[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin was initially described as a chemoattractant factor for leukocyte populations. More recently, the protein was also reported as an adipokine regulating adipocyte differentiation in vitro via its receptor ChemR23, and correlating with body mass index and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in humans. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of the chemerin-ChemR23 axis in the regulation of metabolism in vivo, using a mouse knock out model for ChemR23 in a C57Bl6 genetic background. Body weight and adipose tissue mass were not different in young animals, but became significantly higher for ChemR23 KO animals older than 12 months. Glucose tolerance was unaffected. No significant modifications of blood lipids were observed and no enhancement of inflammatory markers was seen in KO mice adipose tissue. A high fat diet did not exacerbate the obese phenotype in ChemR23 KO mice. No obvious defect in adipocyte differentiation was detected, while a marker of lipogenic activity (GPDH expression) was found elevated. In conclusion, the chemerin/ChemR23 system does not appear to play a major role in adipocyte differentiation in vivo, but intervene in adipose tissue homeostasis.
Journal of Endocrinology 10/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that heteromerization of the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR4 is associated to negative binding cooperativity. In the present study, we build on these previous results, and investigate the consequences of chemokine receptor heteromerization with ChemR23, the receptor of chemerin, a leukocyte chemoattractant protein structurally unrelated to chemokines. We show, using BRET and HTRF assays, that ChemR23 forms homomers, and provide data suggesting that ChemR23 also forms heteromers with the chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4. As previously described for other chemokine receptor heteromers, negative binding cooperativity was detected between ChemR23 and chemokine receptors, i.e. the ligands of one receptor competed for the binding of a specific tracer of the other. We also showed, using mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells prepared from wild-type and ChemR23 knockout mice, that ChemR23-specific ligands cross-inhibited CXCL12 binding on CXCR4 in a ChemR23-dependent manner, supporting the relevance of the ChemR23/CXCR4 interaction in native leukocytes. Finally, and in contrast to the situation encountered for other previously characterized CXCR4 heteromers, we showed that the CXCR4-specific antagonist AMD3100 did not cross-inhibit chemerin binding in cells co-expressing ChemR23 and CXCR4, demonstrating that cross-regulation by AMD3100 depends on the nature of receptor partners with which CXCR4 is co-expressed.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e58075. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages constitute a major component of innate immunity and play an essential role in defense mechanisms against external aggressions and in inflammatory responses. Chemerin, a chemoattractant protein, is generated in inflammatory conditions, and recruits cells expressing the G protein-coupled receptor ChemR23, including macrophages. Chemerin was initially expected to behave as a pro-inflammatory agent. However, recent data described more complex activities that are either pro- or anti-inflammatory, according to the disease model investigated. In the present study, peritoneal macrophages were generated from WT or ChemR23(-/-) mice, stimulated with lipopolyssaccharide in combination or not with IFN-γ and the production of pro- (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines was evaluated using qRT-PCR and ELISA. Human macrophages generated from peripheral blood monocytes were also tested in parallel. Peritoneal macrophages from WT mice, recruited by thioglycolate or polyacrylamide beads, functionally expressed ChemR23, as assessed by flow cytometry, binding and chemotaxis assays. However, chemerin had no effect on the strong upregulation of cytokine release by these cells upon stimulation by LPS or LPS/IFN-γ, whatever the concentration tested. Similar data were obtained with human macrophages. In conclusion, our results rule out the direct anti-inflammatory effect of chemerin on macrophages ex vivo, described previously in the literature, despite the expression of a functional ChemR23 receptor in these cells.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e40043. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin was isolated as the natural ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor ChemR23. Chemerin acts as a chemotactic factor for leukocyte populations expressing ChemR23, particularly immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but also immature myeloid DCs, macrophages and natural killer cells. Chemerin is expressed by epithelial and non-epithelial cells as an inactive precursor, present at nanomolar concentrations in plasma. Processing of the precursor C-terminus is required for generating bioactive forms of chemerin. Various proteases mediate this processing, including neutrophil serine proteases and proteases from coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades. ChemR23-expressing cells are recruited in human inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and lupus. In animal models, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles of chemerin have been reported. Recently, two other receptors for chemerin were described, GPR1 and CCRL2, but their functional relevance is largely unknown. Both chemerin and ChemR23 are also expressed by adipocytes, and the emerging role of chemerin as an adipokine regulating lipid and carbohydrate metabolism is an area of intense research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play an important role in anti-viral immunity, and these cells were recently shown to express ChemR23, the receptor for the chemoattractant protein chemerin, which is expressed by epithelial cells in the lung. Our aim was to determine the role played by the chemerin/ChemR23 system in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, using the pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) as a model. Wild-type and ChemR23 knock-out mice were infected by PVM and followed for functional and inflammatory parameters. ChemR23(-/-) mice displayed higher mortality/morbidity, alteration of lung function, delayed viral clearance and increased neutrophilic infiltration. We demonstrated in these mice a lower recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and a reduction in type I interferon production. The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was further addressed by performing depletion and adoptive transfer experiments as well as by the generation of chimeric mice, demonstrating two opposite effects of the chemerin/ChemR23 system. First, the ChemR23-dependent recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells contributes to adaptive immune responses and viral clearance, but also enhances the inflammatory response. Second, increased morbidity/mortality in ChemR23(-/-) mice is not due to defective plasmacytoid dendritic cells recruitment, but rather to the loss of an anti-inflammatory pathway involving ChemR23 expressed by non-leukocytic cells. The chemerin/ChemR23 system plays important roles in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, and might therefore be considered as a therapeutic target for anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peptide F2L was previously characterized as a high-affinity natural agonist for the human formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 3. F2L is an acetylated 21-aa peptide corresponding with the N terminus of the intracellular heme-binding protein 1 (HEBP1). In the current work, we have investigated which proteases were able to generate the F2L peptide from its precursor HEBP1. Structure-function analysis of F2L identified three amino acids, G(3), N(7), and S(8), as the most important for interaction of the peptide with FPR3. We expressed a C-terminally His-tagged form of human HEBP1 in yeast and purified it to homogeneity. The purified protein was used as substrate to identify proteases generating bioactive peptides for FPR3-expressing cells. A conditioned medium from human monocyte-derived macrophages was able to generate bioactivity from HEBP1, and this activity was inhibited by pepstatin A. Cathepsin D was characterized as the protease responsible for HEBP1 processing, and the bioactive product was identified as F2L. We have therefore determined how F2L, the specific agonist of FPR3, is generated from the intracellular protein HEBP1, although it is unknown in which compartment the processing by cathepsin D occurs in vivo.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 187(3):1475-85. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) have a pivotal role in the autoimmune response of systemic lupus erythematosus. Plasmacytoid DCs infiltrate the kidney of patients with lupus nephritis, but factors regulating their recruitment to the kidney are unknown. Chemerin is the recently identified natural ligand of ChemR23, a receptor highly expressed by plasmacytoid DCs. We performed immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analysis to study the ChemR23/Chemerin axis in renal biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis. We found ChemR23-positive DCs had infiltrated the kidney tubulointerstitium in patients with severe lupus nephritis. Chemerin association with tubular epithelial cells and renal lymphatic endothelial cells was found in patients with lupus nephritis but not in normal kidneys. Proximal tubular epithelial cells produced Chemerin in vitro, which was significantly down-modulated by added tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ as measured by quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Interestingly, TNF-α was capable of inducing a functionally active form of renal Chemerin, resulting in an efficient transendothelial migration of plasmacytoid DCs measured in transwell systems. Thus, the ChemR23/Chemerin axis may have a role in the recruitment of DCs within the kidney in patients affected by lupus nephritis.
Kidney International 02/2011; 79(11):1228-35. · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated possible cellular receptors for the human CXC chemokine platelet factor-4 variant/CXCL4L1, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. We found that CXCL4L1 has lower affinity for heparin and chondroitin sulfate-E than platelet factor-4 (CXCL4) and showed that CXCL10 and CXCL4L1 could displace each other on microvascular endothelial cells. Labeled CXCL4L1 also bound to CXCR3A- and CXCR3B-transfectants and was displaced by CXCL4L1, CXCL4, and CXCL10. The CXCL4L1 anti-angiogenic activity was blocked by anti-CXCR3 antibodies (Abs) in the Matrigel and cornea micropocket assays. CXCL4L1 application in CXCR3(-/-) or in wild-type mice treated with neutralizing anti-CXCR3 Abs, resulted in reduced inhibitory activity of CXCL4L1 on tumor growth and vascularization of Lewis lung carcinoma. Furthermore, CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 chemoattracted activated T cells, human natural killer cells, and human immature dendritic cells (DCs). Migration of DCs toward CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 was desensitized by preincubation with CXCL10 and CXCL11, inhibited by pertussis toxin, and neutralized by anti-CXCR3 Abs. Chemotaxis of T cells, natural killer cells, and DCs is likely to contribute to the antitumoral action. However, the in vivo data indicate that the angiostatic property of CXCL4L1 is equally important in retarding tumor growth. Thus, both CXCR3A and CXCR3B are implicated in the chemotactic and vascular effects of CXCL4L1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: Rapid expansion of available data about G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) dimers/oligomers over the past few years requires an effective system to organize this information electronically. Based on an ontology derived from a community dialog involving colleagues using experimental and computational methodologies, we developed the GPCR-Oligomerization Knowledge Base (GPCR-OKB). GPCR-OKB is a system that supports browsing and searching for GPCR oligomer data. Such data were manually derived from the literature. While focused on GPCR oligomers, GPCR-OKB is seamlessly connected to GPCRDB, facilitating the correlation of information about GPCR protomers and oligomers. Availability and Implementation: The GPCR-OKB web application is freely available at http://www.gpcr-okb.org
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that, as well as morphine, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 failed to induce intravenous self-administration in mutant CB1 receptor knockout (CB1−/−) mice but not in the corresponding wild type (CB1+/+) mice. To verify whether this functional interaction responsible for opioid rewarding effects was specific or could also be extended to other drugs of abuse, we have evaluated the ability of cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine to induce intravenous self-administration in both CB1−/− and CB1+/+ mice.The results showed that, contrary to morphine, the other drugs of abuse were intravenously self-administered to the same extent by both wild type and CB1−/− mice. This points to a specific role of the CB1 receptor in the opioid motivational and rewarding properties.In addition, since mesolimbic dopamine transmission is known to have a pivotal role in reward mediation, the effect of morphine on limbic dopamine release in CB1−/− and CB1+/+ mice has been investigated and compared with the effect of cocaine.Morphine did not modify dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of CB1−/− mice whereas it dose-dependently stimulated dopamine release in the corresponding CB1+/+ mice. In contrast, cocaine increased dopamine release in both strains of mice, showing that its effect on dopamine transmission was not linked to the cannabinoid system.Taken together, our results clearly show that the CB1 receptor is essential for the expression of the behavioural and biochemical effects of morphine. This extends previous observations on a functional specific interaction between endogenous cannabinoid and opiate systems in the central mechanisms of reward.
Pharmacy and Pharmacology Communications. 02/2010; 6(6):281 - 285.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokine receptors constitute an attractive family of drug targets in the frame of inflammatory diseases. However, targeting
specific chemokine receptors may be complicated by their ability to form dimers or higher order oligomers. Using a combination
of luminescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays, we demonstrate for the first time the
existence of hetero-oligomeric complexes composed of at least three chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4). We show in
T cells and monocytes that negative binding cooperativity takes place between the binding pockets of these receptors, demonstrating
their functional interaction in leukocytes. We also show that specific antagonists of one receptor (TAK-779 or AMD3100) lead
to functional cross-inhibition of the others. Finally, using the air pouch model in mice, we show that the CCR2 and CCR5 antagonist
TAK-779 inhibits cell recruitment promoted by the CXCR4 agonist SDF-1α, demonstrating that cross-inhibition by antagonists
also occurs in vivo. Thus, antagonists of the therapeutically important chemokine receptors regulate the functional properties of other receptors
