[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to the upfront setting in which the role of high dose therapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as consolidation of a 1(st) remission in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is well established, the role of high dose therapy with autologous or allogeneic HCT has not been extensively studied in MM patients relapsing after primary therapy. The International Myeloma Working Group together with the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT-CTN), the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), and the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) convened a meeting of MM experts to: 1. Summarize current knowledge regarding the role of autologous or allogeneic HCT in MM patients progressing after primary therapy; 2. Propose guidelines for the use of salvage HCT in MM; 3. Identify knowledge gaps; 4 Propose a research agenda and 5. Develop a collaborative initiative to move the research agenda forward. After reviewing the available data, the expert committee came to the following consensus statement for salvage autologous HCT: 1. In transplant eligible patients relapsing after primary therapy that did NOT include an autologous HCT, high dose therapy with HCT as part of salvage therapy should be considered standard; 2. High dose therapy and autologous HCT should be considered appropriate therapy for any patients relapsing after primary therapy that includes an autologous HCT with initial remission duration of more than 18 months; 3. High dose therapy and autologous HCT can be used as a bridging strategy to allogeneic HCT; 4. The role of post salvage HCT maintenance needs to be explored in the context of well designed prospective trials that should include new agents such as monoclonal antibodies, immune-modulating agents and oral proteasome inhibitors; 5. Autologous HCT consolidation should be explored as a strategy to develop novel conditioning regimens or post HCT strategies in patients with short (less than 18 months remissions) after primary therapy; 6. Prospective randomized trials need to be performed to define the role of salvage autologous HCT in patients with MM relapsing after primary therapy comparing to "best non HCT" therapy. The expert committee also underscored the importance of collecting enough hematopoietic stem cells to perform two transplants early in the course of the disease. In regards to allogeneic HCT the expert committee agreed on the following consensus statements: 1. Allogeneic HCT should be considered appropriate therapy for any eligible patient with early relapse (less than 24 months) after primary therapy that included an autologous HCT and/or high risk features (i.e cytogenetics, extramedullary disease, plasma cell leukemia or high LDH); 2. Allogeneic HCT should be performed in the context of a clinical trial if possible; 3. The role of post allogeneic HCT maintenance therapy needs to be explored in the context of well designed prospective trials; 4. Prospective randomized trials need to be performed to define the role salvage allogeneic HCT in patients with MM relapsing after primary therapy.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 10/2015; 21(12). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.09.016 · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies support the use of bortezomib-based therapies in light chain amyloidosis (AL). We performed a retrospective analysis of the safety, efficacy and long-term survival (median follow-up 3 years) after bortezomib-based treatment in 28 consecutive patients with de novo AL deemed ineligible at initial presentation. The first 14 patients received bortezomib and dexamethasone (VD), and the second 14 patients received cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (CVD; CyBorD). Both regimens were well tolerated with no treatment-related mortality. The overall hematological response (HR) rate was 93% in both the groups. Median time to response was shorter in the CVD group (39 days vs 96 days in the VD group; P=0.002). Hematological and organ responses induced with bortezomib-based therapy enabled 8 (33%) of initially transplant ineligible patients to undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT), including 4 patients with cardiac stage III or IV. Seven of the eight patients (88%) who underwent subsequent AHCT achieved sustained HR at a median of 33 months posttransplant. These data suggest that bortezomib-based induction followed by AHCT is a viable therapeutic strategy for transplant-ineligible AL. Larger, multicenter prospective trials are necessary to confirm our findings.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 27 April 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.73.
Bone marrow transplantation 04/2015; 50(7). DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.73 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical outcomes after primary graft failure (PGF) remain poor. Here we present a large retrospective analysis (n=23 272) which investigates means to prevent PGF and early detection of patients at high risk. In patients with hematologic malignancies, who underwent their first myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, PGF was reported in 1,278 (5.5%), and there was a marked difference in PGFs using peripheral blood stem cell compared to bone marrow grafts (2.5 vs 7.3%; P<0.001). A 4-fold increase of PGF was observed in myeloproliferative disorders compared to acute leukemia (P<0.001). Other risk factors for PGF included recipient age below 30, HLA-mismatch, male recipients of female donor grafts, ABO-incompatibility, busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning, and cryopreservation. In bone marrow transplants, total nucleated cell doses ⩽2.4 × 10(8)/kg were associated with PGF (OR 1.39; P<0.001). The use of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were associated with decreased PGF risk. These data, allow clinicians to do more informed choices with respect to graft source, donor selection, conditioning and immunosuppressive regimens to reduce the risk of PGF. Moreover, a novel risk score determined on day 21 post-transplant may provide the rationale for an early request for additional hematopoietic stem cells.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 16 March 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.75.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overall survival following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has improved over the past two decades through better patient selection and advances in HLA typing, supportive care, and infection prophylaxis. Nonetheless, mortality rates are still unsatisfactory and transplant-related mortality remains a major cause of death after unrelated allogeneic HCT. Since there are no known pre-HCT, non-HLA biologic predictors of survival following transplant, for over a decade, scientists have been investigating the role of non-HLA germline genetic variation in survival and treatment-related mortality after HCT. Variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has the potential to impact chemotherapy, radiation, and immune responses, leading to different post-HCT survival outcomes. In this paper, we address the current knowledge of the contribution of genetic variation to survival following HCT and discuss study design and methodology for investigating HCT survival on a genomic scale.