M Schmid

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (126)435.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Anti-HBc IgM was determined by a modified radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 35 patients with acute hepatitis B, 35 patients with chronic hepatitis B (7 with chronic persistent, and 28 with chronic active hepatitis), 157 HBsAg positive blood donors, and in 143 HBsAg negative but anti-HBc positive donors. The results of the RIA test were compared with those obtained by an ELISA technique. In chronic hepatitis, anti-HBc IgM was correlated with the occurrence of HBeAg, anti-HBe, Dane particles in the serum, HBsAg, and HBcAg in liver tissue and with biochemical and histological degrees of hepatic inflammatory activity.In acute self-limited hepatitis B, anti-HBc IgM (RIA and ELISA) was initially positive in all 35 patients. Twelve months after the acute illness, 94% of the patients were negative for anti-HBc IgM in the RIA test with only one patient showing a persistence of up to 18 months, whereas in the ELISA test anti-HBc IgM persisted in 17% of the patients over 2 years. In chronic hepatitis, the occurrence of anti-HBc IgM (RIA) showed a strong relation with the inflammatory activity, the anti-HBc IgM positive patients revealing a significantly more severe liver disease than did anti-HBc IgM negative patients. Anti-HBc IgM (RIA), however, did not correlate with the occurrence of HBeAg and Dane particles in the serum and HBcAg in liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatitis. Of the 157 HBsAg positive blood donors, anti-HBc IgM (RIA) could be demonstrated in 10 (6%), but in none of the 143 HBsAg negative, but anti-HBc positive donors, as compared to 43 (27%) and 9 (6%), respectively, in the ELISA test.Comparing the two test methods, the RIA exhibits higher specificity than did the ELISA due to a better blocking of nonspecific reactions, but possibly somewhat lower sensitivity. In this form, however, the RIA test is a more useful tool in the diagnosis of the different forms of hepatitis B virus infection and in determining the severity of chronic hepatitis B.
    Hepatology 09/2007; 3(3):337 - 342. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The finding that the recently described hepatitis B (HB)-associated delta antigen (δ Ag) is preserved in pronase-treated, formalin-fixed paraffin sections allowed a combined prospective and retrospective immunohistological study of its occurrence in 571 liver biopsies.Among 116 frozen biopsies (69 HBAg seropositive, 47 HBAg seronegative) and 455 paraffin-embedded biopsies (296 HBAg seropositive, 159 HBAg-negative), δ Ag was found in 10 HBAg seropositive patients. With the exception of 1 patient with chronic persistent HB, all had chronic-active HB and none had acute HB; 5 patients were i.v. drug abusers. In follow-up biopsies, the δ Agpersisted with HBsAg for as long as 6 years. The expression of δ Ag showed similarities to the HBcAg system including nuclear localization, mixed nuclear cytoplasmic expression, and coexistence with anti-δ in blood.The findings are compatible with the hypothesis that δ Ag represents a transmissible, defective viral agent which requires HBV as a helper and may modulate, but not terminate, ongoing HBV infection.
    Hepatology 02/2006; 1(3):238 - 242. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple eruptive dermatofibroma (MEDF) is a rare disorder seen in immunocompromised patients, simulating Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Whereas KS is strongly associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the virus has never been detected in MEDF until now. To present a patient with MEDF who showed no signs of immunodeficiency but was seropositive for HHV-8 antibodies and demonstrated HHV-8 DNA both in the peripheral blood and lesional skin of MEDF. Clinical, histological and serological investigations were performed as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies and in situ hybridization (ISH). A 35-year-old white man with suspected KS was referred for evaluation of multiple pigmented nodules and patches. Biopsies revealed features of dermatofibroma, superficial fibrosing dermatitis and scar. One of the nodular lesions harbored HHV-8 DNA sequences. A faint amplification product was detected in the superficial fibrosing dermatitis lesion, while no HHV-8 sequences were found in normal skin and scar. Whole-blood samples and serum were positive for HHV-8. None of the skin lesions shown to harbor HHV-8 DNA sequences by nested PCR displayed a signal for HHV-8 RNA by ISH. Repetitive peripheral blood examinations did not reveal any serum antibodies against or antigens of HIV. Serum antibodies against the HHV-8 capsid antigen orf 65.2 were detected. Results of PCR studies and ISH indicate that the presence of HHV-8 in the lesional tissue was probably blood-borne due to viremia and not due to viral replication in tumor cells. The presence of HHV-8 is not fully restricted to KS. The differential diagnosis of KS and its simulators should be based on an integrative analysis of all available clinicopathological and molecular data and should not rely exclusively or predominantly on the presence or absence of HHV-8.