to which they do not bind directly with important implications for the use of these agents in vivo.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2009; 284(45):31270-31279. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin is the ligand of the ChemR23 receptor and a chemoattractant factor for human immature dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and NK cells. In this study, we characterized the mouse chemerin/ChemR23 system in terms of pharmacology, structure-function, distribution, and in vivo biological properties. Mouse chemerin is synthesized as an inactive precursor (prochemerin) requiring, as in human, the precise processing of its C terminus for generating an agonist of ChemR23. Mouse ChemR23 is highly expressed in immature plasmacytoid DCs and at lower levels in myeloid DCs, macrophages, and NK cells. Mouse prochemerin is expressed in most epithelial cells acting as barriers for pathogens but not in leukocytes. Chemerin promotes calcium mobilization and chemotaxis on DCs and macrophages and these functional responses were abrogated in ChemR23 knockout mice. In a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by LPS, chemerin displayed potent anti-inflammatory properties, reducing neutrophil infiltration and inflammatory cytokine release in a ChemR23-dependent manner. ChemR23 knockout mice were unresponsive to chemerin and displayed an increased neutrophil infiltrate following LPS challenge. Altogether, the mouse chemerin/ChemR23 system is structurally and functionally conserved between human and mouse, and mouse can therefore be considered as a good model for studying the anti-inflammatory role of this system in the regulation of immune responses and inflammatory diseases.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2009; 183(10):6489-99. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokine receptors constitute an attractive family of drug targets in the frame of inflammatory diseases. However, targeting specific chemokine receptors may be complicated by their ability to form dimers or higher order oligomers. Using a combination of luminescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of hetero-oligomeric complexes composed of at least three chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4). We show in T cells and monocytes that negative binding cooperativity takes place between the binding pockets of these receptors, demonstrating their functional interaction in leukocytes. We also show that specific antagonists of one receptor (TAK-779 or AMD3100) lead to functional cross-inhibition of the others. Finally, using the air pouch model in mice, we show that the CCR2 and CCR5 antagonist TAK-779 inhibits cell recruitment promoted by the CXCR4 agonist SDF-1 alpha, demonstrating that cross-inhibition by antagonists also occurs in vivo. Thus, antagonists of the therapeutically important chemokine receptors regulate the functional properties of other receptors to which they do not bind directly with important implications for the use of these agents in vivo.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2009; 284(45):31270-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neuromodulator adenosine, acting through activation of four defined metabotropic receptors called A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3,) has been proposed as an endogenous anticonvulsant. Here, the consequences of deleting the adenosine A(2A) receptor have been examined in different experimental models of epilepsy. A(2A)R KO mice were not protected against seizures originating from brainstem structures, namely electroshock-induced seizures. The intensities of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol or pilocarpine, as well as the percentages of convulsing mice, were significantly reduced in A(2A) receptor knockout (A(2A)R KO) animals. A(2A)R KO mice exhibited reduced pentylenetetrazol-induced kindled seizures, demonstrating an important role of the A(2A) receptor in the acquisition of kindling. These data suggest that adenosine stimulating A(2A) receptors modulates excitatory neurotransmission and exacerbates limbic seizures. It is therefore suggested that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists might offer protection from some epileptic syndromes.
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 07/2009; 380(3):223-32. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a small group of seven-transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed mainly by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and are known to be important in host defense and inflammation. The three human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2/ALX, and FPR3) share significant sequence homology and are encoded by clustered genes. Collectively, these receptors bind an extraordinarily numerous and structurally diverse group of agonistic ligands, including N-formyl and nonformyl peptides of different composition, that chemoattract and activate phagocytes. N-formyl peptides, which are encoded in nature only by bacterial and mitochondrial genes and result from obligatory initiation of bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine, is the only ligand class common to all three human receptors. Surprisingly, the endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide annexin 1 and its N-terminal fragments also bind human FPR1 and FPR2/ALX, and the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid lipoxin A4 is an agonist at FPR2/ALX. In comparison, fewer agonists have been identified for FPR3, the third member in this receptor family. Structural and functional studies of the FPRs have produced important information for understanding the general pharmacological principles governing all leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. This article aims to provide an overview of the discovery and pharmacological characterization of FPRs, to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature, and to discuss unmet challenges, including the mechanisms used by these receptors to bind diverse ligands and mediate different biological functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CC chemokine CCL14a is constitutively expressed in a large variety of tissues and its inactive proform CCL14a(1-74) circulates in high concentrations in plasma. CCL14a(1-74) is