use in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1002/mpr.1476
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    ABSTRACT: How long clinicians should wait before considering an antipsychotic ineffective and changing treatment in schizophrenia is an unresolved clinical question. Guidelines differ substantially in this regard. The authors conducted a diagnostic test meta-analysis using mostly individual patient data to assess whether lack of improvement at week 2 predicts later nonresponse. The search included EMBASE, MEDLINE, BIOSIS, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles, supplemented by requests to authors of all relevant studies. The main outcome was prediction of nonresponse, defined as <50% reduction in total score on either the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) or Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (corresponding to at least much improved) from baseline to endpoint (4-12 weeks), by <20% PANSS or BPRS improvement (corresponding to less than minimally improved) at week 2. Secondary outcomes were absent cross-sectional symptomatic remission and <20% PANSS or BPRS reduction at endpoint. Potential moderator variables were examined by meta-regression. In 34 studies (N=9,460) a <20% PANSS or BPRS reduction at week 2 predicted nonresponse at endpoint with a specificity of 86% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 90%. Using data for observed cases (specificity=86%, PPV=85%) or lack of remission (specificity=77%, PPV=88%) yielded similar results. Conversely, using the definition of <20% reduction at endpoint yielded worse results (specificity=70%, PPV=55%). The test specificity was significantly moderated by a trial duration of <6 weeks, higher baseline illness severity, and shorter illness duration. Patients not even minimally improved by week 2 of antipsychotic treatment are unlikely to respond later and may benefit from a treatment change.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 06/2015; 172(7):appiajp201514101329. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.14101329 · 12.30 Impact Factor
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    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2015; 58:106. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.11.007 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To assess daytime cognitive performance, sedation and treatment satisfaction in patients with schizophrenia receiving quetiapine extended release (XR) versus quetiapine immediate release (IR). Methods: Phase IV prospective, double-blind, crossover study (NCT01213836). Patients (N=66) with stable schizophrenia, treated with XR or IR before study start, were randomised (1:1) to treatment with XR followed by IR, or IR followed by XR, at the dose received before enrolment (400-750mg). After 10-16days on formulation 1, patients switched to formulation 2. Assessments from three post-dose visits (≥5days following treatment on each formulation) were analysed. Cognitive performance was measured by CogState Cognition testing. Sedation, treatment satisfaction and safety were also assessed. Results: 65 patients received treatment (69.2% male; mean age 37.8years). Daytime cognitive functioning was similar for both groups; adjusted mean difference in Attentional Composite Score in XR and IR patients was 0.005 (p=0.907). Patients receiving XR were less sedated than those receiving IR, (Bond-Lader visual analogue scale score, mean [SD]: 23.5 [19.0] vs 28.6 [21.4]); estimated overall treatment difference: 5.2 (95% CI: 2.3, 8.2; p<0.0009). Patients receiving XR reported feeling less sedated than those on IR (Stanford Sleepiness Scale, mean [SD]: 2.4 [0.9] vs 2.6 [1.0]); estimated overall treatment difference: 0.28 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.43; p<0.0008). Patients reported improved overall treatment satisfaction (p=0.0417) and milder side effects (p=0.0035) with XR. Safety profile was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Daytime cognitive performance was similar for both groups. XR was associated with less daytime sedation and improved patient satisfaction than IR.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2015; 162(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.12.027 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate (MPH) is an indirect dopaminergic and noradrenergic agonist that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and that has shown therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression, dementia, and Parkinson's disease. While effects of MPH on task-induced brain activation have been investigated, little is known about how MPH influences the resting brain. To investigate the effects of 40 mg of oral MPH on intrinsic functional connectivity, we used resting state fMRI in 54 healthy male subjects in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Functional connectivity analysis employing ICA revealed seven resting state networks (RSN) of interest. Connectivity strength between the dorsal attention network and the thalamus was increased after MPH intake. Other RSN located in association cortex areas, such as the left and right frontoparietal networks and the executive control network, showed MPH-induced connectivity increase to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions and connectivity decrease to cortical and subcortical components of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits (CST). RSN located in sensory-motor cortex areas showed the opposite pattern with MPH-induced connectivity increase to CST components and connectivity decrease to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions. Our results provide evidence that MPH does not only alter intrinsic connectivity between brain areas involved in sustained attention, but that it also induces significant changes in the cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connectivity of many other cognitive and sensory-motor RSN. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 11/2014; 35(11). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22557 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate residual symptoms in patients achieving remission according to the consensus criteria and to analyze their potential influence on the patient's outcome one year after discharge. In total, 399 patients suffering from a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were evaluated within a naturalistic study. Remission status was examined using the consensus criteria. Residual symptoms were defined as any symptom present at the time-point of remission following analogous analyses performed in depressed patients. Therefore, a PANSS item with a symptom severity of >1 (= at least borderline mentally ill) was defined to be a residual symptom. Remitters with and without residual symptoms were compared regarding psychopathology, functioning and side effects. In total, 236 patients (59 %) were remitters at discharge with 94 % of them suffering from at least one residual symptom. The most common residual symptoms were blunted affect (49 %), conceptual disorganization (42 %) and social withdrawal (40 %). A significant association was found between the presence of residual symptoms and the severity of side effects (p < 0.0001) and functioning (p = 0.0003) at discharge as well as between residual symptoms and the risk of relapse and chance of remission one year after discharge. Residual symptoms were highly prevalent in remitted schizophrenia inpatients following the suggested definition. Most residual symptoms were persistent baseline symptoms suggesting an ongoing illness severity. Also, the necessity to re-evaluate the consensus criteria questioning the status of remission in these patients is also pointed out.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 09/2014; 265(2). DOI:10.1007/s00406-014-0528-2 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We pharmacologically challenged catecholamine reuptake, using methylphenidate, in order to investigate its effects on brain activity during a motor response inhibition task as a function of the 3'-UTR variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (SLC6A3) and the availability of DATs in striatum. We measured the cerebral hemodynamic response of 50 healthy males during a Go/No-Go task, a measure of cognitive control, under the influence of 40 mg methylphenidate and placebo using 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects were grouped into 9-repeat (9R) carriers and 10/10 homozygotes on the basis of the SLC6A3 VNTR. During successful no-go trials compared to oddball trials, methylphenidate induced an increase of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal for carriers of the SLC6A3 9R-allele but a decrease in 10/10 homozygotes in a thalamo-cortical network. The same pattern was observed in caudate and inferior frontal gyrus when successful no-go trials were compared to successful go trials. We additionally investigated in a subset of 35 participants whether baseline striatal DAT availability, ascertained with (123)I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), predicted the amount of methylphenidate-induced change in hemodynamic response or behavior. Striatal DAT availability was nominally greater in 9R carriers compared to 10/10 homozygotes (d=0.40), in line with meta-analyses, but did not predict BOLD or behavioral changes following MPH administration. We conclude that the effects of acute MPH administration on brain activation are dependent on DAT genotype, with 9R carriers showing enhanced BOLD following administration of a pro-dopaminergic compound.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 15 September 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.240.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1038/npp.2014.240 · 7.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) comprises approximately 120 amino acids and is integrated in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton. This domain can bind phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate and proteins such as the βγ-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and protein kinase C. Associations with psychiatric diseases have not been investigated yet. To identify genes involved in response to antipsychotics, mice were treated with haloperidol (1 mg/kg, n = 11) or saline (n = 12) for one week. By analyzing microarray data, we observed an increase of pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 (PLEKHA6) gene expression. Furthermore, we genotyped 263 schizophrenic patients, who were treated monotherapeutically with different antipsychotics within randomized-controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS for a minimum of four and a maximum of twelve weeks. Correlations between PANSS subscale scores at baseline and PANSS improvement scores after four weeks of treatment and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model for all investigated SNPs. We found associations between four PLEKHA6 polymorphisms (rs17333933 (T/G), rs3126209 (C/T), rs4951338 (A/G) and rs100900571 (T/C)) and different PANSS subscales at baseline. Furthermore two different polymorphisms (rs7513240 (T/C), rs4951353 (A/G)) were found to be associated with therapy response in terms of a significant correlation with different PANSS improvement subscores after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Our observation of an association between genetic polymorphisms of a protein of the PH domain and psychopathology data in schizophrenic patients might be indicative for an involvement of PLEKHA6 in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the therapy response towards antipsychotics.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 06/2014; 51:190–195. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.02.006 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In randomized controlled trials, maintenance treatment for relapse prevention has been proven to be efficacious in patients responding in acute treatment, its efficacy in long-term outcome in "real-world patients" has yet to be proven. Three-year long-term data from a large naturalistic multisite follow-up were presented. Severe relapse was defined as suicide, severe suicide attempt, or rehospitalization. Next to relapse rates, possible risk factors including antidepressant medication were identified using univariate generalized log-rank tests and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for time to severe relapse. Overall data of 458 patients were available for analysis. Of all patients, 155 (33.6 %) experienced at least one severe relapse during the 3-year follow-up. The following variables were associated with a shorter time to a severe relapse in univariate and multivariate analyses: multiple hospitalizations, presence of avoidant personality disorder, continuing antipsychotic medication, and no further antidepressant treatment. In comparison with other studies, the observed rate of severe relapse during 3-year period is rather low. This is one of the first reports demonstrating a beneficial effect of long-term antidepressant medication on severe relapse rates in naturalistic patients. Concomitant antipsychotic medication may be a proxy marker for treatment resistant and psychotic depression.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 03/2014; 264(7). DOI:10.1007/s00406-014-0495-7 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An imbalance of tryptophan metabolites plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Also cytokines seem to be involved and are able to enhance the tryptophan metabolism. In this study the impact of cytokines, tryptophan metabolites and antipsychotics was evaluated in schizophrenic patients/ healthy controls and correlated with the psychopathology of schizophrenia. This study investigated 12 patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures were stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and different antipsychotics (quetiapine, risperidone, haloperidole and clozapine) were added. The cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and tryptophan metabolites were analysed. Symptom severity was assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Peripheral mononuclear cells of schizophrenia patients showed a reduced IFN-γ response to LPS (p=0.008). When quetiapine and risperidone were added this imbalance between patients and controls disappeared. Tryptophan levels were significantly lower in patients' cells cultures when the cells were stimulated with LPS (p=0.029). A group effect for lower levels in the patients' cell culture was evaluated for tryptophan and kynurenine (p=0.043; p=0.05). In addition, high tryptophan levels correlated with low PANSS negative scores in patients and higher kynurenine levels resulted in higher PANSS positive scores. Only two atypical antipsychotics were identified to reverse the imbalanced cytokine levels in schizophrenia. The low concentrations of tryptophan and kynurenine in these patients could be a sign of a fast degradation of tryptophan - yet tryptophan metabolites could not be changed by any of the investigated antipsychotics.
    Psychiatria Danubina 12/2013; 25(4):389-97. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The study aimed to examine suicidal behaviour during in-patient care in a psychiatric university hospital. Method: Based upon a psychiatric basic documentation system prevalence and risk factors of in-patient suicides and suicide attempts were investigated (1995 - 2010). Results: A total of 42 in-patient suicides and 166 attempts were found among 16 251 patients. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis the risk of suicide during hospitalization increases significantly for male patients, with more previous psychiatric hospitalizations and suicidality according to clinical impression at admission or suicide attempt before admission. Patients with affective or schizophrenic disorders were at highest risk. The following risk factors are associated with suicide attempt during stay: female gender, borderline personality disorder (F60.3), more previous psychiatric hospitalizations, shorter duration of disorder, earlier age of onset, suicidality according to clinical impression at admission or suicide attempt before admission. Conclusion: As depressive and schizophrenic patients represent the high-risk group of in-patient suicide, suicide prevention should be a major goal in their treatment. More frequent suicide risk assessment is recommended particularly before granting a leave or an outing.
    Psychiatrische Praxis 07/2013; 41(4). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1343267 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the widespread use of atypical or second-generation antipsychotics, switching treatment has become current practice and more complicated, as the pharmacological profiles of these agents differ substantially despite their similarity in being 'atypical'. All share the ability to block dopamine D2 receptors, and most of them also block serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Apart from these common features, some atypical antipsychotics are also able to block or stimulate other dopamine or serotonin receptors, as well as histaminergic, muscarinergic or adrenergic receptors. As a result of the varying receptor affinities, in switching or discontinuing compounds several possible pitfalls have to be considered, including the occurrence of withdrawal and rebound syndromes. This article reviews the pharmacological background of functional blockade or stimulation of receptors of interest in regard to atypical antipsychotics and the implicated potential withdrawal and rebound phenomena. A MEDLINE search was carried out to identify information on withdrawal or rebound syndromes occurring after discontinuation of atypical antipsychotics. Using the resulting literature, we first discuss the theoretical background to the functional consequences of atypical antipsychotic-induced blockade or stimulation of neurotransmitter receptors and, secondly, we highlight the clinical consequences of this. We then review the available clinical literature on switching between atypical antipsychotics, with respect to the occurrence of withdrawal or rebound symptoms. Finally, we offer practical recommendations based on the reviewed findings. The systematic evaluation of withdrawal or rebound phenomena using randomized controlled trials is still understudied. Knowledge of pharmacological receptor-binding profiles may help clinicians in choosing adequate switching or discontinuation strategies for each agent. Results from large switching trials indicate that switching atypical antipsychotics can be performed in a safe manner. Treatment-emergent adverse events during or after switching are not always considered to be, at least in part, associated with the pre-switch antipsychotic. Further studies are needed to substantiate the evidence gained so far on different switching strategies. The use of concomitant medication, e.g., benzodiazepines or anticholinergic drugs, may help to minimize symptoms arising from the discontinuation or switching of antipsychotic treatment.
    CNS Drugs 07/2013; 27(7). DOI:10.1007/s40263-013-0079-5 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-cultural study was designed to examine cultural differences in empathy levels of first-year medical students. A total of 257 students from the academic year 2010/11, 131 at Jimma University, Ethiopia, and 126 at the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany, completed the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME-R) test, and a questionnaire on sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the students' personal views on the definition of empathy and possible influencing factors. Group comparisons and correlation analyses of empathy scores were performed for the entire cohort and for the Jimma and Munich students separately. We used a regression tree analysis to identify factors influencing the BEES. The male students in Jimma (39.1 ± 22.3) scored significantly higher in the BEES than those male students from Munich (27.2 ± 22.6; p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference between the female groups. We found a moderate, positive correlation between the BEES and RME-R test, i.e. between emotional and cognitive empathy, within each university. Nevertheless, the RME-R test, which shows only Caucasian eyes, appears not to be suitable for use in other cultures. The main findings of our study were the influence of culture, religion, specialization choice, and gender on emotional empathy (assessed with the BEES) and cognitive empathy (assessed with the RME-R test) in first-year medical students. Further research is required into the nature of empathy in worldwide medical curricula.
    Ethiopian journal of health sciences 07/2013; 23(2):113-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia patients have deficits in cognitive control as well as in a number of emotional domains. The antisaccade task is a measure of cognitive control that requires the inhibition of a reflex-like eye movement to a peripheral stimulus. Antisaccade performance has been shown to be modulated by the emotional content of the peripheral stimuli, with emotional stimuli leading to higher error rates than neutral stimuli, reflecting an implicit emotion processing effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact on antisaccade performance of threat-related emotional facial stimuli in schizophrenia patients, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Fifteen patients, 22 relatives and 26 controls, matched for gender, age and verbal intelligence, carried out an antisaccade task with pictures of faces displaying disgusted, fearful and neutral expressions as peripheral stimuli. We observed higher antisaccade error rates in schizophrenia patients compared to first-degree relatives and controls. Relatives and controls did not differ significantly from each other. Antisaccade error rate was influenced by the emotional nature of the stimuli: participants had higher antisaccade error rates in response to fearful faces compared to neutral and disgusted faces. As this emotional influence on cognitive control did not differ between groups we conclude that implicit processing of emotional faces is intact in patients with schizophrenia and those at risk for the illness.
    Brain and Cognition 06/2013; 82(3):329-336. DOI:10.1016/j.bandc.2013.05.007 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Current screening recommendations for early detection of lithium-associated hyperparathyroidism propose an exclusive measurement of serum albumin-adjusted calcium (Aac) concentration as a single first step. However, longitudinal data in patients with recurrent affective disorders suggest that increases in serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels in lithium-treated patients may not necessarily be accompanied by a parallel increase in the concentration of Aac. If true, patients with an isolated increase in iPTH concentration above the reference range might be missed following current screening recommendations. Therefore, this study set out to examine key parameters of calcium metabolism, including iPTH and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder that was or was not managed with lithium. Methods Sixty patients with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV were enrolled, 30 of whom had received long-term lithium treatment (lithium group), whereas the other 30 patients were on psychopharmacological treatment not including lithium (non-lithium group) at the time of the study. Owing to exclusion criteria (e.g., lithium < 6 months, laboratory results indicative of secondary hyperparathyroidism), 23 bipolar patients composed the final lithium group, whereas 28 patients remained in the non-lithium group for statistical analyses. Results Patients in the lithium group showed a significantly higher concentration of iPTH compared to the non-lithium group (p < 0.05). Similarly, Aac concentrations were significantly increased in the lithium group compared to the non-lithium group (p < 0.05). However, in a multivariate linear regression model, group affiliation only predicted iPTH concentration (p < 0.05). In line with this, none of the four patients in the lithium group with an iPTH concentration above the reference range had an Aac concentration above the reference range. Discussion This study suggests that the biochemical characteristics between primary hyperparathyroidism and lithium-induced hyperparathyroidism differ substantially with regard to regulation of calcium homeostasis. As such, current screening practice does not reliably detect iPTH concentrations above the reference range. Therefore, further research is needed to elucidate the consequences of an isolated iPTH concentration above the reference range in order to develop the most appropriate screening tools for hyperparathyroidism in lithium-treated patients with bipolar disorder.
    06/2013; 1(1). DOI:10.1186/2194-7511-1-7
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Full and sustained symptom remission is a major treatment objective after a first-episode in schizophrenia. Findings regarding differences in remission between first- and second-generation antipsychotics are inconclusive. This study aimed to provide rates and predictors of remission in first-episode schizophrenia and to identify symptoms that prevent remission. Methods: Prevalence rates of "symptomatic remission" (symptom criteria only) and "enduring remission" (symptom and 6-month time criteria), defined according to Andreasen et al. (2005), were determined in first-episode patients participating in a RCT by the German Research Network on Schizophrenia (GRNS) that compared post-acute, 1-year maintenance treatment with risperidone or haloperidol. Respective predictors at baseline were identified by logistic and Cox regression analysis. Results: Prevalence rates were 91.5% for symptomatic remission (n=152/166 eligible patients) and 58.6% for enduring remission (n=65 of 111 patients who continued for at least 6 months; 39.2% of all 166 patients included), with no significant differences between risperidone and haloperidol in either type of remission. Enduring remission often was not reached because of negative symptoms: After 6 months, 40.5% of the patients had at least 1 negative symptom, whereas only 10.8% of the patients had "persisting" positive symptoms. Of the different predictors identified in univariate analyses, (lower) negative symptoms and participating in standardized psychological treatment remained significant in multivariate (stepwise forward) analyses for enduring remission. Conclusions: By far most of the first-episode patients reached a temporary state of full symptomatic remission within 1 year of antipsychotic treatment. However, only about 50% achieved sustained, enduring remission. Negative symptoms are still a major treatment obstacle to enduring remission in schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 05/2013; 152(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2013.04.012 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An imbalance between T-helper type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2) cytokines has been implicated in schizophrenia, although empirical evidence is rare. The aim of this study was to examine if a Th1/Th2 imbalance occurs in schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related disorder. Twenty-six subjects with schizophrenia, 26 subjects with schizophrenia-related disorders, and 26 healthy controls were recruited. The Human Th1/Th2 Cytokine Cytometric Bead Array Kit-II was utilized to assess serum Th1/Th2 cytokines and ratios simultaneously. MANOVA was used to detect differences among the three diagnostic groups in distinct Th1/Th2 cytokines/ratios. Pearson/Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationships between distinct Th1/Th2 cytokines/ratios and clinical/psychopathological data in schizophrenia. Interferon (IFN)-γ/interleukin (IL)-4, IFN-γ/IL-10, IL-2/IL-4, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/IL-4 ratios were significantly decreased in schizophrenia, but not in schizophrenia-related disorders compared to healthy controls. IFN-γ/IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-10 in schizophrenia subjects positively correlated with age, but not in schizophrenia-related disorder subjects or in healthy controls. A clear Th2 shift was observed in schizophrenia, but not in schizophrenia-related disorders. The Th2 shift in schizophrenia appeared to be an aberrant developmental phenomenon.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 05/2013; 67(4):228-236. DOI:10.1111/pcn.12040 · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 04/2013; 53(4):1-7. DOI:10.1002/jcph.25 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several theoretical accounts assume that interference control deficits belong to the core symptoms of adult ADHD. However, findings of increased interference effects in adult ADHD patients compared with healthy adults may be confounded with the simultaneous finding of generally slower responses in the patient group. The current study compared the magnitude of the interference effect in the Stroop task between a group of adults with ADHD and a healthy adult control group in a procedure that accounted for differences in overall response speed by using delta plots. The amount of interference did not differ between patient and control group at comparable reaction time levels. These results challenge the conclusions of the previous studies, in that they indicate that interference control is not impaired in adult ADHD.
    Acta psychologica 03/2013; 143(1):71-78. DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.02.013 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity characterises various psychiatric disorders, particularly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence shows that ADHD symptoms are associated with dopamine dysfunction and alleviated with methylphenidate, a drug that reduces dopamine transporter availability. ADHD-like symptoms and impulsive traits are continuously distributed across the general population. Here, we aimed to investigate the dopaminergic basis of impulsivity and other ADHD-related traits in healthy individuals by studying the association of these traits with striatal dopamine transporter availability. Single-photon emission computed tomography with [(123)I] FP-CIT was performed on 38 healthy males. Impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). We found that greater dopamine transporter availability was associated with higher BIS impulsivity but not with ADHD-related traits. The association with BIS was significant after accounting for individual differences in age and neuroticism. These results suggest that individual differences in the dopamine system may be a neural correlate of trait impulsivity in healthy individuals.
    11/2012; 211(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.07.011

Publication Stats

4k Citations
607.97 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2015
    • St. Vinzenz-Hospital
      Dinslaken, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1997–2015
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Hospital and Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Poli
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Pediatric Psychosomatic Medicine
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008–2014
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2001
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1998
    • Max von Pettenkofer-Institut
      München, Bavaria, Germany