    Dermatology 02/2003; 206(3):217-21. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The normal function of the p53 tumor suppressor protein can be perturbed by non-mutational mechanisms. The E6 protein encoded by high risk strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) targets the p53 protein resulting in enhanced degradation via the ubiquitin pathway. We have used nested PCR for detecting the presence of HPV DNA in 58 primary head and neck tumors and 15 metastatic lymph nodes, which had been prescreened for p53 mutations in exons 5 to 8. HPV DNA sequences were detected in 12 tumors (20.6%) and 4 metastatic lymph nodes (21%). HPV type 16 DNA was predominantly found in tumors (n = 11) and lymph nodes (n = 4), one tumor was positive for HPV type 18 sequences. Five of 12 HPV-positive tumors (41%) carried a p53 mutation. Of 46 HPV-negative tumors, 16 (34.8%) carried a p53 mutation. Thus, HPV positivity and p53 mutations were not mutually exclusive in head-and-neck cancer. Three of 6 normal tissues adjacent to the tumor were positive for HPV type 16, while no viral DNA was found in the corresponding tumors. Thus, the presence of HPV type 16 DNA did not directly confer a growth advantage on the population of emerging tumor cells. Instead, these tumors lack normal p53 function due to mutation.
    Anticancer research 01/1999; 19(1A):1-6. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have shown that Kaposi sarcomas contain cells infected with human herpesvirus (HHV) 6B, and in current studies we report that both AIDS-associated and classic-sporadic Kaposi sarcoma contain HHV-7 genome sequences detectable by PCR. To determine the distribution of HHV-7-infected cells relative to those infected with HHV-6, sections from paraffin-embedded tissues were allowed to react with antibodies to HHV-7 virion tegument phosphoprotein pp85 and to HHV-6B protein p101. The antibodies are specific for HHV-7 and HHV-6B, respectively, and they retained reactivity for antigens contained in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We report that (i) HHV-7 pp85 was present in 9 of 32 AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcomas, and in 1 of 7 classical-sporadic HIV-negative Kaposi sarcomas; (ii) HHV-7 pp85 was detected primarily in cells bearing the CD68 marker characteristic of the monocyte/macrophage lineage present in or surrounding the Kaposi sarcoma lesions; and (iii) in a number of Kaposi sarcoma specimens, tumor-associated CD68+ monocytes/macrophages expressed simultaneously antigens from both HHV-7 and HHV-6B, and therefore appeared to be doubly infected with the two viruses. CD68+ monocytes/macrophages infected with HHV-7 were readily detectable in Kaposi sarcoma, but virtually absent from other normal or pathological tissues that harbor macrophages. Because all of the available data indicate that HHV-7 infects CD4+ T lymphocytes, these results suggest that the environment of the Kaposi sarcoma (i) attracts circulating peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes, triggers the replication of latent viruses, and thereby increases the local concentration of viruses, (ii) renders CD68+ monocytes/macrophages susceptible to infection with HHV-7, and (iii) the combination of both events enables double infections of cells with both HHV-6B and HHV-7.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/1997; 94(14):7600-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Dermatopathology 01/1997; 19(5):514. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon has become the mainstay of treatment of chronic hepatitis C; however, duration of treatment and dose remain unresolved questions. The present study aimed to compare standard dose interferon with a titrated dose regimen carried out for 1 year. This was a randomized, controlled multicenter trial. Patients with chronic hepatitis C were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 30), to a fixed dose group (n = 31) where interferon-alpha 2b 3 MU thrice weekly was given for 1 year or a titrated group (n = 34) where interferon was titrated starting at 5 MU thrice weekly to the lowest dose keeping the patient in remission as assessed by a normal ALT value. Liver biopsies were obtained before and at the end of treatment; in addition, galactose elimination capacity was measured as a measure of cytosolic function. In the control, fixed and titrated groups a complete response was achieved in 2/29, 10/28 and 15/31, respectively (p < 0.001 in favor of treatment, p = n.s. for the two treatments). The corresponding figure for sustained response was 1/29, 5/28 and 6/ 31 (p = n.s). In the titrated group, a complete (sustained) response was achieved with 5 MU in 2 (2), with 4 MU in 1 (0), with 3 MU in 4 (0), with 2 MU in 3 (0) and with 1 MU in 5 (4). Liver biopsy score and galactose elimination capacity improved significantly in responders but not in treatment failures. Both fixed and titrated dosing of interferon given for 1 year induced virus clearance in only a minority of treated patients. However, in a small number of patients, a complete and sustained response can be achieved with low doses of interferon. Dose titration could be an interesting approach to decreasing the cost and side effects in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.
    Journal of Hepatology 10/1996; 25(3):275-82. · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Interferon has become the mainstay of treatment of chronic hepatitis C; however, duration of treatment and dose remain unresolved questions. The present study aimed to compare standard dose interferon with a titrated dose regimen carried out for 1 year.Methods: This was a randomized, controlled multicenter trial. Patients with chronic hepatitis C were randomly allocated to a control group (n=30), to a fixed dose group (n=31) where interferon-α2b 3 MU thrice weekly was given for 1 year or a titrated group (n=34) where interferon was titrated starting at 5 MU thrice weekly to the lowest dose keeping the patient in remission as assessed by a normal ALT value. Liver biopsies were obtained before and at the end of treatment; in addition, galactose elimination capacity was measured as a measure of cytosolic function.Results: In the control, fixed an titrated groups a complete response was achieved in 229, 1028 and 1531, respectively (p
    Journal of Hepatology 09/1996; 25(3):275-282. · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumors of the Ewing's sarcoma family often present a major diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. In recent years, significant progress has been made in identifying characteristic chromosomal rearrangements associated with certain solid tumors. More than 85% of Ewing's sarcoma and related tumors present a specific t(11;22) (q24;q12) balanced translocation, which generates a fusion transcript of the EWS gene and the FLI-1 gene. The cloning of the t(11;22)(q24;q12) breakpoint has raised the possibility of using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based assay as a diagnostic tool. We report an improvement of the established method, which currently depends on fresh or snap-frozen tissue, so that it is possible to use formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue as a source of RNA. The described nested RT-PCR assay enables the pathologist to investigate retrospectively archival tumor samples or to confirm the diagnosis in cases where no fresh or frozen material is available.
    Diagnostic Molecular Pathology 07/1996; 5(2):107-13. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the correlation between viremia in serum specimens, transaminase activity (ALT and AST) and histological grading in 37 patients with chronic hepatitis C. In addition we compared two PCR methods for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA in serum specimens. For the histological grading we used a modified Knodell score. For detection and quantification we measured the viremia (HCV-RNA titer) with a standardized "nested primer" PCR (end-point dilution method) and the commercially available Amplicor HCV Monitor. The mean HCV-RNA and AST level was significantly higher in patients with a histologically active inflammation. In the individual patient we could not conclude from the titer of HCV-RNA on the histologic grading because of the wide range of the results. We did not find a significant difference in ALT in patients having varying histological gradings. HCV-RNA titer and transaminases (ALT and AST) did not correlate significantly. The HCV-RNA titer was significantly marked in older patients (above 40 years) and patients having sporadic hepatitis than in younger patients and patients with chronic hepatitis after drug abuse. The "nested primer" PCR (end-point dilution method) was more sensitive for detection of HCV-RNA in serum specimens than Amplicor HCV Monitor. The lack of HCV-RNA with Amplicor HCV Monitor in 12 of 37 patients (32%) did not rule out viremia. We conclude that in patients with a chronic hepatitis C marked viremia points to a histologically active inflammation. In the individual patient we could not conclude from the titer of HCV-RNA on the histological grading. Because of the lower sensitivity of Amplicor HCV Monitor it is necessary to confirm negative results with a "nested primer" PCR.
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift. Supplementum 02/1996; 79:30S-35S.
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    ABSTRACT: The WT1 gene located on chromosome 11p13, has been identified as the first Wilms' tumor suppressor gene and has been implicated in the development of Wilms' tumor. About 10% of Wilms' tumors analyzed to date carry a mutation and only 6 different point mutations affecting the zinc finger region have been reported. We analyzed the zinc finger coding exons of 38 sporadic Wilms' tumor by SSCP and detected 2 point mutations. One homo/hemizygous mutation, already described in the literature, replaced an arginine in zinc finger II by a stop codon. The other mutation, a replacement of an arginine by a stop codon in zinc finger I, represents a novel mutation.
    International Journal of Oncology 11/1995; 7(5):1103-7. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral RNA is detectable in the serum of the majority but not all patients with chronic hepatitis C. Whether the viremic form differs from the non-viremic form of the disease is unknown. We therefore compared histology (modified Knodell score) and liver function (conventional liver function tests, galactose elimination capacity and aminopyrin breath test) of viremic (n = 45) and non-viremic (n = 37) patients with chronic hepatitis C. Neither the total histologic score, nor any of the individual histologic parameters assessed differed significantly in serum HCV RNA positive and negative patients. Compared to non-viremic subjects, patients with detectable HCV RNA in serum had slightly higher transaminases (p = ns), lower serum albumin (p < 0.05) and decreased galactose elimination capacity (p < 0.05). This trend towards more severe functional hepatic impairment in serum HCV RNA positive patients persisted when cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics were analyzed separately; it fell just short of reaching statistical significance, however, most probably due to the small number of subjects per patient group. The median age of serum HCV RNA positive cirrhotics was 17 years, and that of serum HCV RNA negative cirrhotics 22 years higher than that of the respective non-cirrhotics. Biochemical (transaminases) and histological (intralobular and piece-meal necrosis) markers of disease activity, as well as metabolic functional reserve (aminopyrin breath test, galactose elimination capacity) and histologic severity of fibrosis correlated only loosely (Rs = 0.24-0.56), albeit significantly (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 10/1995; 125(40):1855-63. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was to verify the correlation between biochemical and histological inflammatory activity in chronic hepatitis C. The histological activity index (HAI) of 42 patients with chronic hepatitis C was correlated with their transaminase activity. There was indeed a significant correlation between histological activity and the AST (r = 0.54, p = 0.0002) and ALT level (r = 0.36, p = 0.018) respectively. Due to considerable scatter of the results, transaminase activity did not allow reliable assessment of inflammatory activity in individual cases. In the majority, markedly elevated transaminase activity was associated with marked histological inflammatory activity, whereas normal or slightly elevated transaminase activity was found in all stages of inflammatory activity. To assess inflammatory activity in chronic hepatitis C, a liberal indication for liver biopsy should therefore be adopted.
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 05/1995; 125(15):719-22. · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/1995; 108(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of which a large number of isoforms exist. There is evidence, mostly from experimental systems, that isoforms of CD44 generated by alternative splicing of ten variant exons are involved in tumor invasion and metastasis formation. We have evaluated the expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and variant exons (CD44v) encoded gene products in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human liver specimens, using an immunohistochemical protocol with microwave-based antigen-retrieval and signal amplification. Tissue sections from normal, regenerative and neoplastic liver were studied. Our results indicate that: 1. in normal liver, both, hepatocytes and bile duct epithelia lacked detectable CD44s and CD44v containing isoforms; 2. most cirrhotic liver specimens were unreactive. Some regenerative nodules showed a focal weak positivity for CD44v5 and v9. Most proliferating bile ductules were weakly stained for CD44v9 and some of them also for v5 and v6; 3. most hepatocellular carcinomas displayed a heterogeneous staining of varying intensity for CD44v5, v6, v9 and CD44s. In a few tumors a weak staining for CD44v3 and v4 was also present. Furthermore, there was a tendency to an increased staining intensity of CD44 isoforms with decreasing differentiation; 4. cholangiocarcinomas showed a high expression of CD44s, v3, v5, v6 and v9 containing isoforms. We conclude that neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelia is associated with qualitative and quantitative changes in the expression of some CD44 variant exons encoded products. The clinical implications of these findings remain to be determined in a large series of patients.
    Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie 02/1995; 79:144-7.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a 33-yr-old pregnant woman in whom a primary biliary cirrhosis-like syndrome developed after 2 wk of chlorpromazine therapy. The clinical course was characterized by severe jaundice lasting 22 mo, intense pruritus, fever, steatorrhea, high alkaline phosphatase levels and hypercholesterolemia. Jaundice resolved with initiation of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy, but subclinical cholestasis and low-level inflammatory activity persisted and ultimately evolved into biliary cirrhosis. The pathological substrate of this severe and prolonged cholestatic reaction was found to be the vanishing bile duct syndrome with a marked transient pseudoxanthomatosis.
