Matthias Schwab

Universität Ulm, Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (422)2466.52 Total impact

  • Anne T Nies · Tarek Magdy · Matthias Schwab · Ulrich M Zanger
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    ABSTRACT: Since over 50 years, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is in use as backbone of chemotherapy treatment regimens for a wide range of cancers including colon, breast, and head and neck carcinomas. However, drug resistance and severe toxicities such as mucositis, diarrhea, neutropenia, and vomiting in up to 40% of treated patients often lead to dose limitation or treatment discontinuation. Because the oral bioavailability of 5-FU is unpredictable and highly variable, 5-FU is commonly administered intravenously. To overcome medical complications and inconvenience associated with intravenous administration, the oral prodrugs capecitabine and tegafur have been developed. Both fluoropyrimidines are metabolically converted intracellularly to 5-FU, which then needs metabolic activation to exert its damaging activity on RNA and DNA. The low response rates of 10-15% of 5-FU monotherapy can be improved by combination regimens of infusional 5-FU and leucovorin together with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan (FOLFIRI), thereby increasing response rates to 30-40%. The impact of metabolizing enzymes in the development of fluoropyrimidine toxicity and resistance has been studied in great detail. In addition, membrane drug transporters, which are critical determinants of intracellular drug concentrations, may play a role in occurrence of toxicity and development of resistance against fluoropyrimidine-based therapy as well. This review therefore summarizes current knowledge on the role of drug transporters with particular focus on ATP-binding cassette transporters in fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy response. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Advances in Cancer Research 12/2015; 125C:217-243. DOI:10.1016/bs.acr.2014.10.007 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Risk classification and prediction of prognosis in GIST is still a matter of debate. Data on the impact of age and gender as potential confounding factors are limited. Therefore we comprehensively investigated age and gender as independent risk factors for GIST. Two independent patient cohorts (cohort I, n = 87 [<50 years]; cohort II, n = 125 [≥50 years]) were extracted from the multicentre Ulmer GIST registry including a total of 659 GIST patients retrospectively collected in 18 collaborative German oncological centers. Based on demographic and clinicopathological parameters and a median follow-up time of 4.3 years (range 0.56; 21.33) disease-specific-survival (DSS), disease-free-survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. GIST patients older than fifty years showed significantly worse DSS compared to younger patients (p = 0.021; HR = 0.307, 95% CI [0.113; 0.834]). DSS was significantly more favorable in younger female GIST patients compared with elderly females (p = 0.008). Female gender resulted again in better prognosis in younger patients (p = 0.033). Patient age (<50 years) and female gender were significantly associated with a more favourable prognosis in GIST. Extended studies are warranted to confirm our clinical results and to elucidate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.
    BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1):1054. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1054-y · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane transporters play an essential role in the transport of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and consequently they mediate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of many drugs. The clinical relevance of transporters in drug disposition and their effect in adults have been shown in drug-drug interaction and pharmacogenomic studies. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of human membrane transporters and their roles in pediatric pharmacotherapy. As they are involved in the transport of endogenous substrates, growth and development may be important determinants of their expression and activity. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge on human membrane transporters in pediatric drug disposition and effect. Existing pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic data on membrane substrate drugs frequently used in children are presented and related, where possible, to existing ex vivo data, providing a basis for developmental patterns for individual human membrane transporters. As data for individual transporters are currently still scarce, there is a striking information gap regarding the role of human membrane transporters in drug therapy in children.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40262-015-0328-5 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: CD147 protein expression was assessed in two independent ccRCC-cohorts (n = 186, n = 59) by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and subsequent manual as well as automated software-supported scoring (Tissue Studio, Definien sAG). Epigenetic regulation of CD147 was investigated using RNAseq and DNA methylation data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. These results were validated in our cohort. Relevance of prognostic models for cancer-specific survival, comprising CD147 and MCT4 expression or SLC16A3 DNA methylation, was compared using chi-square statistics. Results: CD147 protein expression generated with Tissue Studio correlated significantly with those from manual scoring (P < 0.0001, rS = 0.85), indicating feasibility of software-based evaluation exemplarily for the membrane protein CD147 in ccRCC. Association of CD147 expression with patient outcome differed between cohorts. DNA methylation in the CD147/BSG promoter was not associated with expression. Comparison of prognostic relevance of CD147/BSG and MCT4/SLC16A3, showed higher significance for MCT4 expression and superior prognostic power for DNA methylation at specific CpG-sites in the SLC16A3 promoter (e.g. CD147 protein: P = 0.7780,Harrell's c-index = 53.7% vs. DNA methylation: P = 0.0076, Harrell's c-index = 80.0%). Conclusions: Prognostic significance of CD147 protein expression could not surpass that of MCT4, especially of SLC16A3 DNA methylation, corroborating the role of MCT4 as prognostic biomarker for ccRCC.
    Oncotarget 09/2015; DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.5593 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide due to polymorphisms in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and OATP1B1 has been extensively studied. However, it is still unknown how much of variation in pharmacokinetics of these two clinically important drugs in total is due to genetic factors. Metoprolol and torsemide were intravenously administered to 44 monozygotic and 14 dizygotic twin pairs. Metoprolol AUC varied 4.7-fold and torsemide AUC 3.5-fold. A very high fraction of AUC variations, 91% of metoprolol and 86% of torsemide, were found to be due to additive genetic effects. However, known genetic variants of CYP2D6, -2C9 and OATP1B1 explained only 39%, 2% and 39% of that variation. Comparable results for genetically explained variation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have been found for other substrates of these enzymes earlier. These findings indicate that a substantial fraction of the heritable variability in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide remains to be elucidated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/cpt.258 · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • M Schwab · E Schäffeler · U Klotz · G Treiber
    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2015; 41(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555216 · 1.05 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2015; 41(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555307 · 1.05 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2015; 41(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555178 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human organic anion transporter 7 (OAT7, SLC22A9) is a hepatic transport protein poorly characterized so far. We therefore sought to identify novel OAT7 substrates and factors contributing to variable hepatic OAT7 expression. Using OAT7-expressing cells, pravastatin was identified as a substrate. Hepatic SLC22A9/OAT7 mRNA and protein expression varied 28-fold and 15-fold, respectively, in 126 Caucasian liver samples. Twenty-four variants in SLC22A9 were genotyped, including three rare missense variants (rs377211288, rs61742518, rs146027075), which occurred only heterozygously. No variant significantly affected hepatic SLC22A9/OAT7 expression. The three missense variants, however, showed functional consequences when expressed in vitro. Hepatic nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) emerged as a major transcriptional regulator of SLC22A9 by a series of in silico and in vitro analyses. In conclusion, pravastatin is the first identified OAT7 drug substrate. Substantial inter-individual variability in hepatic OAT7 expression, majorly driven by HNF4α, may contribute to pravastatin drug disposition and might affect response.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 4 August 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.55.
    The Pharmacogenomics Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/tpj.2015.55 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen is a mainstay in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and is metabolized to more than 30 different compounds. Little is known about in vivo concentrations of estrogenic metabolites E-metabolite E, Z-metabolite E, and bisphenol and their relevance for tamoxifen efficacy. Therefore, we developed a highly sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method for tamoxifen metabolites bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E as well as for the sex steroid hormones estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. Plasma samples were subjected to protein precipitation followed by solid phase extraction. Upon derivatization with 3-[(N-succinimide-1-yl)oxycarbonyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide, all analytes were separated on a sub-2-μm column with a gradient of acetonitrile in water with 0.1 % of formic acid. Analytes were detected on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our method demonstrated high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The lower limits of quantification were 12, 8, and 25 pM for bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E, respectively, and 4 pM for estradiol and estrogen, 50 pM for testosterone and androstenedione, and 25 pM for progesterone. The method was applied to plasma samples of postmenopausal patients taken at baseline and under tamoxifen therapy. Graphical Abstract Sample preparation and derivatization for highly sensitive quantification of estrogenic tamoxifen metabolites and steroid hormones by HPLC-MS/MS.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 07/2015; 407(24). DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8907-8 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) is promising for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, however, the efficacy of p38 MAPK inhibitors in clinical trials is limited so far. Since functional sensitivity of p38 MAPK is commonly predicted by preclinical species, we systematically investigated interspecies differences including human tissue. Ex vivo test models were established using whole blood and primary cells from different species such as mice, rats, pigs and humans to compare LPS-induced TNF-α inhibition of four different p38 MAPK reference inhibitors SB 203580, BIRB-796, Pamapimod, and a Losmapimod analogue as well as a proprietary imidazole-based p38 MAPK Inhibitor. All analysed p38 MAPK inhibitors resulted in significant inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α release but with high interspecies differences for dose sensitivity. IC50 values from human whole blood and PBMC showed significant higher sensitivity towards p38 MAPK inhibition compared with data from pig and rat. Inhibition of TNF-α release by p38 MAPK inhibitors can be reliably identified in well-established laboratory species such as rat or mouse. However, our data indicate that animal models appear to be limited for valid prediction of the inhibitory potential for TNF-α release in humans. Thus, human tissues should be considered early in the drug development process of p38 MAPK inhibitors. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 07/2015; 36(6):2237-2249. DOI:10.1159/000430188 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel analytical approach for the targeted profiling of bile acids (BAs) in human serum/plasma based on liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) is presented. Reversed-phase chromatography enabled the baseline separation of 15 human BA species which could be readily detected by accurate mass analysis in negative ion mode. Blood proteins were removed by methanol precipitation in the presence of deuterium-labeled internal standards which allowed BA quantification in 50 μl plasma/serum. The assay was validated according to FDA guidance achieving quantification limits from 7.8 to 156 nM. Calibration curves prepared in charcoal-stripped serum/plasma showed excellent regression coefficients (R (2) > 0.997) and covered quantities from 7.8 to 10,000 nM depending on the analyzed species. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were below 15 % for all analytes. Apparent extraction recoveries were above 97 %, and ion suppression rates were between 4 and 53 %. Mean BA level in serum/plasma from healthy volunteers ranged from 11 ± 4 nM (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) to 1321 ± 1442 nM (glycochenodeoxycholic acid). As a proof of concept, the assay was applied to plasma samples derived from a clinical phase I study of myrcludex B, a novel first-in-class virus entry inhibitor for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D. The results demonstrate that myrcludex-induced inhibition of the hepatic BA transporter Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) significantly affects plasma BA level. These observations provide novel insights into drug-induced metabolic responses and will be indispensable for the assessment of side effects and dose-finding processes during future clinical trials. Graphical Abstract Figure monitoring the metabolic response of myrcludex treatment in humans.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 07/2015; 407(22). DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8853-5 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) controls lipid/energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. The truncated splice variant PPARα-tr was suggested to exert a dominant negative function despite being unable to bind consensus PPARα DNA response elements. The distribution and variability factor of each PPARα variant were assessed in the well-characterized cohort of human liver samples (N = 150) on the mRNA and protein levels. Specific siRNA-mediated downregulation of each transcript as well as specific overexpression with subsequent qRT-PCR analysis of downstream genes was used for investigation of specific functional roles of PPARα-wt and PPARα-tr forms in primary human hepatocytes. Bioinformatic analyses of genome-wide liver expression profiling data suggested a possible role of PPARα-tr in downregulating proliferative and pro-inflammatory genes. Specific gene silencing of both forms in primary human hepatocytes showed that induction of metabolic PPARα-target genes by agonist WY14,643 was prevented by PPARα-wt knock-down but neither prevented nor augmented by PPARα-tr knock-down. WY14,643 treatment did not induce proliferative genes including MYC, CDK1, and PCNA, and knock-down of PPARα-wt had no effect, while PPARα-tr knock-down caused up to 3-fold induction of these genes. Similarly, induction of pro-inflammatory genes IL1B, PTGS2, and CCL2 by IL-6 was augmented by knock-down of PPARα-tr but not of PPARα-wt. In contrast to human proliferative genes, orthologous mouse genes were readily inducible by WY14,643 in PPARα-tr non-expressing AML12 mouse hepatocytes. Induction was augmented by overexpression of PPARα-wt and attenuated by overexpression of PPARα-tr. Pro-inflammatory genes including IL-1β, CCL2 and TNFα were induced by WY14,643 in mouse and human cells and both PPARα forms attenuated induction. As potential mechanism of PPARα-tr inhibitory action we suggest crosstalk with WNT/β-catenin pathway. Finally, treatment with WY14,643 in the presence of PPARα-tr resulted in the significant reduction of cell viability of AML12 and human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3. Our data suggest that the truncated PPARα splice variant functions as an endogenous inhibitor of proliferative and pro-inflammatory genes in human cells and that its absence in mouse may explain species-specific differences in fibrate-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
    BMC Cancer 06/2015; 15(1):488. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1500-x · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence that molecular features support subclassification of tumours, thereby improving prediction of patient outcome. Currently, two gene expression signatures (ccA/ccB and ClearCode34) have been established to classify clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Because RCC arises from nephron cell types, we aimed to explore its heterogeneity on a molecular level by comparing gene expression between tumour tissue and nephron regions. Based on genes that differ in expression between nephron regions, expression data of 479 ccRCCs and 212 papillary and 66 chromophobe RCCs from The Cancer Genome Atlas were correlated to those of nephron cell types. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) of ccRCC patients was significantly associated with gene expression similarity to the proximal tubules. Subsequently, a ccRCC risk score (S3-score) was established. Survival analyses indicated that the S3-score was significantly associated with CSS considering all cases of ccRCC, as well as metastatic and nonmetastatic ccRCC. Results could be validated in an independent cohort. The S3-score significantly improved the predictive ability of the ccA/ccB and ClearCode34 signatures, and the clinicopathologic-based stage, size, grade, and necrosis score (p [chi-square] = 1.56E-04). Intratumour heterogeneity of the S3-score was observed in 6 of 10 ccRCCs. In summary, the nephron-based S3-score enables prognostic risk stratification for ccRCC. Further studies are needed to evaluate its clinical utility. We developed a novel risk score for clear cell renal cell carcinoma to identify patients at risk of worse outcome that may improve patient care in the future. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    European Urology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.05.045 · 13.94 Impact Factor
  • Blood 05/2015; 125(21):3355-7. DOI:10.1182/blood-2015-02-628339 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    Nature Biotechnology 05/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1038/nbt.3241 · 41.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Platelet secretion is critical to development of acute thrombotic occlusion. Platelet dense granules contain a variety of important hemostatically active substances. Nevertheless, biogenesis of platelet granules is poorly understood.ObjectivesSGK1 has been shown to be highly expressed in platelets and megakaryocytes, but its role in the regulation of platelet granule biogenesis and its impact on thrombosis has not been investigated so far.Methods and ResultsElectron microscopy analysis of platelet ultrastructure revealed significant reduction in number and packing of dense granules in platelets lacking SGK1 (sgk1-/-). In sgk1-/- platelets serotonin content was significantly reduced and activation-dependent secretion of ATP, serotonin and CD63 significantly impaired. In vivo adhesion after carotis ligation was significantly decreased in platelets lacking SGK1 and occlusive thrombus formation after FeCl3-induced vascular injury was significantly diminished in sgk1-/- mice. Transcript levels and protein abundance of dense granule biogenesis regulating GTPase Rab27b were significantly reduced in sgk1-/- platelets without affecting Rab27b mRNA stability. In MEG-01 cells transfection with constitutively active S422DSGK1 but not with inactive K127NSGK1 significantly enhanced Rab27b mRNA levels. Sgk1-/- megakaryocytes show significantly reduced expression of Rab27b and serotonin/CD63 levels compared to sgk1+/+ megakaryocytes. Proteome analysis identified 9 further vesicular transport proteins regulated by SGK1 which may have an impact on impaired platelet granules biogenesis in sgk1-/- platelets independent of Rab27b.Conclusions The present observations unravel SGK1 as a novel powerful regulator of platelet dense granule biogenesis, platelet secretion and thrombus formation. SGK1 is at least partially effective by regulating transcription of Rab27b in megakaryocytes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2015; 13(7). DOI:10.1111/jth.12998 · 5.72 Impact Factor

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15k Citations
2,466.52 Total Impact Points

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  • 2015
    • Universität Ulm
      • Institute of Pathology
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007–2015
    • University of Tuebingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Universität Regensburg
      Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2015
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      • • Division of Clinical Pharmacology
      • • Division of Neurogastroenterology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Urology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2008–2014
    • Universität Stuttgart
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2013
    • University of Greifswald
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1997–2013
    • Institut für klinische Pharmakologie
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2012
    • Binghamton University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Binghamton, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 1999–2006
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 2005
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • Klinische Abteilung für Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 2004
    • Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Robert-Bosch Krankenhaus
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      • Department of Biology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Klinikum Stuttgart
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany