ABSTRACT: Human milk (HM) is the optimal way to nourish preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants after hospital discharge. However, there are few data on which to assess whether HM alone is sufficient to address hospital-acquired nutrition deficits, and no adequately powered studies have examined this question using neurodevelopment as an outcome. The purpose of this work was to determine whether adding extra energy and nutrients to the feedings of predominantly HM-fed LBW infants early after discharge improves their visual development. Visual development was used in this study as a surrogate marker for neurodevelopment.
At discharge, 39 predominantly HM-fed LBW infants (750-1800 g, 1288 ± 288 g) were randomized to receive human milk alone (control) or around half of the HM received daily mixed with a multinutrient fortifier (intervention) for 12 weeks. Grating acuity (ie, visual acuity) and contrast sensitivity were assessed using sweep visual-evoked potential tests at 4 and 6 months corrected age.
At 4 and 6 months corrected age, intervention infants demonstrated higher grating acuity compared to those in the control group (intervention: 7.8 ± 1.3 and 9.7 ± 1.2 [cycles/degree] vs control 6.9 ± 1.2 and 8.2 ± 1.3, P = .02). Differences in contrast sensitivity did not reach statistical significance (P = .11). Conclusion: Adding a multinutrient fortifier to a portion of the expressed breast milk provided to predominantly HM-fed LBW infants early after discharge improves their early visual development. Whether these subtle differences in visual development apply to other aspects of development or longer term neurodevelopment are worthy of future investigation.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 12/2011; 36(3):349-53. · 3.29 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Human milk (HM) is the optimal source of nutrition for premature infants; however, it is unclear whether HM alone is sufficient to meet their elevated nutritional requirements early after hospital discharge. We previously reported that premature infants (750-1800 g birth weight) fed HM containing extra nutrients for 12 weeks after discharge had dietary intakes closer to recommended levels and grew more rapidly than those fed HM alone. The objectives of the present article are to examine the impact of this intervention on bone mineralization, body composition, and HM use up to 1 year. Data are also presented on general developmental level at 18-month corrected age (CA).
At discharge, predominantly HM-fed infants were randomized to receive for 12 weeks either approximately half of their feedings containing a multinutrient fortifier (intervention, n=19) or all of their feedings as HM alone (control, n=20).
Intervention infants remained longer (P<0.001) and had greater whole-body bone mineral content (P=0.02) until 12-month CA compared with controls. Intervention infants born less than or equal to 1250 g continued to have a larger mean head circumference throughout the first year of life (P<0.0001). Human milk feeding (mL.kg(-1).day(-1)) differed between groups at 6- (P=0.035), but not 12-month CA. No statistically significant differences were found between groups in the mental, motor, or behavior rating scale scores of the Bayley II at 18-month CA.
Adding a multinutrient fortifier to HM provided to predominantly HM-fed premature infants early after discharge results in sustained differences in weight, length, and whole-body bone mineral content, and in smaller babies, head circumference for the first year of life.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 07/2009; 49(4):456-66. · 2.18 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether mixing a multinutrient fortifier to approximately one half of the human milk fed each day for a finite period after discharge improves the nutrient intake and growth of predominantly human milk-fed low birth weight infants. We also assessed the impact of this intervention on the exclusivity of human milk feeding.
Human milk-fed (> or = 80% feeding per day) low birth weight (750-1800 g) infants (n = 39) were randomly assigned at hospital discharge to either a control or an intervention group. Infants in the control group were discharged from the hospital on unfortified human milk. Nutrient enrichment of human milk in the intervention group was achieved by mixing approximately one half of the human milk provided each day with a powdered multinutrient human milk fortifier for 12 weeks after discharge. Milk with added nutrients was estimated to contain approximately 80 kcal (336 kJ) and 2.2 g protein/100 mL plus other nutrients. Intensive lactation support was provided to both groups.
Infants in the intervention group were longer during the study period, and those born < or = 1250 g had larger head circumferences than infants in the control group. There was a trend toward infants in the intervention group to be heavier at the end of the intervention compared with those in the control group. Mean protein, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A and D intakes were higher in the intervention group.
Results from this study suggest that adding a multinutrient fortifier to approximately one half of the milk provided to predominantly human milk-fed infants for 12 weeks after hospital discharge may be an effective strategy in addressing early discharge nutrient deficits and poor growth without unduly influencing human milk feeding when intensive lactation support is provided.
PEDIATRICS 05/2008; 121(4):766-76. · 4.47 Impact Factor