Michael P Doyle

University of Georgia, Атина, Georgia, United States

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Publications (183)445.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance profiles in retail raw chicken meat in the People's Republic of China. Salmonella counts were determined according to the most-probable-number (MPN) method for 300 whole chicken carcasses. These samples were collected from large, small, and wet (open) markets in Guangdong, Shaanxi, and Sichuan provinces. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 300 chicken carcasses, 43.3% were positive for Salmonella, with an overall mean of 1.7 log MPN per carcass (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 1.8 log MPN per carcass). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were detected for storage temperature (i.e., chilled, frozen, or ambient), market type (large, small, or wet), province, or location (capital or noncapital city). Seventy-eight serotypes were identified among the 1,094 Salmonella isolates. The top five most common Salmonella serotypes on raw chicken carcasses were Enteritidis (19.2%), Indiana (15.2%), Typhimurium (14.6%), Agona (7.1%), and Thompson (6.6%). Salmonella isolates (n = 779) were most frequently resistant to sulfisoxazole (74.1%) and tetracycline (71.1%) and least resistant to ceftriaxone (22.5%) and cefoxitin (19%). Only 4% of the isolates were susceptible to all 15 antimicrobial agents, 45% were resistant to 1 to 5 agents, 29% were resistant to 6 to 10 agents, and 22% were resistant to 11 to 15 agents. Our findings revealed that Salmonella contamination was common in retail raw poultry in China, and the counts on contaminated carcasses were mostly low. Salmonella isolates were diverse in their serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, with more than half of the isolates resistant to more than five antimicrobial agents. These data may be used in risk assessment models to reduce the transmission of Salmonella via chicken meat to humans in China.
    Journal of food protection 06/2014; 77(6):894-902. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preharvest internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the roots of leafy greens is a food safety risk because the pathogen may be systemically transported to edible portions of the plant. In this study, both abiotic (degree of soil moisture) and biotic (E. coli O157:H7 exposure, presence of Shiga toxin genes, and type of leafy green) factors were examined to determine their potential effects on pathogen internalization into roots of leafy greens. Using field soil that should have an active indigenous microbial community, internalized populations in lettuce roots were 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g after exposure to soil containing E. coli O157:H7 at 5.6 to 6.1 log CFU/g. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into leafy green plant roots was higher when E. coli O157:H7 populations in soil were increased to 7 or 8 log CFU/g or when the soil was saturated with water. No differences were noted in the extent to which internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred in spinach, lettuce, or parsley roots; however, in saturated soil, maximum levels in parsley occurred later than did those in spinach or lettuce. Translocation of E. coli O157:H7 from roots to leaves was rare; therefore, decreases observed in root populations over time were likely the result of inactivation within the plant tissue. Shiga toxin-negative (nontoxigenic) E. coli O157:H7 isolates were more stable than were virulent isolates in soil, but the degree of internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into roots did not differ between isolate type. Therefore, these nontoxigenic isolates could be used as surrogates for virulent isolates in field trials involving internalization.
    Journal of food protection 06/2014; 77(6):872-9. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, leafy greens have been implicated in several outbreaks of foodborne illness, and research has focused on contamination during preharvest operations. Concerns have been raised that internalization of pathogens into the edible tissue occurs where postharvest chemical interventions would be ineffective. This study was initiated to measure the degree and fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalized in the phyllosphere tissue of leafy greens when spray conditions, inoculum level, and type of leafy green were varied. Two spraying treatments were applied: (i) spraying individual spinach or lettuce leaves on plants once with a high dose (7 to 8 log CFU/ml) of E. coli O157:H7 and (ii) spraying spinach, lettuce, or parsley plants repeatedly (once per minute) with a low dose (2.7 to 4.2 log CFU/ml) of E. coli O157:H7 over a 10- to 20-min period. With the high-dose spray protocol, no significant differences in the prevalence of internalization occurred between Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 isolates and virulent isolates (P > 0.05), implying that the Shiga toxin virulence factors did not influence internalization or the subsequent fate of those populations under these test conditions. Significantly greater internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred in spinach leaves compared with lettuce leaves when leaves were sprayed once with the high-dose inoculum (P < 0.05), whereas internalization was not observed in lettuce leaves but continued to be observed in spinach and parsley leaves following repeated spraying of the low-dose inoculum. Based on these results, it is surmised that a moisture film was generated when spraying was repeated and this film assisted in the mobilization of pathogen cells to plant apertures, such as stomata. E. coli O157:H7 cells that were internalized into spinach tissue using a low-dose repeat-spray protocol were temporary residents because they were not detected 2 days later, suggesting that plant-microbe interactions may be responsible.
    Journal of food protection 05/2014; 77(5):713-721. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    Dong Chen, Tong Zhao, Michael P Doyle
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the degree of cross-contamination between deli foods and slicers by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, and their inactivation by levulinic acid (LA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on slicers. The transfer rate of pathogens at 5 locations on the contaminated slicers (scenario I) and on food slices (scenario II) was determined. The antimicrobial efficacy of the LA + SDS sanitizers applied either as a liquid or as foam at three concentrations (0.5% LA + 0.05% SDS, 1% LA + 0.1% SDS, and 2% LA + 0.5% SDS) was determined for decontamination of the pathogens on the slicers at 21 °C. After slicing 10 slices, the pathogens recovered from slicer blades were significantly (P < 0.05) less than the recovery from some other contact locations (scenario I). With an initial inoculum at approximately 8.5 log CFU/blade, the populations of the pathogens transferred from blades to slices decreased logarithmically (R(2) > 0.9, scenario II). Contaminated slicer surfaces sprayed with 1% LA plus 0.1% SDS as a foam (45-55 psi) reduced within 1 min 6.0 to 8.0 log CFU/blade of the pathogens. Results revealed that cross-contamination can occur between deli foods and slicers. Also, LA-based sanitizer applied as foam can be a useful treatment to remove microbial contamination on the slicers.
    Food Microbiology 04/2014; 38:263-9. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies were done at 21°C to determine the bactericidal activity of lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) applied individually and in combination on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in pure culture and to compare the efficacy of lactic acid and levulinic acid plus SDS treatments applied by spray or immersion to inactivate STEC and Salmonella (10(7) CFU/cm(2)) on beef trim pieces (10 by 10 by 7.5 cm). Application of 3 % lactic acid for 2 min to pure cultures was shown to reduce E. coli O26:H11, O45:H2, O111:H8, O103:H2, O121:H2, O145:NM, and O157:H7 populations by 2.1, 0.4, 0.3, 1.4, 0.3, 2.1, and 1.7 log CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment with 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.05 % SDS for <1 min reduced the populations of all STEC strains to undetectable levels (>6 log/ml reduction). Beef surface temperature was found to affect the bactericidal activity of treatment with 3 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS (LV-SDS). Treating cold (4°C) beef trim with LV-SDS at 21, 62, or 81°C for 30 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.0, 1.1, or 1.4 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, whereas treating beef trim at 8°C with LV-SDS at 12°C for 0.1, 1, 3, or 5 min reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.4, 2.4, 2.5, or 3.3 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Spray treatment of beef trim at 4°C with 5 % lactic acid only reduced the E. coli O157:H7 population by 1.3 log CFU/cm(2). Treating beef trim at 8°C with LV-SDS for 1, 2, or 3 min reduced Salmonella Typhimurium by 2.1, 2.6, and >5.0 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Hand massaging the treated beef trim substantially reduced contamination of both pathogens, with no detectable E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium (<5 CFU/cm(2)) on beef trim pieces treated with LV-SDS. Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations was enhanced, but bactericidal activity was affected by the meat temperature.
    Journal of food protection 04/2014; 77(4):528-37. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both growth chamber and field studies were conducted to investigate the potential for Escherichia coli O157:H7 to be internalized into leafy green tissue when seeds were germinated in contaminated soil. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in both spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings when seeds were germinated within the growth chamber in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, respectively, contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 at 2.0 and 3.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 populations could be detected by enumeration within leafy green tissues either by increasing the pathogen levels in the soil or by autoclaving the soil. Attempts to maximize the exposure of seed to E. coli O157:H7 by increasing the mobility of the microbe either through soil with a higher moisture content or through directly soaking the seeds in an E. coli O157:H7 inoculum did not increase the degree of internalization. Based on responses obtained in growth chamber studies, internalization of E. coli O157:H7 surrogates (natural isolates of Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 or recombinant [stx- and eae-negative] outbreak strains of E. coli O157:H7) occurred to a slightly lesser degree than did internalization of the virulent outbreak strains of E. coli O157:H7. The apparent lack of internalized E. coli O157:H7 when spinach and lettuce were germinated from seed in contaminated soil (ca. 3 to 5 log CFU/g) in the field and the limited occurrence of surface contamination on the seedlings suggest that competition from indigenous soil bacteria and environmental stresses were greater in the field than in the growth chamber. On the rare occasion that soil contamination with E. coli O157:H7 exceeded 5 log CFU/g in a commercial field, this pathogen probably would not be internalized into germinating leafy greens and/or would not still be present at the time of harvest.
    Journal of food protection 02/2014; 77(2):189-96. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service protocol. A total of 378 isolates (268 from our previous study) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall Salmonella count (mean log most probable number per carcass ± 95% confidence interval) and prevalence were 2.1 (2.0 to 2.3) and 37%, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) by Salmonella levels (i.e., counts and prevalence) by storage temperature (i.e., frozen, chilled, or ambient), retail store type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent markets), and poultry company (chicken produced by integrated or nonintegrated company). Frozen chicken had the lowest Salmonella levels compared with chicken stored at other temperatures, chickens from wet markets had higher levels than those from other retail store types, and chicken produced by integrated companies had lower levels than nonintegrated companies. Thirty-one Salmonella serovars were identified among 378 isolates, with Salmonella Paratyphi B tartrate-positive (i.e., Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+) the most prevalent (44.7%), followed by Heidelberg (19%), Enteritidis (17.7%), Typhimurium (5.3%), and Anatum (2.1%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 35.2% were resistant to 1 to 5 antimicrobial agents, 24.6% to 6 to 10, and 33.9% to 11 to 15. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg were the most antimicrobial resistant. Salmonella prevalence was determined to be high, whereas cell numbers were relatively low. These data can be used in developing risk assessment models for preventing the transmission of Salmonella from chicken to humans in Colombia.
    Journal of food protection 02/2014; 77(2):227-35. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to quantify Salmonella counts on retail raw poultry meat in Vietnam and to phenotypically characterize (serovars and antibiotic resistance) the isolates. A total of 300 chicken carcasses were collected from two cities and two provinces in Vietnam. Salmonella counts on the samples were determined according to the most-probable-number (MPN) method of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS). A total of 457 isolates were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Overall, 48.7% of chicken samples were Salmonella positive with a count of 2.0 log MPN per carcass. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in log MPN per carcass by the study variables (market type, storage condition, and chicken production system). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in Salmonella-positive prevalence by chicken production system. Among the 22 Salmonella serovars identified, Albany was the most frequent (34.1%), followed by Agona (15.5%) and Dabou (8.8%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was common (i.e., 73.3%), with high resistance to tetracycline (59.1%) and ampicillin (41.6%). Resistance to three antibiotics was the most frequently found multidrug resistance profile (17.7%, n = 81); the profile that was resistant to the highest number of drugs was resistant to nine antibiotics (0.7%, n = 3). Only Salmonella Albany posed phenotypic resistance to ceftriaxone (a drug of choice to treat severe cases of salmonellosis). The data revealed that, whereas Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry was high (48.7%), counts were low, which suggests that the exposure risk to Salmonella is low. However, improper storage of raw chicken meat and cross-contamination may increase Salmonella cell counts and pose a greater risk for infection. These data may be helpful in developing risk assessment models and preventing the transmission of foodborne Salmonella from poultry to humans in Vietnam.
    Journal of food protection 01/2014; 77(1):57-66. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both spinach and lettuce were grown to harvest, cut, and then regrown after spraying the cut shoots with irrigation water contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Plant tissue was collected on the day of spraying and again 2 and 14 days later for analysis of total and internalized E. coli O157:H7 populations. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred on the day of spraying, and larger populations were internalized as the level in the spray increased. Tissue repair was slow and insufficient to prevent infiltration of E. coli O157:H7; internalized E. coli O157:H7 in shoots cut 5 days prior to exposure to E. coli O157:H7-contaminated water were not significantly different from levels in shoots cut on the same day of spraying with contaminated water (P > 0.05). Two days after spraying plants with a high level of E. coli O157:H7 (7.3 log CFU/ml), levels of internalized E. coli O157:H7 decreased by ca. 2.6 and 1.3 log CFU/g in Tyee and Bordeaux spinach, respectively, whereas populations of internalized E. coli O157:H7 decreased very little (ca. 0.4 log CFU/g) in lettuce plants that had been sprayed either on the same day as cutting or 1 day after cutting. When cut plants were sprayed with irrigation water at a lower contamination level (4.5 log CFU/ml), internalized E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in either spinach or lettuce plants 2 days later and therefore would not likely be of concern when the crop was harvested.
    Journal of food protection 12/2013; 76(12):2052-6. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus poses a major public health concern and is associated with annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A H3N2 viruses, which are an important cause of human influenza, can infect birds and mammals. Contaminated undercooked poultry products including eggs with avian influenza virus constitute a possible risk of transmission to humans. In this study, a novel levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer was evaluated for eggshell decontamination. Influenza A H3N2 virus-inoculated chicken eggshells were treated with a 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS, 2 % levulinic acid plus 1 % SDS, and 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.5 % SDS liquid solution for 1 min. Log reductions of viable viruses were observed by plaque assay. The 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS sanitizer provided the greatest level of influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation (2.23 log PFU), and differences in virus inactivation were observed for the various levulinic acid plus SDS concentrations tested (P ≤ 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation on eggshells using a novel levulinic acid plus SDS sanitizer. The sanitizer may be useful for reducing egg contamination and preventing the spread of avian influenza virus to humans.
    Food and Environmental Virology 10/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Freshly harvested Georgia-grown cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena and Atlantis) were spot inoculated with 100 μl of a five-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona (9 log CFU/ml) at the stem scar and on the netted rind and then subjected to no treatment (control) or a 6-min treatment (tank only) in water, 120 ppm of chlorine (pH 7.0), 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; pH 3.0), or 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS (pH 3.0). The log reduction for the tank-only treatments was 0.31, 0.59, 1.32, and 1.37 log CFU/g at the stem scar and 0.97, 1.59, 2.06. and 3.37 log CFU/g on the netted rind for water, chlorine, 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% SDS, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. A greater log reduction was observed for the cantaloupe surface tissue with the water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS treatments when additional sanitizer (2 ml) and brushing (to simulate cantaloupes tumbling over brushes on the processing line) were added to the dump tank treatment. The stem scar tissue reductions were 0.90, 1.69, and 1.53 log CFU/g, whereas the netted rind reductions were 1.56, 2.50, and 4.47 log CFU/g after treatment with water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. These data suggest that 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS is effective for reducing Salmonella on the netted rind surface of cantaloupes. However, neither 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS nor 120 ppm of chlorine substantially reduced Salmonella on stem scar tissue.
    Journal of food protection 10/2013; 76(10):1767-1772. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The survival and distribution of enteric pathogens in soil and lettuce systems was investigated in response to several practices (soil amendment supplementation and reduced watering) that could be applied by home gardeners. Leaf lettuce was grown in manure compost:top soil (0:5, 1:5 or 2:5, w:w) mixtures. Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was applied at a low or high dose (10(3) or 10(6) CFU ml(-1) ) to the soil of seedlings and mid-age plants. Supplementation of top soil with compost did not affect pathogen survival in the soil or on root surfaces suggesting that nutrients were not a limiting factor. Salmonella populations on root surfaces were 0.7-0.8 log CFU g(-1) less on mid-age plants compared to seedlings. E. coli O157:H7 populations on root surfaces were 0.8 log CFU g(-1) less for mid-age plants receiving 40 ml water compared to plants receiving 75 ml water on alternate days. Pre-harvest internalization of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella into lettuce roots was not observed at any time. Based on the environmental conditions and high pathogen populations in soil used in this study, internalization of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce roots did not occur under practices that could be encountered by inexperienced home gardeners.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 07/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During aerobic composting of animal manure, microbial activity within the mixture generates heat and metabolic by-products that inactivate zoonotic pathogens. Although it is recognized that the type and level of microbial activity will vary with the nutrient availability of different compost ingredients, the degree to which these changes could impact pathogen inactivation is of interest. Towards that goal, the purpose of this study was to determine inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in compost laboratory-scale bioreactor systems formulated to different initial carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios with cow manure, straw, and cottonseed meal. The C:N ratio did not significantly affect the time to inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes. In contrast, Escherichia coli O157:H7 survived for significantly (P < 0.05) longer periods of time in 40:1 C:N systems than in 30:1 or 20:1 systems even though the cumulative heat exposures were statistically similar in the systems. An increase of pH values to 8 to 9 occurred initially for 40:1 C:N systems, whereas the pH of the 20:1 and 30:1 systems initially declined to 5.5 to 6 before increasing to 8 to 9 after 2 days of composting.
    Compost science & utilization 07/2013; 17(4):229-236. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of four non-pharmaceutical compounds on performance, mortality of broilers and their ability to reduce colonization and fecal shedding of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in broilers following SH challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing organic acids (OA), essential oils (EO), lactic acid (LA), levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (L + SDS) or no added compounds (CON). Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0–7 and 35–42 days. One-half of the chicks were challenged with SH and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on day one. Performance and mortality were determined during the 42-day study. Prevalence of SH was determined on drag swabs (0, 14 and 42 days) and in the ceca and crops (42 days). Broilers receiving EO had significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gain and lower mortality than other treatments. Salmonella Heidelberg was absent from drag swabs on day 0, but present at 14 and 42 days. Challenged and unchallenged broilers receiving EO and LA had significantly (P < 0.05) lower SH in crops than other treatments. The essential oils and lactic acid used in the study may control SH contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water.
    Food Control. 05/2013; 31(1):125–128.
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of Listeria monocytogenes and two competitive exclusion (CE) bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain C-1-92 and Enterococcus durans strain 152, to form biofilms on coupons composed of different materials (stainless steel, plastic, rubber, glass, and silicone) was determined at 4 and 8°C. Biofilm characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy. L. monocytogenes produced well-formed biofilms within 24 h at 37°C on coupon surfaces. Treating Listeria-laden biofilms with the CE isolates individually at either 4 or 8°C for 3 weeks substantially reduced or eliminated listeriae in the biofilms. Treatment with L. lactis subsp. lactis strain C-1-92 and E. durans strain 152 at 4°C for 3 weeks reduced the population of L. monocytogenes in a biofilm from 7.1 to 7.7 log CFU/cm(2) to 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/cm(2) and to 3.1 to 5.2 log CFU/cm(2) , respectively, and treatment at 8°C for 3 weeks reduced L. monocytogenes from 7.5 to 8.3 log CFU/cm(2) to 2.4 to 3.5 log CFU/cm(2) and to 3.8 to 5.2 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, depending on the coupon composition. These two CE isolates were combined and evaluated for control of Listeria bacteria in floor drains of a ready-to-eat poultry processing plant. The results revealed that treating the floor drains with CE four times in the first week eliminated detectable Listeria bacteria from five of six drains, and the drains remained free of detectable Listeria bacteria for 13 weeks following the first four treatments. These studies indicate that CE can effectively reduce Listeria contamination in biofilms and in flow drains of a plant producing ready-to-eat poultry products.
    Journal of food protection 04/2013; 76(4):601-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Fresh salsa and guacamole often contain diced raw produce, are often made in large batches, and are often poorly refrigerated, which may make them prone to contamination that can cause foodborne illness. The safety of salsa and guacamole is increasingly important as these foods gain popularity. Since 1973, local, state, and territorial health departments have voluntarily reported foodborne disease outbreaks to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) using a standard reporting form. FDOSS used paper-based reporting for 1973-1997 and switched to electronic reporting for 1998-2008. We reviewed all reports of outbreaks during 1973-2008 in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a vehicle. We found 136 outbreaks in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a possible vehicle, which resulted in 5,658 illnesses. Of these 136 salsa- or guacamole-associated (SGA) outbreaks additional possible food vehicles were reported for 33 (24%) outbreaks. There were no SGA outbreaks reported before 1984. Among reported outbreaks, most were caused by norovirus (24%), nontyphoidal Salmonella (19%), and Shigella (7%). Eighty-four percent of outbreaks were caused by foods prepared in restaurants or delis; of these, 19% reported ill foodworkers, and 29% reported improper storage as possible contributing factors. Among all foodborne disease outbreaks with a reported food vehicle during 1984-1997, 26 (0.9%) of 2,966 outbreaks were SGA, and during 1998-2008, 110 (1.4%) of 7,738 outbreaks were SGA. The number of reported foodborne disease outbreaks attributable to salsa or guacamole increased in the United States from 1984 to 2008, especially in later years, and especially in restaurants. Fresh salsa and guacamole require careful preparation and storage. Focused prevention strategies should reduce the risk of illness and ensure that these foods are enjoyed safely.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 03/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella according to a method recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 45.9%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) location (Ha Noi city, 51.1%; Hai Phong city, 45.6%; Da Nang and Can Tho cities, 45.5%; Bac Ninh province and Ho Chi Minh city, 44.7%; Dong Nai province, 44.6%; Ha Tinh province, 44.4%; Phu Tho province, 43.8%; Lao Cai province, 43.5%; Kien Giang province, 41.9%; and Lam Dong province, 40.9%), (ii) market type (wet market, 46.2%; supermarket samples, 43.0%), and (iii) storage temperature at retail (ambient storage, 46.4%; chilled storage, 45.1%). Hence, Salmonella presence on poultry meat in Vietnam was not associated with a specific city or province, market type, or storage temperature at retail. Strategies to reduce Salmonella levels on raw poultry in Vietnam should be undertaken to improve the safety of poultry products and reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis from poultry consumption.
    Journal of food protection 10/2012; 75(10):1851-4. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether Campylobacter can pass from one generation of poultry to the next via the fertile egg. We recognize that there are numerous sources of Campylobacter entry into flocks of commercial poultry (including egg transmission), yet the environment is often cited as the only source. There has been an abundance of published research globally that refutes this contention, and this article lists and discusses many of them, along with other studies that support environment as the sole or primary source. One must remember that egg passage can mean more than vertical, transovarian transmission. Fecal bacteria, including Campylobacter, can contaminate the shell, shell membranes, and albumen of freshly laid fertile eggs. This contamination is drawn through the shell by temperature differential, aided by the presence of moisture (the "sweating" of the egg); then, when the chick emerges from the egg, it can ingest bacteria such as Campylobacter, become colonized, and spread this contamination to flock mates in the grow house. Improvements in cultural laboratory methods continue to advance our knowledge of the ecology of Campylobacter, and in the not-so-distant future, egg passage will not be a subject continuously debated but will be embraced, thus allowing the development and implementation of more effective intervention strategies.
    Journal of food protection 10/2012; 75(10):1896-902. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Tong Zhao, Ping Zhao, Michael P Doyle
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    ABSTRACT: Most available immunoassays for Yersinia pestis are based on the detection of fraction 1 antigen (F1) when yersiniae are grown at 37°C. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) was developed based on the detection of surface antigens that are not F1. F1-deficient Y. pestis cells were induced and used to immunize BALB/c mice from which MAb (immunoglobulin G1), which specifically recognizes Y. pestis, with or without F1, was obtained. This MAb (6B5) did not cross-react with enteric bacteria, including Yersinia enterocolitica. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results revealed that MAb 6B5 is specific for Y. pestis, with the exception of a minor cross-reaction with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Western immunoblot analysis revealed that MAb 6B5 recognizes a Y. pestis outer membrane protein of ca. 30 kDa. Magnetic beads that were coated with MAb 6B5 were compared with beads coated with polyclonal antibody (PAb; rabbit) against Y. pestis for the isolation of Y. pestis in food and water samples by using a PATHATRIX cell concentration apparatus. Enrichment cultures of Y. pestis in different foods by using two different times (6 and 24 h) in brain heart infusion broth at 37°C were evaluated. Results revealed MAb 6B5-coated magnetic beads were equivalent to magnetic beads coated with PAb against Y. pestis A1122 whole cells in concentrating Y. pestis for isolation, especially when samples were enriched for 6 h. However, the selectivity for Y. pestis of the magnetic beads coated with MAb 6B5 was greater than that coated with PAb.
    Journal of food protection 09/2012; 75(9):1555-61. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) region-29.3% (n = 464) in Moscow, 38.5% (n = 192) in St. Petersburg, and 23.8% (n = 42) in Krasnodar; (ii) retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products.
    Journal of food protection 08/2012; 75(8):1469-73. · 1.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
445.24 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2014
    • University of Georgia
      • • College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
      • • Department of Food Science and Technology
      • • Department of Environmental Health Science
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Атина, Georgia, United States
  • 2013
    • Istanbul University
      • Department of Food Hygiene & Technology
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2012
    • National Institute of Food Control, Vietnam
      Hà Nội, Ha Nội, Vietnam
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • School of Dentistry
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2011
    • Oklahoma State University - Stillwater
      Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • Clemson University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Clemson, SC, United States
  • 2009
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Ulster
      Aontroim, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2002
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Nutrition and Food Science
      College Park, MD, United States
    • University of Connecticut
      • Department of Animal Science
      Storrs, CT, United States
  • 2001
    • Berry College
      Атина, Georgia, United States
  • 1993–1999
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Bacterial Diseases
      • • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Druid Hills, GA, United States
  • 1997
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      Portland, Oregon, United States