[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two separate studies were conducted to address the condition and the type of feedstocks used during composting of dairy manure. In each study, physical (temperature), chemical (ammonia, volatile acids, and pH), and biological (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7) parameters were monitored during composting in bioreactors to assess the degree to which they were affected by the experimental variables and, ultimately, the ability of the chemical and physical parameters to predict the fate of pathogens during composting. Compost mixtures that contained either aged dairy manure or pine needles had reduced heat generation; therefore, pathogen reduction took longer than if fresh manure or carbon amendments of wheat straw or peanut hulls were used. Based on regression models derived from these results, ammonia concentration, in addition to heat, were the primary factors affecting the degree of pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures formulated to an initial carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 40:1, whereas, the pH of the compost mixture along with the amount of heat exposure were most influential in compost mixtures formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 30:1. Further studies are needed to validate these models so that additional criteria in addition to time and temperature can be used to evaluate the microbiological safety of composted manures.
Journal of food protection 11/2014; 77(11):1911-8. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been the causative agent of many outbreaks associated with leafy green produce consumption. Elucidating the mechanism by which contamination occurs requires monitoring interactions between the pathogen and the plant under typical production conditions. Intentional introduction of virulent strains into fields is not an acceptable practice. As an alternative, attenuated strains of natural isolates have been used as surrogates of the virulent strains; however, the attachment properties and environmental stabilities of these attenuated isolates may differ from the unattenuated outbreak strains. In this study, the Shiga toxin (stx1, stx2, and/or stx2c) genes as well as the eae gene encoding intimin of two E. coli O157:H7 outbreak isolates, F4546 (1997 alfalfa sprout) and K4492 (2006 lettuce), were deleted. Individual gene deletions were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The mutant strains did not produce Shiga toxin. The growth kinetics of these mutant strains under nutrient-rich and minimal conditions were identical to those of their wild-type strains. Attachment to the surface of lettuce leaves was comparable between wild-type/mutant pairs F4546/MD46 and K4492/MD47. Adherence to soil particles was also comparable between the virulent and surrogate pairs, although the F4546/MD46 pair exhibited statistically greater attachment than the K4492/MD47 pair (p≤0.05). Wild-type and mutant pairs F4546/MD46 and K4492/MD47 inoculated into wet or dry soils had statistically similar survival rates over the 7-day storage period at 20°C. A plasmid, pGFPuv, containing green fluorescent protein was transformed into each of the mutant strains, allowing for ease of identification and detection of surrogate strains on plant material or soil. These pGFPuv-containing surrogate strains will enable the investigation of pathogen interaction with plants and soil in the farm production environment where the virulent pathogen cannot be used.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 09/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduction of enteric pathogens in animal manures before field application is essential for mitigating the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Aerobic composting of manures has been advocated as an effective treatment for reducing pathogen populations, and heat is a major factor contributing to pathogen inactivation. This study was initiated to determine the potential contribution of both thermal and nonthermal (pH, volatile acids, and ammonia) factors to pathogen inactivation during aerobic composting in bioreactors for mixtures containing manure from various sources (dairy, chicken, and swine). The test mixtures were formulated with an initial moisture content of 60% and a C:N ratio of 20:1, using straw and cottonseed meal as amendments. Mixtures were then inoculated with Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes labeled with green fluorescent protein at initial populations of ca. 10(7) CFU/g. Three replicate trials of each treatment were conducted. Temperatures within the bioreactors were recorded at 30-min intervals, and duplicate samples were withdrawn daily from two sampling locations within the bioreactor. Significant regression models were derived relating decreases in pathogen populations to the degree of heat generated in the mixture (cumulative heat) and the pH of the mixture on the day before the pathogen losses were calculated (P < 0.0002). Although pathogens in swine manure compost mixtures were inactivated by the third day of composting, very little heat was generated in these mixtures, which were characterized by significantly higher levels of volatile acids compared with the other two compost mixtures. Therefore, volatile acids could help achieve pathogen inactivation when temperatures are too low such as when heat is lost too quickly at the surface of static compost piles or during winter composting.
Journal of food protection 09/2014; 77(9):1512-1518. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preharvest internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the roots of leafy greens is a food safety risk because the pathogen may be systemically transported to edible portions of the plant. In this study, both abiotic (degree of soil moisture) and biotic (E. coli O157:H7 exposure, presence of Shiga toxin genes, and type of leafy green) factors were examined to determine their potential effects on pathogen internalization into roots of leafy greens. Using field soil that should have an active indigenous microbial community, internalized populations in lettuce roots were 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g after exposure to soil containing E. coli O157:H7 at 5.6 to 6.1 log CFU/g. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into leafy green plant roots was higher when E. coli O157:H7 populations in soil were increased to 7 or 8 log CFU/g or when the soil was saturated with water. No differences were noted in the extent to which internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred in spinach, lettuce, or parsley roots; however, in saturated soil, maximum levels in parsley occurred later than did those in spinach or lettuce. Translocation of E. coli O157:H7 from roots to leaves was rare; therefore, decreases observed in root populations over time were likely the result of inactivation within the plant tissue. Shiga toxin-negative (nontoxigenic) E. coli O157:H7 isolates were more stable than were virulent isolates in soil, but the degree of internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into roots did not differ between isolate type. Therefore, these nontoxigenic isolates could be used as surrogates for virulent isolates in field trials involving internalization.
Journal of food protection 06/2014; 77(6):872-9. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance profiles in retail raw chicken meat in the People's Republic of China. Salmonella counts were determined according to the most-probable-number (MPN) method for 300 whole chicken carcasses. These samples were collected from large, small, and wet (open) markets in Guangdong, Shaanxi, and Sichuan provinces. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 300 chicken carcasses, 43.3% were positive for Salmonella, with an overall mean of 1.7 log MPN per carcass (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 1.8 log MPN per carcass). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were detected for storage temperature (i.e., chilled, frozen, or ambient), market type (large, small, or wet), province, or location (capital or noncapital city). Seventy-eight serotypes were identified among the 1,094 Salmonella isolates. The top five most common Salmonella serotypes on raw chicken carcasses were Enteritidis (19.2%), Indiana (15.2%), Typhimurium (14.6%), Agona (7.1%), and Thompson (6.6%). Salmonella isolates (n = 779) were most frequently resistant to sulfisoxazole (74.1%) and tetracycline (71.1%) and least resistant to ceftriaxone (22.5%) and cefoxitin (19%). Only 4% of the isolates were susceptible to all 15 antimicrobial agents, 45% were resistant to 1 to 5 agents, 29% were resistant to 6 to 10 agents, and 22% were resistant to 11 to 15 agents. Our findings revealed that Salmonella contamination was common in retail raw poultry in China, and the counts on contaminated carcasses were mostly low. Salmonella isolates were diverse in their serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, with more than half of the isolates resistant to more than five antimicrobial agents. These data may be used in risk assessment models to reduce the transmission of Salmonella via chicken meat to humans in China.
Journal of food protection 06/2014; 77(6):894-902. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past decade, leafy greens have been implicated in several outbreaks of foodborne illness, and research has focused on contamination during preharvest operations. Concerns have been raised that internalization of pathogens into the edible tissue occurs where postharvest chemical interventions would be ineffective. This study was initiated to measure the degree and fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalized in the phyllosphere tissue of leafy greens when spray conditions, inoculum level, and type of leafy green were varied. Two spraying treatments were applied: (i) spraying individual spinach or lettuce leaves on plants once with a high dose (7 to 8 log CFU/ml) of E. coli O157:H7 and (ii) spraying spinach, lettuce, or parsley plants repeatedly (once per minute) with a low dose (2.7 to 4.2 log CFU/ml) of E. coli O157:H7 over a 10- to 20-min period. With the high-dose spray protocol, no significant differences in the prevalence of internalization occurred between Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 isolates and virulent isolates (P > 0.05), implying that the Shiga toxin virulence factors did not influence internalization or the subsequent fate of those populations under these test conditions. Significantly greater internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred in spinach leaves compared with lettuce leaves when leaves were sprayed once with the high-dose inoculum (P < 0.05), whereas internalization was not observed in lettuce leaves but continued to be observed in spinach and parsley leaves following repeated spraying of the low-dose inoculum. Based on these results, it is surmised that a moisture film was generated when spraying was repeated and this film assisted in the mobilization of pathogen cells to plant apertures, such as stomata. E. coli O157:H7 cells that were internalized into spinach tissue using a low-dose repeat-spray protocol were temporary residents because they were not detected 2 days later, suggesting that plant-microbe interactions may be responsible.
Journal of food protection 05/2014; 77(5):713-721. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the degree of cross-contamination between deli foods and slicers by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, and their inactivation by levulinic acid (LA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on slicers. The transfer rate of pathogens at 5 locations on the contaminated slicers (scenario I) and on food slices (scenario II) was determined. The antimicrobial efficacy of the LA + SDS sanitizers applied either as a liquid or as foam at three concentrations (0.5% LA + 0.05% SDS, 1% LA + 0.1% SDS, and 2% LA + 0.5% SDS) was determined for decontamination of the pathogens on the slicers at 21 °C. After slicing 10 slices, the pathogens recovered from slicer blades were significantly (P < 0.05) less than the recovery from some other contact locations (scenario I). With an initial inoculum at approximately 8.5 log CFU/blade, the populations of the pathogens transferred from blades to slices decreased logarithmically (R(2) > 0.9, scenario II). Contaminated slicer surfaces sprayed with 1% LA plus 0.1% SDS as a foam (45-55 psi) reduced within 1 min 6.0 to 8.0 log CFU/blade of the pathogens. Results revealed that cross-contamination can occur between deli foods and slicers. Also, LA-based sanitizer applied as foam can be a useful treatment to remove microbial contamination on the slicers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies were done at 21°C to determine the bactericidal activity of lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) applied individually and in combination on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in pure culture and to compare the efficacy of lactic acid and levulinic acid plus SDS treatments applied by spray or immersion to inactivate STEC and Salmonella (10(7) CFU/cm(2)) on beef trim pieces (10 by 10 by 7.5 cm). Application of 3 % lactic acid for 2 min to pure cultures was shown to reduce E. coli O26:H11, O45:H2, O111:H8, O103:H2, O121:H2, O145:NM, and O157:H7 populations by 2.1, 0.4, 0.3, 1.4, 0.3, 2.1, and 1.7 log CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment with 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.05 % SDS for <1 min reduced the populations of all STEC strains to undetectable levels (>6 log/ml reduction). Beef surface temperature was found to affect the bactericidal activity of treatment with 3 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS (LV-SDS). Treating cold (4°C) beef trim with LV-SDS at 21, 62, or 81°C for 30 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.0, 1.1, or 1.4 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, whereas treating beef trim at 8°C with LV-SDS at 12°C for 0.1, 1, 3, or 5 min reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.4, 2.4, 2.5, or 3.3 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Spray treatment of beef trim at 4°C with 5 % lactic acid only reduced the E. coli O157:H7 population by 1.3 log CFU/cm(2). Treating beef trim at 8°C with LV-SDS for 1, 2, or 3 min reduced Salmonella Typhimurium by 2.1, 2.6, and >5.0 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Hand massaging the treated beef trim substantially reduced contamination of both pathogens, with no detectable E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium (<5 CFU/cm(2)) on beef trim pieces treated with LV-SDS. Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations was enhanced, but bactericidal activity was affected by the meat temperature.
Journal of food protection 04/2014; 77(4):528-37. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both growth chamber and field studies were conducted to investigate the potential for Escherichia coli O157:H7 to be internalized into leafy green tissue when seeds were germinated in contaminated soil. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in both spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings when seeds were germinated within the growth chamber in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, respectively, contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 at 2.0 and 3.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 populations could be detected by enumeration within leafy green tissues either by increasing the pathogen levels in the soil or by autoclaving the soil. Attempts to maximize the exposure of seed to E. coli O157:H7 by increasing the mobility of the microbe either through soil with a higher moisture content or through directly soaking the seeds in an E. coli O157:H7 inoculum did not increase the degree of internalization. Based on responses obtained in growth chamber studies, internalization of E. coli O157:H7 surrogates (natural isolates of Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 or recombinant [stx- and eae-negative] outbreak strains of E. coli O157:H7) occurred to a slightly lesser degree than did internalization of the virulent outbreak strains of E. coli O157:H7. The apparent lack of internalized E. coli O157:H7 when spinach and lettuce were germinated from seed in contaminated soil (ca. 3 to 5 log CFU/g) in the field and the limited occurrence of surface contamination on the seedlings suggest that competition from indigenous soil bacteria and environmental stresses were greater in the field than in the growth chamber. On the rare occasion that soil contamination with E. coli O157:H7 exceeded 5 log CFU/g in a commercial field, this pathogen probably would not be internalized into germinating leafy greens and/or would not still be present at the time of harvest.
Journal of food protection 02/2014; 77(2):189-96. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service protocol. A total of 378 isolates (268 from our previous study) were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall Salmonella count (mean log most probable number per carcass ± 95% confidence interval) and prevalence were 2.1 (2.0 to 2.3) and 37%, respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) by Salmonella levels (i.e., counts and prevalence) by storage temperature (i.e., frozen, chilled, or ambient), retail store type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent markets), and poultry company (chicken produced by integrated or nonintegrated company). Frozen chicken had the lowest Salmonella levels compared with chicken stored at other temperatures, chickens from wet markets had higher levels than those from other retail store types, and chicken produced by integrated companies had lower levels than nonintegrated companies. Thirty-one Salmonella serovars were identified among 378 isolates, with Salmonella Paratyphi B tartrate-positive (i.e., Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+) the most prevalent (44.7%), followed by Heidelberg (19%), Enteritidis (17.7%), Typhimurium (5.3%), and Anatum (2.1%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 35.2% were resistant to 1 to 5 antimicrobial agents, 24.6% to 6 to 10, and 33.9% to 11 to 15. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg were the most antimicrobial resistant. Salmonella prevalence was determined to be high, whereas cell numbers were relatively low. These data can be used in developing risk assessment models for preventing the transmission of Salmonella from chicken to humans in Colombia.
Journal of food protection 02/2014; 77(2):227-35. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to quantify Salmonella counts on retail raw poultry meat in Vietnam and to phenotypically characterize (serovars and antibiotic resistance) the isolates. A total of 300 chicken carcasses were collected from two cities and two provinces in Vietnam. Salmonella counts on the samples were determined according to the most-probable-number (MPN) method of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS). A total of 457 isolates were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Overall, 48.7% of chicken samples were Salmonella positive with a count of 2.0 log MPN per carcass. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in log MPN per carcass by the study variables (market type, storage condition, and chicken production system). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in Salmonella-positive prevalence by chicken production system. Among the 22 Salmonella serovars identified, Albany was the most frequent (34.1%), followed by Agona (15.5%) and Dabou (8.8%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was common (i.e., 73.3%), with high resistance to tetracycline (59.1%) and ampicillin (41.6%). Resistance to three antibiotics was the most frequently found multidrug resistance profile (17.7%, n = 81); the profile that was resistant to the highest number of drugs was resistant to nine antibiotics (0.7%, n = 3). Only Salmonella Albany posed phenotypic resistance to ceftriaxone (a drug of choice to treat severe cases of salmonellosis). The data revealed that, whereas Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry was high (48.7%), counts were low, which suggests that the exposure risk to Salmonella is low. However, improper storage of raw chicken meat and cross-contamination may increase Salmonella cell counts and pose a greater risk for infection. These data may be helpful in developing risk assessment models and preventing the transmission of foodborne Salmonella from poultry to humans in Vietnam.
Journal of food protection 01/2014; 77(1):57-66. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both spinach and lettuce were grown to harvest, cut, and then regrown after spraying the cut shoots with irrigation water contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Plant tissue was collected on the day of spraying and again 2 and 14 days later for analysis of total and internalized E. coli O157:H7 populations. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred on the day of spraying, and larger populations were internalized as the level in the spray increased. Tissue repair was slow and insufficient to prevent infiltration of E. coli O157:H7; internalized E. coli O157:H7 in shoots cut 5 days prior to exposure to E. coli O157:H7-contaminated water were not significantly different from levels in shoots cut on the same day of spraying with contaminated water (P > 0.05). Two days after spraying plants with a high level of E. coli O157:H7 (7.3 log CFU/ml), levels of internalized E. coli O157:H7 decreased by ca. 2.6 and 1.3 log CFU/g in Tyee and Bordeaux spinach, respectively, whereas populations of internalized E. coli O157:H7 decreased very little (ca. 0.4 log CFU/g) in lettuce plants that had been sprayed either on the same day as cutting or 1 day after cutting. When cut plants were sprayed with irrigation water at a lower contamination level (4.5 log CFU/ml), internalized E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in either spinach or lettuce plants 2 days later and therefore would not likely be of concern when the crop was harvested.
Journal of food protection 12/2013; 76(12):2052-6. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three soils that varied in their physicochemical characteristics and microbial diversity were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to determine the relative impact of abiotic and biotic factors on the pathogens' survival when the soil was held at 25°C.
Three soils that were classified as having low, medium and high microbial diversity were divided into two batches for adjustment to 20% of water-holding capacity and to 40% of water-holding capacity. Soils were inoculated with both green fluorescent-labelled E. coli O157:H7 and red fluorescent-labelled Salmonella (5 log CFU g(-1) dry weight) and held at 25°C. Pathogens inoculated into an acidic soil died off within 9 weeks, whereas they were still detected in the other two soils by enrichment culture after 18 weeks. Moisture did not affect inactivation of E. coli O157:H7, but did affect Salmonella inactivation in soil having the greatest organic load and microbial diversity. Using multiple linear regression analysis, 98·7% of the variability in the inactivation rate for E. coli O157:H7 was explained by a model that included the variables of initial pH and electrical conductivity. Salmonella's inactivation rate was predicted by a model that included pH and initial cell numbers of copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacteria.
This study provided evidence of specific properties that impact inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in soils at 25°C.
Identification of factors influential in the die-off of enteric pathogens will assist in developing guidelines for safe intervals between field contamination events and planting or harvesting of fresh-cut produce crops.
Journal of Applied Microbiology 10/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus poses a major public health concern and is associated with annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A H3N2 viruses, which are an important cause of human influenza, can infect birds and mammals. Contaminated undercooked poultry products including eggs with avian influenza virus constitute a possible risk of transmission to humans. In this study, a novel levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer was evaluated for eggshell decontamination. Influenza A H3N2 virus-inoculated chicken eggshells were treated with a 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS, 2 % levulinic acid plus 1 % SDS, and 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.5 % SDS liquid solution for 1 min. Log reductions of viable viruses were observed by plaque assay. The 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS sanitizer provided the greatest level of influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation (2.23 log PFU), and differences in virus inactivation were observed for the various levulinic acid plus SDS concentrations tested (P ≤ 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation on eggshells using a novel levulinic acid plus SDS sanitizer. The sanitizer may be useful for reducing egg contamination and preventing the spread of avian influenza virus to humans.
Food and Environmental Virology 10/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Freshly harvested Georgia-grown cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena and Atlantis) were spot inoculated with 100 μl of a five-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona (9 log CFU/ml) at the stem scar and on the netted rind and then subjected to no treatment (control) or a 6-min treatment (tank only) in water, 120 ppm of chlorine (pH 7.0), 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; pH 3.0), or 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS (pH 3.0). The log reduction for the tank-only treatments was 0.31, 0.59, 1.32, and 1.37 log CFU/g at the stem scar and 0.97, 1.59, 2.06. and 3.37 log CFU/g on the netted rind for water, chlorine, 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% SDS, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. A greater log reduction was observed for the cantaloupe surface tissue with the water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS treatments when additional sanitizer (2 ml) and brushing (to simulate cantaloupes tumbling over brushes on the processing line) were added to the dump tank treatment. The stem scar tissue reductions were 0.90, 1.69, and 1.53 log CFU/g, whereas the netted rind reductions were 1.56, 2.50, and 4.47 log CFU/g after treatment with water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. These data suggest that 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS is effective for reducing Salmonella on the netted rind surface of cantaloupes. However, neither 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS nor 120 ppm of chlorine substantially reduced Salmonella on stem scar tissue.
Journal of food protection 10/2013; 76(10):1767-1772. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The survival and distribution of enteric pathogens in soil and lettuce systems was investigated in response to several practices (soil amendment supplementation and reduced watering) that could be applied by home gardeners.
Leaf lettuce was grown in manure compost:top soil (0:5, 1:5 or 2:5, w:w) mixtures. Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was applied at a low or high dose (10(3) or 10(6) CFU ml(-1) ) to the soil of seedlings and mid-age plants. Supplementation of top soil with compost did not affect pathogen survival in the soil or on root surfaces suggesting that nutrients were not a limiting factor. Salmonella populations on root surfaces were 0.7-0.8 log CFU g(-1) less on mid-age plants compared to seedlings. E. coli O157:H7 populations on root surfaces were 0.8 log CFU g(-1) less for mid-age plants receiving 40 ml water compared to plants receiving 75 ml water on alternate days. Pre-harvest internalization of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella into lettuce roots was not observed at any time.
Based on the environmental conditions and high pathogen populations in soil used in this study, internalization of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce roots did not occur under practices that could be encountered by inexperienced home gardeners.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 07/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During aerobic composting of animal manure, microbial activity within the mixture generates heat and metabolic by-products that inactivate zoonotic pathogens. Although it is recognized that the type and level of microbial activity will vary with the nutrient availability of different compost ingredients, the degree to which these changes could impact pathogen inactivation is of interest. Towards that goal, the purpose of this study was to determine inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in compost laboratory-scale bioreactor systems formulated to different initial carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios with cow manure, straw, and cottonseed meal. The C:N ratio did not significantly affect the time to inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes. In contrast, Escherichia coli O157:H7 survived for significantly (P < 0.05) longer periods of time in 40:1 C:N systems than in 30:1 or 20:1 systems even though the cumulative heat exposures were statistically similar in the systems. An increase of pH values to 8 to 9 occurred initially for 40:1 C:N systems, whereas the pH of the 20:1 and 30:1 systems initially declined to 5.5 to 6 before increasing to 8 to 9 after 2 days of composting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of four non-pharmaceutical compounds on performance, mortality of broilers and their ability to reduce colonization and fecal shedding of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in broilers following SH challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing organic acids (OA), essential oils (EO), lactic acid (LA), levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (L + SDS) or no added compounds (CON). Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0–7 and 35–42 days. One-half of the chicks were challenged with SH and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on day one. Performance and mortality were determined during the 42-day study. Prevalence of SH was determined on drag swabs (0, 14 and 42 days) and in the ceca and crops (42 days). Broilers receiving EO had significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gain and lower mortality than other treatments. Salmonella Heidelberg was absent from drag swabs on day 0, but present at 14 and 42 days. Challenged and unchallenged broilers receiving EO and LA had significantly (P < 0.05) lower SH in crops than other treatments. The essential oils and lactic acid used in the study may control SH contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of Listeria monocytogenes and two competitive exclusion (CE) bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain C-1-92 and Enterococcus durans strain 152, to form biofilms on coupons composed of different materials (stainless steel, plastic, rubber, glass, and silicone) was determined at 4 and 8°C. Biofilm characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy. L. monocytogenes produced well-formed biofilms within 24 h at 37°C on coupon surfaces. Treating Listeria-laden biofilms with the CE isolates individually at either 4 or 8°C for 3 weeks substantially reduced or eliminated listeriae in the biofilms. Treatment with L. lactis subsp. lactis strain C-1-92 and E. durans strain 152 at 4°C for 3 weeks reduced the population of L. monocytogenes in a biofilm from 7.1 to 7.7 log CFU/cm(2) to 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/cm(2) and to 3.1 to 5.2 log CFU/cm(2) , respectively, and treatment at 8°C for 3 weeks reduced L. monocytogenes from 7.5 to 8.3 log CFU/cm(2) to 2.4 to 3.5 log CFU/cm(2) and to 3.8 to 5.2 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, depending on the coupon composition. These two CE isolates were combined and evaluated for control of Listeria bacteria in floor drains of a ready-to-eat poultry processing plant. The results revealed that treating the floor drains with CE four times in the first week eliminated detectable Listeria bacteria from five of six drains, and the drains remained free of detectable Listeria bacteria for 13 weeks following the first four treatments. These studies indicate that CE can effectively reduce Listeria contamination in biofilms and in flow drains of a plant producing ready-to-eat poultry products.
Journal of food protection 04/2013; 76(4):601-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor