Marek Nowicki

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (72)409.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite advances in therapy, HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk for kidney dysfunction than uninfected individuals. It was hypothesized that urine levels of α1-microglobulin, a biomarker of proximal tubular dysfunction, would predict kidney function decline and mortality risk in HIV-infected and uninfected women.
    Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: : In HIV negatives, markers of hemostasis, including D-dimer, factor VIII, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (PAI-1), and total protein S are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. In HIV positives, studies of D-dimer and factor VIII with death were limited to short follow-up; associations of PAI-1 and total protein S with death have not been examined. In 674 HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, markers from the first visit after enrollment were exposures of interest in multivariate analyses of death (AIDS and non-AIDS) in separate models at 5 and 16 years. There were 87 AIDS and 44 non-AIDS deaths at 5 years, and 159 AIDS and 113 non-AIDS deaths at 16 years. An inverse association of total protein S quartiles with non-AIDS deaths was observed at 5 (P trend = 0.002) and 16 years (P trend = 0.02); there was no association with AIDS deaths. The third quartile of PAI-1 was associated with AIDS deaths at 5 [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 8.4] and 16 years (HR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.9 to 5.9); and with non-AIDS deaths at 5 years (HR = 4.8; 95% CI: 1.6 to 13.9). D-dimer and factor VIII were not associated with AIDS or non-AIDS death at 5 or 16 years. Lower total Protein S was a consistent marker of non-AIDS death. We found no association between D-dimer with AIDS or non-AIDS death, in contrast to previous studies showing increased short-term (<5 years) mortality, which may represent sex differences or population heterogeneity. Given longer survival on highly active antiretroviral therapy, further studies of these markers are needed to determine their prognostic value.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2014; 67(3):287-294. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum albumin concentrations are a strong predictor of mortality and cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. We studied the longitudinal associations between serum albumin levels and kidney function decline in a population of HIV-infected women.
    American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in HIV-infected individuals, and is associated with mortality in both the HIV-infected and general populations. Urinary markers of tubular injury have been associated with future kidney disease risk, but associations with mortality are unknown. We evaluated the associations of urinary interleukin-18 (IL-18), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) with 10-year, all-cause death in 908 HIV-infected women. Serum cystatin C was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys). There were 201 deaths during 9269 person-years of follow-up. After demographic adjustment, compared with the lowest tertile, the highest tertiles of IL-18 [hazard ratio (HR) 2.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-3.68], KIM-1 (HR 2.04; 95% CI 1.44-2.89), NGAL (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.05-2.14) and ACR (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.13-2.36) were associated with higher mortality. After multivariable adjustment including adjustment for eGFRcys, only the highest tertiles of IL-18 (HR 1.88; 95% CI 1.29-2.74) and ACR (HR 1.46; 95% CI 1.01-2.12) remained independently associated with mortality. Findings for KIM-1 were borderline (HR 1.41; 95% CI 0.99-2.02). We found a J-shaped association between L-FABP and mortality. Compared with persons in the lowest tertile, the HR for the middle tertile of L-FABP was 0.67 (95% CI 0.46-0.98) after adjustment. Associations were stronger when IL-18, ACR and L-FABP were simultaneously included in models. Among HIV-infected women, some urinary markers of tubular injury are associated with mortality risk, independently of eGFRcys and ACR. These markers represent potential tools with which to identify early kidney injury in persons with HIV infection.
    HIV Medicine 12/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In HIV-infected women, urine concentrations of novel tubulointerstitial injury markers, interleukin-18 (IL-18) and kidney injury marker-1 (KIM-1) are associated with kidney function decline and all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that HIV-infected individuals with preserved kidney filtration function would have more extensive kidney injury, as determined by urine injury markers, compared to the uninfected controls, and that risk factors for tubulointerstitial injury would differ from risk factors for albuminuria. In this cross-sectional study, we compared urine concentrations of IL-18, KIM-1, and ACR in 908 HIV-infected and 289 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, utilizing stored urine specimens from visits between 1999 and 2000. After multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis, mean urine concentrations were higher in HIV-infected individuals by 38% for IL-18 (p<0.0001), 12% for KIM-1 (p=0.081), and 47% for ACR (p<0.0001). Higher HIV RNA level (15% per 10-fold increase, p<0.0001), lower CD4 count (8% per doubling, p=0.0025), HCV infection (30%, p=0.00018), and lower HDL (5% per 10 mg/dL, p=0.0024) were each associated with higher IL-18 concentrations. In contrast, hypertension (81%, p<0.0001) and diabetes (47%, p=0.018) were among the strongest predictors of higher ACR, though HIV RNA level (15% per 10-fold increase, p=0.0004) was also associated with higher ACR. HIV-infected women had more extensive tubulointerstitial and glomerular injury than uninfected women, but the associated factors differed among the urine biomarkers. Combinations of urinary biomarkers should be investigated to further characterize early kidney injury in HIV-infected women.
    Antiviral therapy 08/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Cystatin C could improve chronic kidney disease (CKD) classification in HIV-infected women relative to serum creatinine. DESIGN:: Retrospective cohort analysis. METHODS:: Cystatin C and creatinine were measured from specimens taken and stored during the 1999-2000 exam among 908 HIV-infected participants in the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS). Mean follow-up was 10.2 years. Predictors of differential GFR estimates were evaluated with multivariable linear regression. The associations of baseline categories (<60, 60-90, and >90 mL/min/1.73m) of creatinine eGFR (eGFRcr), cystatin C eGFR (eGFRcys), and combined creatinine-cystatin C eGFR (eGFRcr-cys) with all-cause mortality were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression. The net reclassification index (NRI) was calculated to evaluate the effect of cystatin C on reclassification of CKD staging. RESULTS:: CKD risk factors were associated with lower eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys values compared to eGFRcr. Relative to eGFR >90, the eGFR <60 category by eGFRcys (Adjusted HR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.63, 4.02), eGFRcr-cys (3.11; 1.94-5.00), and eGFRcr (2.34; 1.44-3.79) was associated with increased mortality risk. However, the eGFR 60-90 category was associated with increased mortality risk for eGFRcys (1.80; 1.28-2.53) and eGFRcr-cys (1.91; 1.38-2.66) but not eGFRcr (1.20; 0.85-1.67). The overall NRI for mortality was 26% when reclassifying from eGFRcr to eGFRcys (p < 0.001) and was 20% when reclassifying from eGFRcr to eGFRcr-cys (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:: The addition of cystatin C may improve mortality risk prediction by stages of kidney function relative to creatinine. CKD risk factors are associated with an overestimate of GFR by serum creatinine relative to cystatin C.
    AIDS (London, England) 05/2013; · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Systemic and mucosal inflammation may play a role in HIV control. A cross-sectional comparison was conducted among women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) to explore the hypothesis that compared to HIV-uninfected participants, women with HIV and in particular, those with high plasma viral load (PVL) have increased levels of mucosal and systemic inflammatory mediators and impaired mucosal endogenous antimicrobial activity. Methods: 19 HIV-uninfected, 40 HIV-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PVL ≤ 2600 copies/ml (low viral load) (HIV-LVL), and 19 HIV-infected on or off ART with PVL >10,000 (high viral load) (HIV-HVL) were evaluated. Immune mediators and viral RNA were quantified in plasma and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL). CVL antimicrobial activity was also determined. Results: Compared to HIV-uninfected, HIV-HVL women had higher levels of mucosal, but not systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, higher Nugent scores, and lower E. coli bactericidal activity. In contrast, there were no significant differences between HIV-LVL and HIV-uninfected controls. After adjusting for PVL, HIV genital tract shedding was significantly associated with higher CVL concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-1α, and RANTES and higher plasma concentrations of MIP-1α. High PVL was associated with higher CVL levels of IL-1β and RANTES, as well as with higher Nugent scores, lower E. coli bactericidal activity, smoking and lower CD4 counts; smoking and CD4 count retained statistical significance in a multivariate model. Conclusion: Further study is needed to determine if the relationship between mucosal inflammation and PVL is causal and to determine if reducing mucosal inflammation is beneficial.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with HIV infection exhibit high cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG levels, but there are few data regarding the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with the immune response against CMV. Associations of HCV with CMV seropositivity and CMV IgG levels were studied in 635 HIV-infected women, 187 of whom were HCV-seropositive, with adjustment in multivariable models for age, race/ethnicity, and HIV disease characteristics. Eighty one percent of the women reported receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to or at CMV testing. In adjusted models women with chronic HCV had higher CMV IgG levels than those without HCV RNA (β = 2.86, 95% CI:0.89 - 4.83; P = 0.004). The association of HCV RNA with CMV IgG differed by age (P interaction = 0.0007), with a strong association observed among women in the low and middle age tertiles (≤45.3 years of age; β = 6.21, 95% CI:3.30 - 9.11, P<0.0001) but not among women in the high age tertile. CMV IgG levels were not associated with non-invasive measures of liver disease, APRI and FIB-4, or with HCV RNA level and adjustment for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG levels did not affect the association between HCV and CMV. CMV IgG levels are higher in HCV/HIV co-infected women than in HIV mono-infected women. Further research on the association of HCV with CMV IgG is indicated because prior studies have found CMV IgG to be associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and subclinical carotid artery disease in HIV-infected patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61973. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common. HIV infection and treatment are associated with hypercoaguability; thrombosis in HCV is under-investigated. Proposed markers of hemostasis in HIV include higher D-dimer, Factor VIII% and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1Ag), and lower total Protein S% (TPS), but have not been examined in HCV. We assessed the independent association of HCV with these four measures of hemostasis in a multicenter, prospective study of HIV: the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).We randomly selected 450 HCV-infected (anti-HCV+ with detectable plasma HCV RNA) and 450 HCV-uninfected (anti-HCV-) women. HCV was the main exposure of interest in regression models. 443 HCV+ and 425 HCV- women were included. HCV+ women had higher Factor VIII% (124.4% ±3.9 vs. 101.8% ±3.7, p <0.001) and lower TPS (75.7% ±1.1 vs. 84.3% ±1.1, <0.001) than HCV-, independent of HIV infection and viral load; there was little difference in PAI-1Ag or log10 D-dimer. After adjustment for confounders, these inferences remained. HIV infection was independently associated with higher Factor VIII% and log10 D-dimer, and lower TPS.HCV was independently associated with higher Factor VIII% and lower TPS consistent with hypercoaguability. Higher Factor VIII % and D-dimer and lower total Protein S % were also strongly associated with HIV infection and levels of HIV viremia, independent of HCV infection. Further investigation is needed to determine if there is increased thrombotic risk from HCV. Studies examining hemostasis markers in HIV infection must also assess the contribution of HCV infection.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Among individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), African Americans have lower spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) than Caucasians, and women have higher clearance than men. Few studies report racial/ethnic differences in acute HCV in HIV infected, or Hispanic women. We examined racial/ethnic differences in spontaneous HCV clearance in a population of HCV mono- and co-infected women. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of HCV seropositive women (897 HIV infected and 168 HIV uninfected) followed in the US multicenter, NIH-funded Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), to determine the association of race/ethnicity with spontaneous HCV clearance, as defined by undetectable HCV RNA at study entry. RESULTS: Among HIV and HCV seropositive women, 18.7 % were HCV RNA negative, 60.9 % were African American, 19.3 % Hispanic and 17.7 % Caucasian. HIV infected African American women were less likely to spontaneously clear HCV than Hispanic (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.38-0.93, p = 0.022) or Caucasian women (OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.36-0.93, p = 0.023). Among HIV uninfected women, African Americans had less HCV clearance than Hispanics (OR 0.18, 95 % CI 0.07-0.48, p = 0.001) or Caucasians (OR 0.26, 95 % CI 0.09-0.79, p = 0.017). There were no significant differences in HCV clearance between Hispanics and Caucasians, among either HIV infected (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.57-1.66, p = 0.91) or uninfected (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 0.56-3.8, p = 0.45) women. CONCLUSIONS: African Americans were less likely to spontaneously clear HCV than Hispanics or Caucasians, regardless of HIV status. No significant differences in spontaneous HCV clearance were observed between Caucasian and Hispanic women. Future studies incorporating IL28B genotype may further explain these observed racial/ethnic differences in spontaneous HCV clearance.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 11/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: HIV-infected persons have substantially higher risk of kidney failure than persons without HIV, but serum creatinine levels are insensitive for detecting declining kidney function. We hypothesized that urine markers of kidney injury would be associated with declining kidney function among HIV-infected women. METHODS:: In the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), we measured concentrations of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury marker-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) from stored urine among 908 HIV-infected and 289 uninfected participants. Primary analyses used cystatin C based estimated glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI eGFRcys) as the outcome, measured at baseline and two follow-up visits over eight years; secondary analyses used creatinine (CKD-EPI eGFRcr). Each urine biomarker was categorized into tertiles, and kidney decline was modeled with both continuous and dichotomized outcomes. RESULTS:: Compared with the lowest tertiles, the highest tertiles of ACR (-0.15ml/min/1.73m2, p<0.0001), IL-18 (-0.09ml/min/1.73m2, p<0.0001) and KIM-1 (-0.06ml/min/1.73m2, p<0.001) were independently associated with faster eGFRcys decline after multivariate adjustment including all three biomarkers among HIV-infected women. Among these biomarkers, only IL-18 was associated with each dichotomized eGFRcys outcome: ≥3% (Relative Risk 1.40; 95%CI 1.04-1.89); ≥5% (1.88; 1.30-2.71); and ≥10% (2.16; 1.20-3.88) for the highest versus lowest tertile. In alternative models using eGFRcr, the high tertile of KIM-1 had independent associations with 5% (1.71; 1.25-2.33) and 10% (1.78; 1.07-2.96) decline, and the high IL-18 tertile with 10% decline (1.97; 1.00-3.87). CONCLUSIONS:: Among HIV-infected women in the WIHS cohort, novel urine markers of kidney injury detect risk for subsequent declines in kidney function.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 09/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation persists in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may contribute to an increased risk for non-AIDS-related pathologies. We investigated the correlation of cytokine responses with changes in CD4 T-cell levels and coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). A total of 383 participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (212 with HIV monoinfection, 56 with HCV monoinfection, and 115 with HIV/HCV coinfection) were studied. HIV-infected women had <1000 HIV RNA copies/mL, 99.7% had >200 CD4 T cells/μL; 98% were receiving HAART at baseline. Changes in CD4 T-cell count between baseline and 2-4 years later were calculated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained at baseline were used to measure interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR4 stimulation. Undetectable HIV RNA (<80 copies/mL) at baseline and secretion of IL-10 by PBMCs were positively associated with gains in CD4 T-cell counts at follow-up. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α) were also produced in TLR-stimulated cultures, but only IL-10 was significantly associated with sustained increases in CD4 T-cell levels. This association was significant only in women with HIV monoinfection, indicating that HCV coinfection is an important factor limiting gains in CD4 T-cell counts, possibly by contributing to unbalanced persistent inflammation. Secreted IL-10 from PBMCs may balance the inflammatory environment of HIV, resulting in CD4 T-cell stability.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 206(5):780-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among individuals with and without concurrent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), racial/ethnic differences in the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been described. African Americans have lower spontaneous HCV clearance than Caucasians, yet slower rates of liver fibrosis once chronically infected. It is not clear how these differences in the natural history of hepatitis C affect mortality, in either HIV-positive or -negative individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV/HCV coinfected women followed in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the association of self-reported race/ethnicity with all-cause and liver-related mortality. Survival analyses were performed using Cox's proportional hazards models. The eligible cohort (n = 794) included 140 Caucasians, 159 Hispanics, and 495 African Americans. There were 438 deaths and 49 liver-related deaths during a median follow-up of 8.9 years and maximum follow-up of 16 years. African-American coinfected women had significantly lower liver-related mortality, compared to Caucasian (hazard ratio [HR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.88; P = 0.022) and Hispanic coinfected women (HR, 0.38; 95% CI: 0.19-0.76; P = 0.006). All-cause mortality was similar between racial/ethnic groups (HRs for all comparisons: 0.82-1.03; log-rank test: P = 0.8). Conclusions: African-American coinfected women were much less likely to die from liver disease, as compared to Caucasians and Hispanics, independent of other causes of death. Future studies are needed to investigate the reasons for this marked racial/ethnic discrepancy in liver-related mortality. (HEPATOLOGY 2012).
    Hepatology 05/2012; · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2012; 60(1):e15-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV causes inflammation that can be at least partially corrected by HAART. To determine the qualitative and quantitative nature of cytokine perturbation, we compared cytokine patterns in three HIV clinical groups, including HAART responders (HAART), untreated HIV noncontrollers, and HIV-uninfected (NEG). Multiplex assays were used to measure 32 cytokines in a cross-sectional study of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Participants from three groups were included: HAART (n = 17), noncontrollers (n = 14), and HIV NEG (n = 17). Several cytokines and chemokines showed significant differences between noncontrollers and NEG participants, including elevated interferon gamma-induced 10 (IP-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-12(p40) [IL-12(p40)], IL-15, and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in noncontroller participants. Biomarker levels among HAART women more closely resembled the NEG, with the exception of TNF-α and FGF-2. Secondary analyses of the combined HAART and noncontroller groups revealed that IP-10 showed a strong, positive correlation with viral load and negative correlation with CD4(+) T-cell counts. The growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and FGF-2 all showed a positive correlation with increased CD4(+) T-cell counts. Untreated, progressive HIV infection was associated with decreased serum levels of cytokines important in T-cell homeostasis (IL-15) and T-cell phenotype determination (IL-12), and increased levels of innate inflammatory mediators such as IP-10 and TNF-α. HAART was associated with cytokine profiles that more closely resembled those of HIV-uninfected women. The distinctive pattern of cytokine levels in the three study groups may provide insights into HIV pathogenesis, and responses to therapy.
    AIDS (London, England) 05/2011; 25(15):1823-32. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified demographic, clinical and biological determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) shedding among HIV-infected participants in the Women's HIV Interagency Study (WIHS). Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens from 369 HIV-infected HSV seropositive women were tested with TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PRC) for detection HSV-2 DNA. Seven percent of women tested positive for HSV-2 DNA in CVL. Significant correlates of the presence of HSV-2 DNA in CVL were being younger, African American or Hispanic race/ethnicity and injecting drugs in the past six months (P < 0.05). A borderline significant trend for reduced viral shedding with higher CD4+ T cell counts was observed (P = 0.08). All women who were never observed with any genital lesions and had consistently negative self-reported history of genital sores throughout the follow-up (n = 29, 8%) were negative for CVL HSV-2 DNA. HSV-2 DNA quantity was significantly associated with having frequent subsequent lesion recurrences (Spearman rho = 0.48, P = 0.016; adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] = 2.5, P = 0.012). Increasing the age of the host was inversely correlated with decreased viral shedding over time. However, a subset of older women continued to shed significant amounts of virus despite passage of time. This study provides genital HSV-2 DNA titre as a quantitative and symptom- and sign-based measures as qualitative predictors of HSV-2 shedding from the lower genital tract among HIV-infected women.
    International Journal of STD & AIDS 05/2011; 22(5):273-7. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transient HIV infections have been invoked to account for the cellular immune responses detected in highly virus-exposed individuals who have remained HIV-seronegative. We tested for very low levels of HIV RNA in 524 seronegative plasma samples from 311 highly exposed women and men from three longitudinal HIV cohorts. Two thousand and seventy-three transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) HIV RNA tests were performed for an average of 3.95 TMA assays per plasma sample. Quadruplicate TMA assays, analyzing a total of 2 ml of plasma, provided an estimated sensitivity of 3.5 HIV RNA copies/ml. Four samples from individuals who did not seroconvert within the following 6 months were positive for HIV RNA. For one sample, human polymorphism DNA analysis indicated a sample mix-up. Borderline HIV RNA detection signals were detected for the other three positive samples but further replicate TMA testing yielded no positive results. Nested PCR assays (n = 254) for HIV proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these three individuals were negative. Transient viremia was not reproducibly detected in highly HIV-exposed seronegative men and women. If transient infections do occur, plasma HIV RNA levels may remain below the detection limits of the sensitive assay used here, be of very short duration, or viral replication may be restricted to mucosal surfaces or their draining lymphoid tissues.
    AIDS (London, England) 02/2011; 25(5):619-23. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serosorting, the practice of selectively engaging in unprotected sex with partners of the same HIV serostatus, has been proposed as a strategy for reducing HIV transmission risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, there is a paucity of scientific evidence regarding whether women engage in serosorting. We analyzed longitudinal data on women's sexual behavior with male partners collected in the Women's Interagency HIV Study from 2001 to 2005. Serosorting was defined as an increasing trend of unprotected anal or vaginal sex (UAVI) within seroconcordant partnerships over time, more frequent UAVI within seroconcordant partnerships compared to non-concordant partnerships, or having UAVI only with seroconcordant partners. Repeated measures Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between serostatus partnerships and UAVI among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. The study sample consisted of 1,602 HIV-infected and 664 HIV-uninfected women. Over the follow-up period, the frequency of seroconcordant partnerships increased for HIV-uninfected women but the prevalence of UAVI within seroconcordant partnerships remained stable. UAVI was reported more frequently within HIV seroconcordant partnerships than among serodiscordant or unknown serostatus partnerships, regardless of the participant's HIV status or types of partners. Among women with both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected partners, 41% (63 HIV-infected and 9 HIV-uninfected) were having UAVI only with seroconcordant partners. Our analyses suggest that serosorting is occurring among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in this cohort.
    AIDS and Behavior 01/2011; 15(1):9-15. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the utility of a single quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurement of HSV (HSV-1&2) DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens collected from women with predominantly chronic HSV-2 infection in assessing genital HSV shedding and the clinical course of genital herpes (GH) within a cohort with semiannual schedule of follow up and collection of specimens. Two previously described methods used for detection of HSV DNA in mucocutaneous swab samples were adapted for quantification of HSV DNA in CVLs. Single CVL specimens from 509 women were tested. Presence and quantity of CVL HSV DNA were explored in relation to observed cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical data. The PCR assay was sensitive and reproducible with a limit of quantification of ~50 copies per milliliter of CVL. Overall, 7% of the samples were positive for HSV-2 DNA with median log10 HSV-2 DNA copy number of 3.9 (IQR: 2.6-5.7). No HSV-1 was detected. Presence and quantity of HSV-2 DNA in CVL directly correlated with the clinical signs and symptoms of presence of active symptomatic disease with frequent recurrences. Single qPCR measurement of HSV DNA in CVL fluids of women with chronic HSV-2 infection provided useful information for assessing GH in the setting of infrequent sampling of specimens. Observed positive correlation of the presence and quantity of HSV-2 DNA with the presence of active and more severe course of HSV-2 infection may have clinical significance in the evaluation and management of HSV-2 infected patients.
    Virology Journal 11/2010; 7:328. · 2.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
409.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • University of Southern California
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Keck School of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
  • 2013
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1998–2011
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2010
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Rush University Medical Center
      • Department of Immunology and Microbiology
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2004
    • Hospital For Infectious Diseases, Warsaw
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2001–2004
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Medicine
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2003
    • Rush Medical College
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1998–2000
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1993
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States