converted into CCL14a(9-74) by the proteases urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasmin and is a highly active agonist for the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5. In this study, a new CCL14a analog, CCL14a(12-74), was isolated from blood filtrate. To elucidate the functional role of the N terminus, a panel of N-terminally truncated CCL14a analogs were tested on the receptors CCR1 to CCR5 and on the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded chemokine receptor US28. The rank order of binding affinity to these receptors and of the activation of CCR1 and CCR5-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration mobilization is CCL14a(6-74)<(7-74)<(8-74)<(9-74) = (10-74)>(11-74)>(12-74). The almost identical affinities of CCL14a(7-74), CCL14a(9-74), and CCL14a(10-74) for the US28 receptor and the inhibition of US28-mediated HIV infection of 293T cells by all of the N-terminally truncated CCL14a analogs support the promiscuous nature of the viral chemokine receptor US28. In high concentrations, CCL14a(12-74) did reveal antagonistic activity on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration mobilization in CCR1- and CCR5-transfected cells, which suggests that truncation of Tyr(11) might be of significance for an efficient inactivation of CCL14a. A putative inactivation pathway of CCL14a(9-74) to CCL14a(12-74) may involve the dipeptidase CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), which generates CCL14a(11-74), and the metalloprotease aminopeptidase N (CD13), which displays the capacity to generate CCL14a(12-74) from CCL14a(11-74). Our results suggest that the activity of CCL14a might be regulated by stringent proteolytic activation and inactivation steps.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2009; 183(2):1229-37. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formyl peptide receptor (FPR) is a key player in innate immunity and host defense mechanisms. In humans and other primates, a cluster of genes encodes two related receptors, FPR-like 1 and FPR-like 2 (FPRL1 and FPRL2). Despite their high sequence similarity, the three receptors respond to different sets of ligands and display a different expression pattern in leukocyte populations. Unlike FPR and FPRL1, FPRL2 is absent from neutrophils, and two endogenous peptide agonists, F2L and humanin, were recently described. In the present work, we investigated the detailed functional distribution of FPRL2 in leukocytes by quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and chemotaxis assays, with the aim of raising hypotheses regarding its potential functions in the human body. We describe that FPRL2 is highly expressed and functional in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and up-regulated upon their maturation. FPRL2 is also expressed in eosinophils, which are recruited but do not degranulate in response to F2L. FPRL2 is expressed and functional in macrophages differentiated from monocytes in vitro in different conditions. However, in vivo, only specific subsets of macrophages express the receptor, particularly in the lung, colon, and skin, three organs chronically exposed to pathogens and exogenous aggressions. This distribution and the demonstration of the production of the F2L peptide in mice underline the potential role of FPRL2 in innate immunity and possibly in immune regulation and allergic diseases.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2009; 182(8):4974-84. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine, an ubiquitous neuromodulator, and its analogues have been shown to produce ‘depressant’ effects in animal models believed to be relevant to depressive disorders, while adenosine receptor antagonists have been found to reverse adenosine-mediated ‘depressant’ effect.We have designed studies to assess whether adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, or genetic inactivation of the receptor would be effective in established screening procedures, such as tail suspension and forced swim tests, which are predictive of clinical antidepressant activity.Adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice were found to be less sensitive to ‘depressant’ challenges than their wildtype littermates. Consistently, the adenosine A2A receptor blockers SCH 58261 (1 – 10 mg kg−1, i.p.) and KW 6002 (0.1 – 10 mg kg−1, p.o.) reduced the total immobility time in the tail suspension test.The efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists in reducing immobility time in the tail suspension test was confirmed and extended in two groups of mice. Specifically, SCH 58261 (1 – 10 mg kg−1) and ZM 241385 (15 – 60 mg kg−1) were effective in mice previously screened for having high immobility time, while SCH 58261 at 10 mg kg−1 reduced immobility of mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous ‘helplessness’ in this assay.Additional experiments were carried out using the forced swim test. SCH 58261 at 10 mg kg−1 reduced the immobility time by 61%, while KW 6002 decreased the total immobility time at the doses of 1 and 10 mg kg−1 by 75 and 79%, respectively.Administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (50 – 200 μg kg−1 i.p.) prevented the antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) in forced swim test whereas it left unaltered its stimulant motor effects.In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that A2A receptor antagonists prolong escape-directed behaviour in two screening tests for antidepressants. Altogether the results support the hypothesis that blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor might be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.British Journal of Pharmacology (2001) 134, 68–77; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704240
British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2009; 134(1):68 - 77. · 5.07 Impact Factor