M W Adler

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (51)320.74 Total impact

  • A Nicoll, A M Johnson, M W Adler, M Laga
    The Lancet 06/1999; 353(9163):1522; author reply 1523-4. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a standardized HIV partner notification programme within genitourinary medicine clinics in England. A prospective survey of HIV partner notification activity over a 12-month period. Nineteen genitourinary medicine clinics in England. A total of 501 eligible HIV-positive patients (either newly diagnosed or with whom partner notification had not been undertaken previously) seen during the study period. The numbers of partners named by patients, and the number of contacts notified, counselled and HIV-tested. Information on overall partner notification activity was obtained by reviewing available medical records of 471 patients; 353 (75%) had discussed partner notification with a health-care worker during the study period and 197 (42%) had undertaken partner notification. Detailed information on outcomes was obtained for only 70 patients who named 158 contacts as being at risk of acquiring HIV. Although 71 (45%) contacts were eventually notified, only 28 were subsequently seen in participating clinics. Almost all contacts (n = 27) requested HIV counselling and testing, and five were diagnosed HIV-positive. Patient referral was the most popular notification method chosen. This study illustrates some of the practical difficulties that limit HIV partner notification within genitourinary medicine clinics. These include health-care workers' misgivings about undertaking partner notification, insufficient locating information to identify contacts, and migration of newly diagnosed patients, which prevents continuity and completion of notification. Nevertheless, HIV partner notification uncovered previously undiagnosed HIV infections. Further work needs to be undertaken in staff training and policy implementation if higher rates of partner notification and outcome measurements are to be achieved.
    AIDS 02/1998; 12(1):95-102. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the extent to which larger genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England have established local clinic policies for HIV Partner Notification (PN) and to describe the process of HIV PN within this setting. A cross-sectional survey of HIV PN policies and practices within GUM clinics. Senior consultants in 59 GUM clinics in England. The presence of clinic policies for HIV PN, indicators of HIV PN activity (that is, its initiation, documentation, performance and evaluation) and factors hindering the acceptance of HIV PN into clinical practice. Only 18% (10/57) of respondents stated that their clinics had developed their own local policies for HIV PN. Fifteen percent (9/58) of clinics had audited HIV PN activity, 15% had provided specific HIV PN training for doctors and 47% (27/58) for health advisers. Within GUM clinics, health advisers play a key role in the HIV PN process, being responsible for initiating the discussion of partners, patient follow-up and documenting HIV PN activity in patients' notes. Notifying partners was primarily seen as the responsibility of the newly diagnosed HIV positive patient. Although 77% (43/56) of responding consultants believed that HIV PN had become an accepted part of their clinics' practice, the perceived unacceptability of HIV PN to patients and health care workers were seen as important limiting factors. In many GUM clinics, local policies on HIV PN have yet to be established and appropriate training for the health personnel provided. Nevertheless, there appears to be wide-spread acceptance of HIV PN in clinical practice with an acknowledgement of its limiting factors. Further research into the acceptability of HIV PN to health care workers and patients in this setting should be undertaken.
    Genitourinary medicine 03/1997; 73(1):49-53.
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    ABSTRACT: The aims were to describe the use of inpatient resources by patients with HIV infection and patients with AIDS; to examine trends in service use over time; and to provide data for planners concerned with service provision for HIV infection. An inner London health district reporting 9% of AIDS cases nationally. Data on survival times and inpatient and day care use of resources were derived from existing patient records or collected prospectively between 1983 (when the first case of AIDS was diagnosed in the district) and 31 March 1990. A total of 488 HIV positive patients of whom 396 had been diagnosed as having AIDS were studied. Inpatient days consumed per annum; trends in the number of bed days per person year with AIDS; the lifetime inpatient use per AIDS patient; and the influence of survival on service use estimates were determined. Altogether 16.4% of a total 17,785 hospital inpatient days were attributable to HIV positive patients who did not fulfil the criteria for AIDS. For patients with AIDS, there was an initial increase in the intensity of inpatient use in 1987 when a dedicated HIV ward was opened. After 1988, however, inpatient use fell to 30.8 bed days per person year with AIDS. Patients diagnosed after April 1987 had noticeably longer survival times than those diagnosed earlier (a median of 17-18 months compared with a median of 10-11 months). From 214 lifetime service use records, it was estimated that patients with short survival (less than six months) would consume 36 days of inpatient care, while those expected to survive longer would consume approximately twice that number of days, irrespective of how much longer they survived. The data indicate less intensive use of inpatient care by AIDS patients over time, and hence the apparent ability to manage an increasing AIDS patient workload without a comparable increase in occupied bed days. Increases in the size of that workload and changes in the survival profile of patients, together with a relatively constant rate of service demand by longer survivors, however, will continue to place increasing strains on finite inpatient resources. Further research is needed to establish the extent to which the greater use of outpatient and community services can offset this.
    Journal of Epidemiology &amp Community Health 07/1993; 47(3):232-7. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    BMJ Clinical Research 08/1992; 305(6846):165-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to determine the prevalence of risk behaviour for, and antibodies to HIV and hepatitis B in clients of a needle-exchange scheme in central London we employed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire along with salivary antibody testing by immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody capture immunoassay. Two hundred and thirty-two subjects (193 men, 39 women; median age 32) participated; a response rate of 89%. Clients were long-term, frequent injectors. Lending used equipment at any time was reported by 55%, and borrowing by 52%. Of those who had shared needles and syringes during the last year, the majority had lent to, or borrowed from, one person only (53 and 55%, respectively). Younger clients (less than 29 years of age) reported more recent sharing than older clients (greater than 30 years of age). Five out of 211 (2.4%) samples tested for anti-HIV were positive. One hundred and eleven out of 199 (56%) samples were positive for anti-hepatitis B core (HBc). In this population of needle-exchange attenders there is no evidence of further spread of HIV, and a low prevalence of HIV infection appears to have been sustained. However, the high prevalence of anti-HBc provides evidence of previous risk behaviour and so constant vigilance is necessary if further viral spread is to be avoided. This study has established an acceptable method for the anonymous surveillance of current risk behaviour and salivary antibodies to HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a drug-using population.
    AIDS 06/1991; 5(5):543-7. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of condoms to prevent the further spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the main themes of the government's health education campaign against AIDS. A study of the use of and attitudes towards condoms in 222 heterosexual men and women attending a department of genitourinary medicine (GUM) in central London showed that 55% (50/91) to 59% (41/70) of men or women never, and 6% (6/95) to 15% (14/91) always, used condoms with their regular or non-regular sexual partners. No major differences were found in the use of or attitudes to condoms according to age, sex, social class, or civil status. Attitudes towards the use of condoms were generally negative. These attitudes, in combination with the infrequent use of condoms with regular (and even more with non-regular) sexual partners, must be a cause for concern if the further spread of HIV is to be avoided.
    Genitourinary medicine 09/1989; 65(4):248-51.
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    ABSTRACT: To study a range of possible risk factors for HIV among injecting drug user patients attending a clinic in London were interviewed from November 1986 to November 1987. Serum samples were tested for viral markers. Of 116 patients, 101 had shared injecting equipment, 75 on the first occasion of injecting and 76 during the past year. Seventy said that sharing was because equipment was not available. In the past year 102 had been sexually active, a third having two to 20 partners; a quarter of the women had exchanged sexual intercourse for money. The four patients who were positive for antibody to HIV antigen had shared equipment or had intercourse with drug users from areas with a high prevalence of HIV. Eleven patients had injected drugs while in prison. Despite a low prevalence of HIV infection this infection remains a threat to drug users in London; strenuous efforts are still needed to prevent its further transmission.
    BMJ Clinical Research 05/1989; 298(6680):1081-3. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rates of sexual-partner change and patterns of high-risk behaviour are important determinants of the spread of HIV. We carried out a survey to assess the feasibility of studying sexual lifestyle in a random sample of the British population, aged 16-64 years, in November 1987. Two thousand and seventy-seven households were selected using a multi-stage probability sampling procedure. Seven hundred and eight-five adults participated in a structured interview. The schedule included demographic details, attitudes to AIDS, numbers of sexual partners in different time periods, history of homosexuality and contact with prostitutes. An interview was obtained in 61% of households where contact was made, but the overall response rate was low (48%). There was marked variability between individuals in numbers of sexual partners in given time intervals. Men and women in younger cohorts had experienced first sexual intercourse earlier and had higher numbers of sexual partners than people in older cohorts. Surprisingly few reported high-risk behaviour such as homosexuality and use of prostitution. The methodological problems in trying to obtain unbiased and valid data on sexual behaviour are discussed. Further work is necessary to improve the response rate and questionnaire design.
    AIDS 04/1989; 3(3):135-41. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in all patients attending a London sexually transmitted disease clinic over four weeks at the end of 1987 and to see how it varied from that in similar samples studied between 1982 and 1986. Anonymous testing of serum samples from consecutive heterosexual and homosexual patients having routine serological investigations for syphilis. Testing was for anti-HIV-I, anti-HIV-II, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and P24 antigen. Age, nationality, sexual orientation, and past sexually transmitted diseases were recorded for each patient. Gonorrhoea rates by quarters were analysed among homosexual and bisexual men and heterosexual men and women from 1981 to 1987. Outpatient department of genitourinary medicine. A total of 1074 patients attending consecutively for syphilis serology. Thirty five homosexual and bisexual men were excluded (these were regular attenders as part of a prospective study of the natural course of HIV infection). The prevalence of anti-HIV-I in homosexual and bisexual men in 1987 was 25.6% (64/250). Results in the same clinic population between 1982 and 1984 had shown a rise in prevalence, which flattened out in 1985-6 and continued at that level. Among heterosexual attenders in 1987 the prevalence of anti-HIV-I was 1% (women 4/412; men 4/377), which contrasted with a prevalence of 0.5% (women 2/395; men 3/757) in January 1986. One homosexual man was seropositive for anti-HIV-II and seronegative for anti-HIV-I. Among homosexual and bisexual men the rate of gonorrhoea had declined by an average of 2.7% a year since 1981, such that by 1987--and for the first time in the clinic--there was no significant difference in the rates between these men and heterosexual men and women. The appearance of HIV-I infection among heterosexuals indicates a need for more aggressive education programmes and intervention strategies along the lines adopted for homosexual men. Surveillance for HIV-II infection is needed to provide information for future policy in national screening programmes.
    BMJ Clinical Research 03/1989; 298(6671):419-22. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One-hundred and nine injecting drug users entering a methadone detoxification programme underwent HIV antibody test counselling. Approximately 80% of men and women were concerned because of sharing injection equipment ('works') in the previous year, although other reasons for considering an HIV antibody test, such as sexual contact with drug users and concern for sexual partners, was also given. Two-thirds of both men and women decided to be tested. Reasons for declining or deferring an HIV antibody test included an inability to cope with a positive result, recent sharing of 'works', and intoxication with drugs or alcohol at the time of counselling. Of the 74 clients tested, two were HIV antibody positive. Only 55% of clients reattended for results. Testing drug users for evidence of HIV infection requires careful pre-test counselling and adequate support should be readily available when results are given.
    AIDS Care 02/1989; 1(3):307-11. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    M W Adler, A M Johnson
    British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 06/1988; 296(6634):1420-1.
  • Michael Adler, Adrian Mindel
    Lower Genital Tract Infection in the Female, Edited by Michael W Hare, 01/1988: chapter 4: pages 93-108; Churchill Livingstone., ISBN: 0 443 03485 0
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    A M Johnson, M W Adler
    British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 09/1987; 295(6594):373-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Between the end of September and mid-November 1986 the number of patients who requested antibody testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at this department increased by over 300%. This increase followed a media campaign that emphasised the potential heterosexual spread of HIV. After pretest counselling roughly one quarter of the women and of the heterosexual men decided not to be tested. The reason given most often by women for testing was previous sexual intercourse with bisexual or possibly bisexual men. Heterosexual men were most often concerned about previous casual encounters or contact with prostitutes. Of the 641 tests for HIV antibody performed during the last three months of 1986, 37 (5-8%) were positive. Because an increasing number of patients are attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics for HIV antibody testing staffing levels in these clinics need to be reappraised now.
    British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 08/1987; 295(6591):193-5.
  • The Lancet 07/1987; 330(8549):41. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-five homosexual men who had been the regular sexual partners (for at least 6 months) of anti-HIV-positive patients with AIDS (N = 18) or PGL (N = 17) were studied. Twenty-one (60%) were seropositive, but 14 (40%) were consistently anti-HIV-negative. The duration of relationship with the index case was not statistically different in seropositive compared to seronegative partners; median 26 months (range 7-60) vs 30 months (range 7-60). However, seropositive partners had a significantly higher monthly number of other sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases and a higher frequency of insertive and receptive anal intercourse in the preceding five years. The risk of acquiring HIV infection was significantly increased by frequent receptive anal intercourse when the frequency of insertive was controlled for but not the converse. Seronegative partners had undetectable antibodies by live and fixed cell immunofluorescence and by radioimmunoprecipitation and were repeatedly negative by competitive enzyme immunoassay. Furthermore, the sera of seronegative partners lacked HIV neutralising activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from seronegative partners, stained with monoclonal antibodies to seven different CD4 epitopes, revealed no differences when compared to those from heterosexual controls and no qualitative differences from cells from seropositive individuals. In addition, PBMCs from seronegative partners could be productively infected by HIV in vitro. If resistance to infection in seronegative partners exists, then it is likely that mechanisms other than a specific humoral immunity or CD4 polymorphisms are involved.
    Journal of Medical Virology 06/1987; 22(1):91-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    Anne M Johnson, Michael W Adler
    British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 05/1987;
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty five homosexual men (17 positive for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 18 consistently negative) were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus infection. Eight of the 17 seropositive patients failed to develop detectable hepatitis B surface antibody within three months of the third injection compared with only one of the 18 seronegative patients (p less than 0.01). HIV infection is prevalent in the developed world in groups at risk for hepatitis B infection and in certain Third World countries where widespread vaccination programmes exist. This study shows the impact that coincident HIV infection may have on an otherwise efficacious vaccine. The efficacy of this and other vaccines in patients infected with HIV needs to be studied urgently.
    British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 05/1987; 294(6576):866-8.
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    British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 05/1987; 294(6576):868-9.