Marie-Anne Loriot

Université René Descartes - Paris 5, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (67)338.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: 1. Ethanol consumption and smoking alter the expression of certain drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, potentially influencing the tissue-specific effects of xenobiotics. 2. Amygdala (AMG) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are brain regions that modulate the effects of alcohol and smoking, yet little is known about the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in these tissues. 3. Here, we describe the first study on the expression of 19 P450s, their redox partners, three ABC transporters and four related transcription factors in the AMG and PFC of smokers and alcoholics by quantitative RT-PCR. 4. CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C18, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2J2, CYP2S1, CYP2U1, CYP4X1, CYP46, adrenodoxin and NADPH-P450 reductase, ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCA1, and transcription factors aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR and proliferator-activated receptor α were quantified in both areas. CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, adrenodoxin reductase and the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor were detected but below the limit of quantification. CYP1A2 and CYP2W1 were not detected. 5. Adrenodoxin expression was elevated in all case groups over controls, and smokers showed a trend toward higher CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. 6. Our study shows that most xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s and associated redox partners, transporters and transcription factors are expressed in human AMG and PFC.
    Xenobiotica 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/00498254.2015.1040102 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been considerable progress in the management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) but further improvement is needed to increase long-term survival. The thiopurine agent 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) used for ALL maintenance therapy has a key influence on clinical outcomes and relapse prevention. Genetic inheritance in thiopurine metabolism plays a major role in interindividual clinical response variability to thiopurines; however, most cases of thiopurine resistance remain unexplained. We used lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from healthy donors, selected for their extreme thiopurine susceptibility. Thiopurine metabolism was characterized by the determination of TPMT and HPRT activity. We performed genome-wide expression profiling in resistant and sensitive cell lines with the goal of elucidating the mechanisms of thiopurine resistance. We determined a higher TPMT activity (+44%; P = 0.024) in resistant compared to sensitive cell lines, although there was no difference in HPRT activity. We identified a 32-gene transcriptomic signature that predicts thiopurine resistance. This signature includes the GTPBP4 gene coding for a GTP-binding protein that interacts with p53. A comprehensive pathway analysis of the genes differentially expressed between resistant and sensitive cell lines indicated a role for cell cycle and DNA mismatch repair system in thiopurine resistance. It also revealed overexpression of the ATM/p53/p21 pathway, which is activated in response to DNA damage and induces cell cycle arrest in thiopurine resistant LCLs. Furthermore, overexpression of the p53 target gene TNFRSF10D or the negative cell cycle regulator CCNG2 induces cell cycle arrest and may also contribute to thiopurine resistance. ARHGDIA under-expression in resistant cell lines may constitute a novel molecular mechanism contributing to thiopurine resistance based on Rac1 inhibition induced apoptosis and in relation with thiopurine pharmacodynamics. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying thiopurine resistance and suggests a potential research focus for developing tailored medicine.
    Genome Medicine 04/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1186/s13073-015-0150-6 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2U1 (CYP2U1) has been identified from the human genome and is highly conserved in the living kingdom. In humans, it has been found to be predominantly expressed in the thymus and in the brain. CYP2U1 is considered as an "orphan" enzyme as few data are available on its physiological function(s) and active site topology. Its only substrates reported so far were unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, and, much more recently, N-arachidonoylserotonin. We have expressed CYP2U1 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, built a 3D homology model of CYP2U1, screened a library of compounds known to be substrates of CYP2 family with metabolite detection by HPLC-MS, and performed docking experiments to explain the observed regioselectivity of the reactions. We show that some drug-related compounds, debrisoquine and terfenadine derivatives, that are subtrates of CYP2D6 and CYP2J2, two enzymes phylogenetically close to CYP2U1, are hydroxylated by recombinant CYP2U1 with regioselectivities quite different from those previously reported in the case of CYP2D6 and 2J2. Docking experiments of those compounds and of the previously described substrate arachidonic acid allow us to explain the regioselectivity of the observed hydroxylations on the basis of the interactions of these substrates with key residues of CYP2U1 active site. Our results show for the first time that human orphan CYP2U1 can oxidize several exogenous molecules including drugs. This could have consequences for the metabolism of drugs particularly in the brain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2015; 1850(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.03.014 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss a case of severe respiratory depression in a child, with ultrarapid CYP2D6 genotype and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, after taking tramadol for pain relief related to a day-case tonsillectomy. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    Pediatrics 02/2015; 135(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-2673 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    Laurent Chouchana, Philippe Beaune, Marie-Anne Loriot
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2015; 372(4):386. DOI:10.1056/NEJMc1414728#SA3 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was to determine the influence of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX genetic polymorphisms on mean daily dose of acenocoumarol in South Indian patients and to develop a new pharmacogenetic algorithm based on clinical and genetic factors. Methods Patients receiving acenocoumarol maintenance therapy (n = 230) were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results The mean daily acenocoumarol maintenance dose was found to be 3.7 ± 2.3 (SD) mg/day. The CYP2C9 *1*2, CYP2C9 *1*3, and CYP2C9 *2*3 variant genotypes significantly reduced the dose by 56.7 % (2.0 mg), 67.6 % (1.6 mg), and 70.3 % (1.5 mg) than wild-type carriers 4.1 mg, p CYP2C9 and GGCX (rs11676382) were found to be associated with lower acenocoumarol dose, whereas CYP4F2 (rs2108622) was associated with higher doses. Age, body mass index (BMI), variation of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX were the major determinants of acenocoumarol maintenance dose, accounting for 61.8 % of its variability (adjusted r 2 = 0.615, p VKORC1 variants, rs9923231 alone contributed up to 28.6 % of the acenocoumarol dose variation. Conclusion VKORC1 rs9923231 polymorphism had the highest impact on acenocoumarol daily dose. A new pharmacogenetic algorithm was established to determine the acenocoumarol dose in South Indian population.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2014; 71(2). DOI:10.1007/s00228-014-1791-x · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This phase I, pilot clinical study was designed to evaluate the safety and the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the CIME (Metabolic Identity Card) combination of ten drugs, with a view to its use as a phenotyping cocktail. Ten healthy Caucasian subjects were orally dosed with the CIME combination (caffeine-CYP1A2, repaglinide-CYP2C8, tolbutamide-CYP2C9, omeprazole-CYP2C19, dextromethorphan-CYP2D6, midazolam-CYP3A, acetaminophen-UGT1A1, 6&9 and 2B15, digoxin-P-gp, rosuvastatin-OATP1B1&3 and memantine-active renal transport). Blood was collected over 3 days and on day 7. CIME probes and relevant metabolites were assayed by LC-MS/MS and PK parameters were calculated. Main results were: (1) good safety with reversible mild or moderate adverse effects, (2) an analytical method able to quantify simultaneously the 10 probes and the major metabolites, (3) calculation of PK parameters for all probes in general agreed with published values, and (4) identification of the low CYP2D6 metabolizer. This pilot study showed that the CIME combination was well tolerated and that its pharmacokinetics could be accurately measured in healthy volunteers. This combination can now confidently be checked for sensitivity and specificity and for lack of interaction to be validated as a phenotyping cocktail.
    European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13318-014-0239-0 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    PLoS Genetics 11/2014; 10(11):e1004788. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004788 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo investigate functional platelet recovery after preoperative withdrawal of aspirin and clopidogrel and platelet function 5 days after treatment resumption.Methods/ResultsWe conducted an observational study, which prospectively included consecutive patients taking aspirin, taking clopidogrel, and untreated controls (15 patients in each group). The antiplatelet drugs were withdrawn five days before surgery (baseline) and were reintroduced two days after surgery. Platelet function was evaluated by optical aggregation in the presence of collagen, arachidonic acid (aspirin) and ADP (clopidogrel) and by VASP assay (clopidogrel). Platelet-leukocyte complex (PLC) level was quantified at each time-point. At baseline, platelet function was efficiently inhibited by aspirin and had recovered fully in most patients 5 days after drug withdrawal. PLC levels five days after aspirin reintroduction were similar to baseline (+4±10%; p = 0.16), in line with an effective platelet inhibition. Chronic clopidogrel treatment was associated with variable platelet inhibition and its withdrawal led to variable functional recovery. PLC levels were significantly increased five days after clopidogrel reintroduction (+10±15%; p = 0.02), compared to baseline.ConclusionsAspirin withdrawal 5 days before high-bleeding-risk procedures was associated with functional platelet recovery, and its reintroduction two days after surgery restored antiplaletet efficacy five days later. This was not the case of clopidogrel, and further work is therefore needed to define its optimal perioperative management.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104491. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104491 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Irinotecan is a cytotoxic agent administered by IV infusion in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Its anticancer activity results from its bioactivation into SN-38 metabolite, which is cleared through glucuronidation by the hepatic enzyme uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). In the general population, there is wide inter-subject variability in UGT1A1 enzyme activity related to UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms. The French joint workgroup coming from the National Pharmacogenetic Network (RNPGx) and the Group of Clinical Oncologic Pharmacology (GPCO) herein presents an updated review dealing with efficacy and toxicity clinical studies related to UGT1A1 genetic variants. From a critical analysis of this review it clearly emerges that, for doses higher than 180 mg/m(2), hematologic and digestive irinotecan-induced toxicities could be prevented in daily clinical practice by generalizing the use of a simple pharmacogenetic test before starting treatment. The clinical relevance of this test is also discussed in terms of treatment efficacy improvement, with the possibility of increasing the irinotecan dose in patients not bearing the deleterious allele. This test involves using a blood sample to analyze the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene (UGT1A1*28 allele). Best execution practices, laboratory costs, as well as results interpretation are described with the aim of facilitating the implementation of this analysis in clinical routine. The existence of a French laboratories network performing this test in clinical routine makes it possible to generalize UGT1A1 deficiency screening, so as to guarantee equal access to safe treatment and optimized irinorecan-based therapy for the many patients receiving irinotecan-based therapy in advanced colorectal cancer.
    Bulletin du cancer 06/2014; 101(6):533-553. DOI:10.1684/bdc.2014.1933 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims: TPMT activity and metabolite determination (6-thioguanine nucleotides [6-TGN] and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides [6-MMPN]) remain controversial during thiopurine management. This study assessed associations between patient characteristics and TPMT activity, and their impact on metabolite levels. Patients & methods: A retrospective review of the laboratory database from a French university hospital identified 7360 patients referred for TPMT phenotype/genotype determination, and/or for 6-TGN/6-MMPN monitoring. Results: Four TPMT phenotypes were identified according to TPMT activity distribution: low, intermediate, normal/high and very high. Based on 6775 assays, 6-TGN concentrations were 1.6-fold higher in TPMT-deficient patients compared with TPMT-normal patients. Azathioprine dose and TPMT genotype were significant predictors of metabolite levels. Furthermore, 6-MMPN and 6-MMPN: 6-TGN ratios were, respectively, 1.6- and 2.2-fold higher in females than in males, despite similar TPMT, 6-TGN and azathioprine doses. An unfavorable ratio (≥20) was associated with a slightly higher TPMT activity. Conclusion: These results illustrate the usefulness of pharmacogenomics and metabolite measurement to improve the identification of noncompliance and patients at high risk for toxicity or therapeutic resistance. Original submitted 13 November 2013; Revision submitted 30 January 2014.
    Pharmacogenomics 04/2014; 15(6):745-757. DOI:10.2217/pgs.14.32 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although the efficiency of oxaliplatin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer has been demonstrated, it is not commonly used. In cells, oxaliplatin is metabolized by the enzymes belonging to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) family. Case: A 55-year-old woman with advanced ovarian cancer received 6 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin after debulking surgery. Six months later, she experienced a clinical recurrence. A second-line chemotherapy combining 500 mg/m(2) cyclophosphamide with 100 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin was initiated and maintained for 10 cycles. The patient thus experienced a second complete remission that lasted for 6 years. We found that she had deficient GSTM1 enzyme activity with homozygous deletion and normal GSTP1 and GSTT1 activities. Conclusion: The association of a homozygous deletion of GSTM1 with hypersensitivity to oxaliplatin and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy has not been described to date in ovarian cancer. Further study of its potential interest to personalized second-line therapy in these patients is called for. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Chemotherapy 01/2014; 59(4):290-293. DOI:10.1159/000357517 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) investigate whether genetic polymorphisms associated with a phenotype are also associated with other diagnoses. In this study, we have developed new methods to perform a PheWAS based on ICD-10 codes and biological test results, and to use a quantitative trait as the selection criterion. We tested our approach on thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity in patients treated by thiopurine drugs. We developed 2 aggregation methods for the ICD-10 codes: an ICD-10 hierarchy and a mapping to existing ICD-9-CM based PheWAS codes. Eleven biological test results were also analyzed using discretization algorithms. We applied these methods in patients having a TPMT activity assessment from the clinical data warehouse of a French academic hospital between January 2000 and July 2013. Data after initiation of thiopurine treatment were analyzed and patient groups were compared according to their TPMT activity level. A total of 442 patient records were analyzed representing 10,252 ICD-10 codes and 72,711 biological test results. The results from the ICD-9-CM based PheWAS codes and ICD-10 hierarchy codes were concordant. Cross-validation with the biological test results allowed us to validate the ICD phenotypes. Iron-deficiency anemia and diabetes mellitus were associated with a very high TPMT activity (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.0015, respectively). We describe here an original method to perform PheWAS on a quantitative trait using both ICD-10 diagnosis codes and biological test results to identify associated phenotypes. In the field of pharmacogenomics, PheWAS allow for the identification of new subgroups of patients who require personalized clinical and therapeutic management.
    PLoS Computational Biology 12/2013; 9(12):e1003405. DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003405 · 4.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathologic features of Parkinson's disease (PD) include death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, presence of α-synuclein containing Lewy bodies, and iron accumulation in PD-related brain regions. The observed iron accumulation may be contributing to PD etiology but it also may be a byproduct of cell death or cellular dysfunction. To elucidate the possible role of iron accumulation in PD, we investigated genetic variation in 16 genes related to iron homeostasis in three case-control studies from the United States, Australia, and France. After screening 90 haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of interest in the US study population, we investigated the five most promising gene regions in two additional independent case-control studies. For the pooled data set (1289 cases, 1391 controls) we observed a protective association (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) between PD and a haplotype composed of the A allele at rs1880669 and the T allele at rs1049296 in transferrin (TF; GeneID: 7018). Additionally, we observed a suggestive protective association (OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.74-1.02) between PD and a haplotype composed of the G allele at rs10247962 and the A allele at rs4434553 in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2; GeneID: 7036). We observed no associations in our pooled sample for haplotypes in SLC40A1, CYB561, or HFE. Taken together with previous findings in model systems, our results suggest that TF or a TF-TFR2 complex may have a role in the etiology of PD, possibly through iron misregulation or mitochondrial dysfunction within dopaminergic neurons.
    Neurobiology of Disease 10/2013; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2013.09.019 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the influence of genetic polymorphisms on warfarin maintenance dose and to explicate an algorithm using the pharmacogenetic and clinical factors to determine the maintenance and/or starting dose of warfarin in South Indian patients receiving warfarin therapy. Patients receiving stabilized warfarin therapy (n = 257) were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2C9 (rs1799853 and rs1057910), VKORC1 (rs9923231, rs7196161, rs2884737, rs9934438, rs8050894, rs2359612 and rs7294), CYP4F2 (rs2108622) and GGCX (rs11676382) were genotyped by the quantitative real time-PCR method. The mean daily maintenance dose of warfarin was found to be 4.7 ± 2.1 mg/day. Patients with the CYP2C9*1/*2, *1/*3 and *2/*3 variant genotypes required a 51.0 (2.8 mg), 60.9 (2.3 mg) and 62.2 % (2.2 mg) lower daily maintenance dose of warfarin, respectively, than those patients with the CYP2C9*1/*1 wild-type genotype (5.2 mg) (p < 0.0001). The genetic variants of CYP2C9, VKORC1 and GGCX were associated with decreased warfarin dose, except for rs7196161, rs7294 and rs2108622 which were associated with an increased warfarin dose. Genetic variations of CYP2C9 (*2 and *3), VKORC1 (rs9923231, rs7294, rs9934438 and rs2359612), CYP4F2, GGCX and non-genetic factors such as age, body weight, clinical status (post mechanical valve replacement) could explain up to 62.1 % of the overall variation (adjusted r (2) 60.2 %, p < 0.0001) in warfarin maintenance dose. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX are important predictive factors of warfarin maintenance dose, and the developed algorithm will be useful to predict the required maintenance and/or starting warfarin dose in South Indian populations.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 09/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00228-013-1581-x · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The best validated susceptibility variants for Parkinson's disease are located in the α-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) genes. Recently, a protective p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K haplotype in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene was identified, with p.R1398H appearing to be the most likely functional variant. To date, the consistency of the protective effect of LRRK2 p.R1398H across MAPT and SNCA variant genotypes has not been assessed. To address this, we examined 4 SNCA variants (rs181489, rs356219, rs11931074, and rs2583988), the MAPT H1-haplotype-defining variant rs1052553, and LRRK2 p.R1398H (rs7133914) in Caucasian (n = 10,322) and Asian (n = 2289) series. There was no evidence of an interaction of LRRK2 p.R1398H with MAPT or SNCA variants (all p ≥ 0.10); the protective effect of p.R1398H was observed at similar magnitude across MAPT and SNCA genotypes, and the risk effects of MAPT and SNCA variants were observed consistently for LRRK2 p.R1398H genotypes. Our results indicate that the association of LRRK2 p.R1398H with Parkinson's disease is independent of SNCA and MAPT variants, and vice versa, in Caucasian and Asian populations.
    Neurobiology of aging 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.07.013 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Chemistry 07/2013; 59(7):1023-6. DOI:10.1373/clinchem.2012.195750 · 7.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 2.2-year-old Moroccan girl (11 kg; body surface area, 0.50 m(2) ) underwent mitral valve replacement for congenital mitral stenosis. Two days later, she received amiodarone for atrial arrhythmia; the dosage was 500 mg/m(2) /day for 7 days then 250 mg/m(2) /day (Figure). Nine days after surgery, she started a standard warfarin regimen for children (0.2 mg/Kg) with an initial dose of 2 mg (Day 1) [1]. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 12/2012; DOI:10.1111/jth.12105 · 5.55 Impact Factor
  • Thrombosis Research 10/2012; 130:S121. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2012.08.055 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Caroline Moreau, Marie-Anne Loriot, Virginie Siguret
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are used for 60 years in the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disease. VKA were first used as rodenticides. There was a growing use of VKA in humans after President Eisenhower received them after a heart attack in 1955. However, the use of VKA is still challenging because they are characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and a great inter-individual variability in the dose response to the drug. This variability can partly be explained by demographic, clinical and therapeutic factors, but also by genetic variations. The main enzyme responsible for VKA metabolism is the hepatic cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit I (VKORC1) is a key enzyme in the vitamin K cycle and was identified as the pharmacological target of VKA. Genetic variations affecting both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are associated with a significant decrease in the VKA dose requirements and an increased risk of bleeding. Genotyping both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 before the initiation of VKA allows to identify a subgroup of patients with an early response to VKA therapy, that expose them to overdosage and a higher bleeding risk. More recently, a polymorphism in the gene encoding CYP4F2 has been identified and may partly explain the variability in warfarin maintenance dose by altering the metabolism of vitamin K. In addition, rare mutations have been found in VKORC1 that could explain very high VKA dose requirements and pharmacodynamic resistance.
    10/2012; 70(5):539-551. DOI:10.1684/abc.2012.0740

Publication Stats

2k Citations
338.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2015
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • • Faculté de Médecine
      • • Faculty of medicine
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2014
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004–2014
    • Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Ouest)
      • Service de Biochimie
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010
    • Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy
      • Department of Radiotherapy
      Île-de-France, France
  • 2005–2010
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      • Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health CESP
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France