    Hepatology 01/1995; 20(6):1437-41. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate reliable methods for detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in routinely processed liver biopsies we analyzed formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver specimens of 10 patients with serological confirmed HCV infection. We compared (1) conventional histology; (2) indirect immunofluorescence using the mAb TORDJI-22 (Clonatec, Paris, France); (3) RT-PCR using total RNA and Southern blotting with chemiluminescent detection; (4) non-radioactive in-situ hybridization (ISH) with digoxigenin-labeled oligo- and cRNA probes; (5) direct in-situ RT-PCR with incorporation of labeled nucleotides into PCR-products, and (6) indirect in-situ RT-PCR using subsequent ISH for the visualization of intracellular PCR-products. Our results indicate that: (1) using the histological criteria described by Lefkowitch et al. [Gastroenerology 1993;104:595] together with clinical data, most chronic HCV infections can be diagnosed by conventional histology, if liver biopsies specimens are adequate; (2) the commercially available mAb TORDJI-22 appears to crossreact with non-HCV epitopes, resulting in false positives; (3) molecular methods performed on routinely fixed and processed liver biopsies frequently yield false negative results due to sampling problems, low viral copy number and RNA degradation in infected cells; (4) analysis of HCV-RNA by RT-PCR of extracted total RNA is more sensitive than indirect in-situ RT-PCR or ISH; and (5) direct in-situ RT-PCR is not reliable despite the use of modifications such as DNase pretreatment and hot-start procedures. It is concluded, that several molecular methods for HCV detection must await further improvements of protocols to be suitable for routine diagnostics on paraffin-embedded liver biopsies.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 12/1994; 190(11):1017-25. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a 33-yr-old pregnant woman in whom a primary biliary cirrhosis—like syndrome developed after 2 wk of chlorpromazine therapy. The clinical course was characterized by severe jaundice lasting 22 mo, intense pruritus, fever, steatorrhea, high alkaline phosphatase levels and hypercholesterolemia. Jaundice resolved with initiation of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy, but subclinical cholestasis and low-level inflammatory activity persisted and ultimately evolved into biliary cirrhosis. The pathological substrate of this severe and prolonged cholestatic reaction was found to be the vanishing bile duct syndrome with a marked transient pseudoxanthomatosis. (Hepatology 1994;20:1437–1441).
    Hepatology 11/1994; 20(6):1437 - 1441. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare immunohistochemical and molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in archival liver biopsies we analyzed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver specimens of 10 patients with serologically confirmed HCV infection. Methods employed included indirect FITC-immunofluorescence, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using extracted RNA and Southern blotting with chemiluminescence-based detection, non-radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) with digoxigenin-labeled oligo- and cRNA probes, direct in situ RT-PCR with incorporation of labeled nucleotides into PCR-products, and indirect in situ RT-PCR using subsequent ISH for the visualization of intracellular PCR-products. Our results indicate that: (1) using the histological criteria described by Lefkowitch et al. (Gastroenterology 1993; 104-595) together with clinical data, most chronic HCV infections can be diagnosed by conventional histology, if liver biopsies are representative; (2) the commercially available mAB TORDJI-22 appears to cross-react with non-HCV epitopes; (3) molecular methods performed on routinely fixed and processed liver biopsies frequently yield false negative results due to sampling problems, low viral copy number and RNA degradation in infected cells; (4) analysis of HCV-RNA by RT-PCR of extracted total RNA is more sensitive than indirect in situ RT-PCR or ISH; and (5) direct in situ RT-PCR is not reliable despite the use of modifications such as DNase pretreatment and hot-start procedures. Further studies are required to define both optimal methods for sample processing and improvements of protocols, in order to increase detection sensitivity and specificity of HCV infection by immunohistochemical and molecular methods.
    Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie 02/1994; 78:220-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty-six patients with biopsy-proven, chronic active hepatitis B were included in a multi-center, randomized trial comparing steroid withdrawal followed by 1.5 MU recombinant interferon alpha 2b (Intron) with placebo withdrawal followed by either 1.5 or 5 MU interferon. The patients were equally distributed between the treatment groups with respect to biochemical and histologic activity as well as with respect to DNA levels and quantitative liver function tests. One patient was lost to follow up. After 1 year of treatment, 10/18, 13/19 and 11/18 patients had lost hepatitis B virus DNA in the three groups, respectively (non-significant). Transaminase levels were normal in 27/34 of the responders but in only 4/21 of the non-responders (p < 0.0001). Both galactose elimination capacity and aminopyrine breath test improved significantly in responders, but either did not change (aminopyrine breath test) or deteriorated in non-responders (galactose elimination capacity). Biopsy score improved in both groups but this reached statistical significance only in responders. This effect was due to improvements in both inflammatory and fibrotic activity. Side effects included almost universally a flu-like syndrome, granulocytopenia (1), depression (3) and thyroid dysfunction (2). Two deaths occurred, one due to hepatocellular cancer, and the other to hepatorenal syndrome after spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A severe cytolytic episode was observed in three patients in the steroid withdrawal group. We conclude that in patients with marked histologic activity, lower doses of interferon may be as effective as the standard dose of 5 MU.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Journal of Hepatology 02/1994; 20(2):168-74. · 10.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

963 Citations
435.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984–2007
    • University of Zurich
      • Internal Medicine Unit
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • Schulthess Klinik, Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1983–2006
    • Universität Basel
      • Institut für Pathologie
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1980–1996
    • Stadtspital Waid
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1988
    • University of Freiburg
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany