Matthias Schwab

University of Florence, Florens, Tuscany, Italy

Are you Matthias Schwab?

Claim your profile

Publications (431)2569.8 Total impact

  • Anne T Nies · Tarek Magdy · Matthias Schwab · Ulrich M Zanger ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since over 50 years, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is in use as backbone of chemotherapy treatment regimens for a wide range of cancers including colon, breast, and head and neck carcinomas. However, drug resistance and severe toxicities such as mucositis, diarrhea, neutropenia, and vomiting in up to 40% of treated patients often lead to dose limitation or treatment discontinuation. Because the oral bioavailability of 5-FU is unpredictable and highly variable, 5-FU is commonly administered intravenously. To overcome medical complications and inconvenience associated with intravenous administration, the oral prodrugs capecitabine and tegafur have been developed. Both fluoropyrimidines are metabolically converted intracellularly to 5-FU, which then needs metabolic activation to exert its damaging activity on RNA and DNA. The low response rates of 10-15% of 5-FU monotherapy can be improved by combination regimens of infusional 5-FU and leucovorin together with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan (FOLFIRI), thereby increasing response rates to 30-40%. The impact of metabolizing enzymes in the development of fluoropyrimidine toxicity and resistance has been studied in great detail. In addition, membrane drug transporters, which are critical determinants of intracellular drug concentrations, may play a role in occurrence of toxicity and development of resistance against fluoropyrimidine-based therapy as well. This review therefore summarizes current knowledge on the role of drug transporters with particular focus on ATP-binding cassette transporters in fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy response. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Advances in Cancer Research 12/2015; 125C:217-243. DOI:10.1016/bs.acr.2014.10.007 · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Risk classification and prediction of prognosis in GIST is still a matter of debate. Data on the impact of age and gender as potential confounding factors are limited. Therefore we comprehensively investigated age and gender as independent risk factors for GIST. Two independent patient cohorts (cohort I, n = 87 [<50 years]; cohort II, n = 125 [≥50 years]) were extracted from the multicentre Ulmer GIST registry including a total of 659 GIST patients retrospectively collected in 18 collaborative German oncological centers. Based on demographic and clinicopathological parameters and a median follow-up time of 4.3 years (range 0.56; 21.33) disease-specific-survival (DSS), disease-free-survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. GIST patients older than fifty years showed significantly worse DSS compared to younger patients (p = 0.021; HR = 0.307, 95% CI [0.113; 0.834]). DSS was significantly more favorable in younger female GIST patients compared with elderly females (p = 0.008). Female gender resulted again in better prognosis in younger patients (p = 0.033). Patient age (<50 years) and female gender were significantly associated with a more favourable prognosis in GIST. Extended studies are warranted to confirm our clinical results and to elucidate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.
    BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1):1054. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1054-y · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P450, CYP2C8, metabolizes more than 60 clinically used drugs as well as endogenous substances including retinoic acid and arachidonic acid. However, predictive factors for interindividual variability in the efficacy and toxicity of CYP2C8 drug substrates are essentially lacking. Recently we demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a nuclear receptor primarily involved in control of lipid and energy homeostasis directly regulates the transcription of CYP3A4. Here we investigated the potential regulation of CYP2C8 by PPARα. Two linked intronic SNPs in PPARα (rs4253728, rs4823613) previously associated with hepatic CYP3A4 status showed significant association with CYP2C8 protein level in human liver samples (N = 150). Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knock-down of PPARα in HepaRG human hepatocyte cells resulted in up to ∼60 and ∼50% downregulation of CYP2C8 mRNA and activity, while treatment with the PPARα agonist WY14,643 lead to an induction by >150 and >100%, respectively. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation scanning assay we identified a specific upstream gene region that is occupied in vivo by PPARα. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated direct binding of PPARα to a DR-1 motif located at positions –2762/–2775 bp upstream of the CYP2C8 transcription start site. We further validated the functional activity of this element using luciferase reporter gene assays in HuH7 cells. Moreover, based on our previous studies we demonstrated that WNT/β-catenin acts as a functional inhibitor of PPARα-mediated inducibility of CYP2C8 expression. In conclusion, our data suggest direct involvement of PPARα in both constitutive and inducible regulation of CYP2C8 expression in human liver, which is further modulated by WNT/β-catenin pathway. PPARA gene polymorphism could have a modest influence on CYP2C8 phenotype.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 11/2015; 6(567). DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00261 · 3.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This manuscript provides nomenclature recommendations developed by an international workgroup to increase transparency and standardization of pharmacogenetic (PGx) result reporting. Presently, sequence variants identified by PGx tests are described using different nomenclature systems. In addition, PGx analysis may detect different sets of variants for each gene, which can affect interpretation of results. This practice has caused confusion and may thereby impede the adoption of clinical PGx testing. Standardization is critical to move PGx forward. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/cpt.280 · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: We have demonstrated previously that enzymatically degraded low-density lipoprotein (eLDL) is an essential causative component for the initiation of atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the different stages of human aortic valve sclerosis for the presence of eLDL and effectors of the innate immune system, as well as the interaction of eLDL with isolated valvular interstitial cells/myofibroblasts to discover possible pathways leading to aortic valve sclerosis. Methods and results: Human aortic valvular tissue was obtained from 68 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery. Patients were classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, or severe aortic valve sclerosis), and clinical data for statistical analysis were gathered from all patients. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated extensive extracellular deposits of eLDL throughout all grades of aortic valve sclerosis. Complementary analysis of lipid composition revealed higher concentrations of the decisive components of eLDL (ie, unesterified cholesterol and linoleic acid) compared with internal control tissues. Further, the complement component C3d and terminal complement complexes colocalized with eLDL compatible with the proposal that subendothelially deposited eLDL is enzymatically transformed into a complement activator at early stages of valvular cusp lesion development. Gene expression profiles of proteases and complement components corroborated by immunohistochemistry demonstrated an upregulation of the protease cathepsin D (a possible candidate for LDL degradation to eLDL) and the complement inhibitor CD55. Surprisingly, substantial C-reactive protein expression was not observed before grade 2 aortic valve sclerosis as investigated with microarray analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Finally, we demonstrated cellular uptake of eLDL by valvular interstitial cells/myofibroblasts. Conclusions: The present study is a startup of a hypothesis on the pathogenesis of aortic valve sclerosis declaring extracellular lipoprotein modification, subsequent complement activation, and cellular uptake by valvular interstitial cells/myofibroblasts as integral players.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 10/2015; 4(10). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.115.002156 · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Systemic glucocorticoids reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia among extremely preterm infants, but they may compromise brain development. The effects of inhaled glucocorticoids on outcomes in these infants are unclear. Methods: We randomly assigned 863 infants (gestational age, 23 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days) to early (within 24 hours after birth) inhaled budesonide or placebo until they no longer required oxygen and positive-pressure support or until they reached a postmenstrual age of 32 weeks 0 days. The primary outcome was death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, confirmed by means of standardized oxygen-saturation monitoring, at a postmenstrual age of 36 weeks. Results: A total of 175 of 437 infants assigned to budesonide for whom adequate data were available (40.0%), as compared with 194 of 419 infants assigned to placebo for whom adequate data were available (46.3%), died or had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.00; P=0.05). The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 27.8% in the budesonide group versus 38.0% in the placebo group (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.91; P=0.004); death occurred in 16.9% and 13.6% of the patients, respectively (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.69; P=0.17). The proportion of infants who required surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus was lower in the budesonide group than in the placebo group (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.83; P=0.004), as was the proportion of infants who required reintubation (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.96; P=0.03). Rates of other neonatal illnesses and adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Among extremely preterm infants, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was lower among those who received early inhaled budesonide than among those who received placebo, but the advantage may have been gained at the expense of increased mortality. (Funded by the European Union and Chiesi Farmaceutici; number, NCT01035190.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 10/2015; 373(16):1497-1506. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1501917 · 55.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical pharmacology is a medical specialty whose practitioners teach, undertake research, frame policy, give information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implement that knowledge in clinical practice. It involves a combination of several activities: drug discovery and development; training safe prescribers; providing objective and evidence-based therapeutic information to ethics, regulatory and pricing bodies; supporting patient care in an increasingly subspecialized arena where co-morbidities, polypharmacy, altered pharmacokinetics and drug interactions are common; and developing and contributing to medicines policies for Governments. Clinical pharmacologists must advocate drug quality. And they must also advocate for sustainability of the Discipline. However for this they need appropriate clinical service and training support. This Commentary discusses strategies to: ensure the Discipline is supported by teaching, training and policy organisations; communicate the full benefits of clinical pharmacology services; put a monetary value on clinical pharmacology services and to grow the clinical pharmacology workforce to support a growing clinical, academic and regulatory need. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/bcp.12803 · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The best-known cause of intolerance to fluoropyrimidines is dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency, which can result from deleterious polymorphisms in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD), including DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T. Three other variants-DPYD c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A-have been associated with DPD deficiency, but no definitive evidence for the clinical validity of these variants is available. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the clinical validity of c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A as predictors of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. Methods: We did a systematic review of the literature published before Dec 17, 2014, to identify cohort studies investigating associations between DPYD c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A and severe (grade ≥3) fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity in patients treated with fluoropyrimidines (fluorouracil, capecitabine, or tegafur-uracil as single agents, in combination with other anticancer drugs, or with radiotherapy). Individual patient data were retrieved and analysed in a multivariable analysis to obtain an adjusted relative risk (RR). Effect estimates were pooled by use of a random-effects meta-analysis. The threshold for significance was set at a p value of less than 0·0167 (Bonferroni correction). Findings: 7365 patients from eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. DPYD c.1679T>G was significantly associated with fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity (adjusted RR 4·40, 95% CI 2·08-9·30, p<0·0001), as was c.1236G>A/HapB3 (1·59, 1·29-1·97, p<0·0001). The association between c.1601G>A and fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity was not significant (adjusted RR 1·52, 95% CI 0·86-2·70, p=0·15). Analysis of individual types of toxicity showed consistent associations of c.1679T>G and c.1236G>A/HapB3 with gastrointestinal toxicity (adjusted RR 5·72, 95% CI 1·40-23·33, p=0·015; and 2·04, 1·49-2·78, p<0·0001, respectively) and haematological toxicity (adjusted RR 9·76, 95% CI 3·03-31·48, p=0·00014; and 2·07, 1·17-3·68, p=0·013, respectively), but not with hand-foot syndrome. DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T were also significantly associated with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity (adjusted RR 2·85, 95% CI 1·75-4·62, p<0·0001; and 3·02, 2·22-4·10, p<0·0001, respectively). Interpretation: DPYD variants c.1679T>G and c.1236G>A/HapB3 are clinically relevant predictors of fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. Upfront screening for these variants, in addition to the established variants DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T, is recommended to improve the safety of patients with cancer treated with fluoropyrimidines. Funding: None.
    The Lancet Oncology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00286-7 · 24.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Membrane transporters play an essential role in the transport of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and consequently they mediate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of many drugs. The clinical relevance of transporters in drug disposition and their effect in adults have been shown in drug-drug interaction and pharmacogenomic studies. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of human membrane transporters and their roles in pediatric pharmacotherapy. As they are involved in the transport of endogenous substrates, growth and development may be important determinants of their expression and activity. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge on human membrane transporters in pediatric drug disposition and effect. Existing pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic data on membrane substrate drugs frequently used in children are presented and related, where possible, to existing ex vivo data, providing a basis for developmental patterns for individual human membrane transporters. As data for individual transporters are currently still scarce, there is a striking information gap regarding the role of human membrane transporters in drug therapy in children.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40262-015-0328-5 · 5.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methods: CD147 protein expression was assessed in two independent ccRCC-cohorts (n = 186, n = 59) by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and subsequent manual as well as automated software-supported scoring (Tissue Studio, Definien sAG). Epigenetic regulation of CD147 was investigated using RNAseq and DNA methylation data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. These results were validated in our cohort. Relevance of prognostic models for cancer-specific survival, comprising CD147 and MCT4 expression or SLC16A3 DNA methylation, was compared using chi-square statistics. Results: CD147 protein expression generated with Tissue Studio correlated significantly with those from manual scoring (P < 0.0001, rS = 0.85), indicating feasibility of software-based evaluation exemplarily for the membrane protein CD147 in ccRCC. Association of CD147 expression with patient outcome differed between cohorts. DNA methylation in the CD147/BSG promoter was not associated with expression. Comparison of prognostic relevance of CD147/BSG and MCT4/SLC16A3, showed higher significance for MCT4 expression and superior prognostic power for DNA methylation at specific CpG-sites in the SLC16A3 promoter (e.g. CD147 protein: P = 0.7780,Harrell's c-index = 53.7% vs. DNA methylation: P = 0.0076, Harrell's c-index = 80.0%). Conclusions: Prognostic significance of CD147 protein expression could not surpass that of MCT4, especially of SLC16A3 DNA methylation, corroborating the role of MCT4 as prognostic biomarker for ccRCC.
    Oncotarget 09/2015; DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.5593 · 6.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide due to polymorphisms in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and OATP1B1 has been extensively studied. However, it is still unknown how much of variation in pharmacokinetics of these two clinically important drugs in total is due to genetic factors. Metoprolol and torsemide were intravenously administered to 44 monozygotic and 14 dizygotic twin pairs. Metoprolol AUC varied 4.7-fold and torsemide AUC 3.5-fold. A very high fraction of AUC variations, 91% of metoprolol and 86% of torsemide, were found to be due to additive genetic effects. However, known genetic variants of CYP2D6, -2C9 and OATP1B1 explained only 39%, 2% and 39% of that variation. Comparable results for genetically explained variation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have been found for other substrates of these enzymes earlier. These findings indicate that a substantial fraction of the heritable variability in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide remains to be elucidated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/cpt.258 · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • M Schwab · E Schäffeler · U Klotz · G Treiber ·

    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2015; 41(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555216 · 1.05 Impact Factor

  • Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2015; 41(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555307 · 1.05 Impact Factor

  • Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2015; 41(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555178 · 1.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human organic anion transporter 7 (OAT7, SLC22A9) is a hepatic transport protein poorly characterized so far. We therefore sought to identify novel OAT7 substrates and factors contributing to variable hepatic OAT7 expression. Using OAT7-expressing cells, pravastatin was identified as a substrate. Hepatic SLC22A9/OAT7 mRNA and protein expression varied 28-fold and 15-fold, respectively, in 126 Caucasian liver samples. Twenty-four variants in SLC22A9 were genotyped, including three rare missense variants (rs377211288, rs61742518, rs146027075), which occurred only heterozygously. No variant significantly affected hepatic SLC22A9/OAT7 expression. The three missense variants, however, showed functional consequences when expressed in vitro. Hepatic nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) emerged as a major transcriptional regulator of SLC22A9 by a series of in silico and in vitro analyses. In conclusion, pravastatin is the first identified OAT7 drug substrate. Substantial inter-individual variability in hepatic OAT7 expression, majorly driven by HNF4α, may contribute to pravastatin drug disposition and might affect response.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 4 August 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.55.
    The Pharmacogenomics Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/tpj.2015.55 · 4.23 Impact Factor

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen is a mainstay in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and is metabolized to more than 30 different compounds. Little is known about in vivo concentrations of estrogenic metabolites E-metabolite E, Z-metabolite E, and bisphenol and their relevance for tamoxifen efficacy. Therefore, we developed a highly sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method for tamoxifen metabolites bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E as well as for the sex steroid hormones estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. Plasma samples were subjected to protein precipitation followed by solid phase extraction. Upon derivatization with 3-[(N-succinimide-1-yl)oxycarbonyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide, all analytes were separated on a sub-2-μm column with a gradient of acetonitrile in water with 0.1 % of formic acid. Analytes were detected on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our method demonstrated high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The lower limits of quantification were 12, 8, and 25 pM for bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E, respectively, and 4 pM for estradiol and estrogen, 50 pM for testosterone and androstenedione, and 25 pM for progesterone. The method was applied to plasma samples of postmenopausal patients taken at baseline and under tamoxifen therapy. Graphical Abstract Sample preparation and derivatization for highly sensitive quantification of estrogenic tamoxifen metabolites and steroid hormones by HPLC-MS/MS.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 07/2015; 407(24). DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8907-8 · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) is promising for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, however, the efficacy of p38 MAPK inhibitors in clinical trials is limited so far. Since functional sensitivity of p38 MAPK is commonly predicted by preclinical species, we systematically investigated interspecies differences including human tissue. Ex vivo test models were established using whole blood and primary cells from different species such as mice, rats, pigs and humans to compare LPS-induced TNF-α inhibition of four different p38 MAPK reference inhibitors SB 203580, BIRB-796, Pamapimod, and a Losmapimod analogue as well as a proprietary imidazole-based p38 MAPK Inhibitor. All analysed p38 MAPK inhibitors resulted in significant inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α release but with high interspecies differences for dose sensitivity. IC50 values from human whole blood and PBMC showed significant higher sensitivity towards p38 MAPK inhibition compared with data from pig and rat. Inhibition of TNF-α release by p38 MAPK inhibitors can be reliably identified in well-established laboratory species such as rat or mouse. However, our data indicate that animal models appear to be limited for valid prediction of the inhibitory potential for TNF-α release in humans. Thus, human tissues should be considered early in the drug development process of p38 MAPK inhibitors. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 07/2015; 36(6):2237-2249. DOI:10.1159/000430188 · 2.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
2,569.80 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
    • Universität Ulm
      • Institute of Pathology
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007-2015
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Division of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2002-2015
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      • • Division of Clinical Pharmacology
      • • Division of Neurogastroenterology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Urology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2008-2014
    • Universität Stuttgart
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2013
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of Greifswald
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2012
    • Binghamton University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Binghamton, New York, United States
  • 1997-2012
    • Institut für klinische Pharmakologie
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2010
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2006
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 2004
    • Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Robert-Bosch Krankenhaus
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Klinikum Stuttgart
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      • Department of Biology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1999
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany