[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate gastric antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of bovine hemoglobin (B-Hb) in rats.
Adult Albino-Wistar rats were divided into groups of 6 animals each. B-Hb in doses of 100, 300 and 900 mg/kg body weight was tested for gastric acid secretion and antiulcer activity. Gastric secretions were measured 6 h after pylorus ligation in rats pretreated with B-Hb. The acidity was measured by titrating gastric contents against 0.01 mol/L NaOH to pH 7. Indomethacin ulcers were produced by oral administration of 30 mg/kg bw in the rats pretreated with B-Hb one hour before indomethacin. Six hours after indomethacin stomach removed and ulcer index was recorded. Ethanol ulcer were produced by 1 mL of ethanol in the rats pretreated with B-Hb 30 min before the ethanol. One hour after ethanol stomach were cut open to score ulcers. Histological examination and analysis of gastric wall mucus, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were carried in gastric tissue following ethanol administration.
In control rats pylorus ligation for 6 h resulted in the accumulation of 8.1 ± 0.61 mL of gastric secretion. The treatment of the rats with 100, 300 and 900 mg/kg of B-Hb produced a significant decrease in the volume of gastric secretion 5.6 ± 0.63, 5.5 ± 0.75 and 4.7 ± 0.58 mL respectively as compared to the control group [analysis of variance (ANOVA) F = 4.77, P < 0.05]. The lesion area in the control group was found to be 22.4 ± 3.2 mm(2) six hours after the administration of indomethacin. Treatment of rats with B-Hb at doses of 100 mg/kg (24.3 ± 3.29 mm(2)), 300 mg/kg (16.2 ± 1.45 mm(2)) and 900 mg/kg (12.6 ± 1.85 mm(2)) produced a dose dependent decreased the lesion scores (ANOVA F = 4.50, P < 0.05). The ulcer index following one hour after 1 mL ethanol was 7.1 ± 0.31. Pretreatment of rats with B-Hb at the doses of 100 mg/kg (2.5 ± 0.42), 300 mg/kg (2.1 ± 0.4) and 900 mg/kg (0.7 ± 0.21) significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions (ANOVA F = 63.26, P < 0.0001). Histological examination of gastric mucosa following ethanol showed significant lesions in the form of gastric pits with detachment of the surface epithelium; vacuolation of epithelial cells and elongation of microvessels. The changes were dose-dependently attenuated by B-Hb. The treatment of rats with ethanol significantly decreased the Alcian blue binding capacity of gastric wall mucus (480 ± 25.6 μg Alcian blue/g of tissue) as compared to control rats (667 ± 25.8 μg). Pretreatment of rats with B-Hb at the doses of 100 mg/kg (516 ± 31.6 μg/g), 300 mg/kg (558 ± 28.8 μg/g) and 900 mg/kg (654 ± 33.8 μg/g) significantly attenuated ethanol induced depletion of gastric wall mucus (ANOVA F = 8.05, P < 0.005). A significant and dose dependent increase of gastric mucosal NP-SH (ANOVA F = 19.62, P < 0.001) and decrease in MPO activity (ANOVA F = 3.1, P < 0.05) was observed in B-Hb treated rats.
B-Hb possesses significant gastric antisecretory and gastroprotective activity against experimentally induced gastric lesion. The gastroprotective effects of B-Hb are accompanied by inhibition of neutrophils activity, reduction of oxidative stress and maintenance of mucosal integrity.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2013; 19(21):3291-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder strongly associated with dopamine dysregulation. The catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) is a candidate gene for schizophrenia which encodes enzyme involved in the metabolic inactivation of dopamine. The COMT val158met polymorphism has been associated with schizophrenia with significant inter- and intra- ethnic variations. The aim of this study is to determine a possible association between COMT val158met polymorphism and schizophrenia among Saudis with emphasis on role of gender and functional symptoms. A total of 349 Saudi subjects including 172 unrelated schizophrenia patients and 177 matched controls were analyzed for allele and genotype distribution of COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism. We found significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies between patients and controls. The frequencies of met158 allele (A) and genotype val158met (GA) were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls. On the other hand the frequencies of val 158 allele (G) and genotype val 158 val (GG) were significantly higher in controls than the patients. These results indicated a significant association of COMT val 158 met polymorphism with schizophrenia. Moreover, the COMT- val 158met polymorphism had increased risk for schizophrenia in male than female subjects, however, no association was noticed with COMT- val158met polymorphism and negative or positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Our results provide strong evidence for a role of COMT val158met polymorphism in the etiopathophysiology of schizophrenia in Saudi population. This study also suggests that the association of COMT- val158met polymorphism may be moderated by gender.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder of the skin, characterized by multiple susceptibility loci and genetic heterogeneity. The etiology of vitiligo is unknown but several hypotheses, including an autoimmune origin, have been proposed. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, has been shown to play a critical role in several autoimmune diseases including vitiligo. The aim of present study was to determine the association of TNF-α and -β gene polymorphisms with vitiligo in Saudi patients. TNF-α and -β genes were amplified in 123 Saudi patients and 200 matched controls using polymerase chain reaction to search for polymorphisms involved at positions -308, and intron 1 +252. The frequency of the TNF-α (-308) GA genotype was higher and the frequencies of the GG and AA genotypes were significantly lower in vitiligo patients compared to controls. These findings suggested that genotype GA-positive individuals at position -308 of TNF-α are susceptible to vitiligo, whereas the GG and AA genotypes might exert a protective effect. The frequency of allele A (TNF-α 2-allele) was significantly higher and that of allele G (TNF-α 1-allele) was lower in vitiligo patients compared to controls, indicating an association of allele A with susceptibility to vitiligo in Saudi patients. The results of our examination of TNF-β (intron 1 +252) polymorphisms showed a significant increase in the frequency of the GG genotype and allele G (TNF-β 1-allele) in vitiligo patients, suggesting a susceptibility of the GG genotype and allele G for vitiligo. By contrast, the high frequency of the GA genotype in controls might indicate a protective effect. The results of the present study strongly support a link between TNF-α (-308) and -β (intron 1 +252) polymorphisms and vitiligo in Saudi patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have suggested an important role of glutathione (GSH) in cytoprotection against free radicals induced oxidative damage. This study reports gastroprotective effects of a cysteine precursor, L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC), in experimental models of gastric secretion and ulceration. Acid secretion studies (volume and acidity) were undertaken in pylorus-ligated rats whereas the gastric lesions were induced by ethanol. Different groups of animals were treated with OTC (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). The levels of gastric wall mucus, nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the glandular stomach of rats following ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Both medium and high doses of OTC significantly reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Pretreatment with OTC significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the formation of ethanol-induced gastric lesion. OTC significantly protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced depletion of gastric wall mucus, NP-SH and MPO. The gastroprotective effects of OTC may be attributed to its ability to inhibit neutrophils activity and replenish GSH demand.
Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 03/2012; 64(3):233-7. · 1.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contrast media- (CM-) induced nephropathy is a serious complication of radiodiagnostic procedures. Available data suggests that the development of prophylaxis strategies is limited by poor understanding of pathophysiology of CM-induced nephropathy. Present study was designed to determine the role of oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of iohexol model of nephropathy and its modification with simvastatin (SSTN). Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. After 24 h of water deprivation, all the rats except in control and SSTN-only groups were injected (10 ml/kg) with 25% glycerol. After 30 min, SSTN (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was administered orally, daily for 4 days. Twenty-four hours after the glycerol injection, iohexol was infused (8 ml/kg) through femoral vein over a period of 2 min. All the animals were sacrificed on day 5 and blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The results showed that SSTN dose dependently attenuated CM-induced rise of creatinine, urea, and structural abnormalities suggesting its nephroprotective effect. A significant increase in oxidative stress (increased lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreased nitric oxide in CM group were reversed by SSTN. These findings support the use of SSTN to combat CM-induced nephrotoxicity.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2012; 2012:831748.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is aimed to examine the association between HLA-DRB1 alleles frequency and schizophrenia in Saudi Arabs.
The DRB1 region of major histocompatibility complex was screened by polymerase chain reaction/sequence specific primers (PCR/SSP) in 180 schizophrenia patients and 200 matched controls.
The frequency of DRB1*03 was found to be significantly higher in schizophrenia patients as compared to controls, whereas a significantly lower frequency of DRB1*06 was observed in schizophrenia patients as compared to controls. Molecular sub-typing of the most prevalent allele DRB1*03 (30.56%) revealed the presence of DRB1*030101, *030102 alleles.
The results of this study suggested a positive association between DRB1*03 (DRB1*030101, DRB1*030102) with schizophrenia and a negative association of DRB1*06 with schizophrenia in Saudi Arabs. However it is not clear whether the DRB1*03 alleles have a direct causal role in the etiology of schizophrenia or if they are in direct linkage disequilibrium with another true susceptibility locus. Since schizophrenia is a complex phenotype, it is expected that many factors might act together to produce the final outcome. Further studies are warranted involving larger population to confirm the observations reported in this study.
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 06/2011; 15(2):112-7. · 0.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have implicated reactive oxygen species and transitional metals in the pathogenesis of gastric lesions. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (DMP), a thiol compound and metal chelator, on chemically induced gastroduodenal ulcers in rats. Acid secretion studies were undertaken using pylorus-ligated rats pretreated with DMP (3-100 mg/kg, i.p.). The effect of orally administered DMP on cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers was also tested. The level of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and gastric wall mucus was measured in the glandular stomach of rats treated with ethanol. None of the dose of DMP affected the volume or acidity of gastric secretion. Low doses of DMP (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers, whereas the high doses (30 and 100 mg/kg) were ineffective in this model. All the doses of DMP significantly and dose dependently attenuated ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The adverse effects of ethanol on gastric wall mucus and NP-SH were significantly and dose dependently reversed by DMP. In conclusion, the protective effects of DMP appear to be independent of gastric acid secretion and may be associated with counteracting the oxidative stress by replenishing glutathione and reducing the pool of transition metals.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 04/2011; 26(3):402-9. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and -β are cytokines with a wide range of inflammatory, apoptotic and immunomodulatory activities. TNF-α promoter -308 G < A polymorphism has been reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inconsistent results.
The aim of this study is to elucidate a possible association of TNF-α (G-308A) and TNF-β (A+252G) polymorphisms with the susceptibility of RA in Saudi patients.
This case control study consisted of 232 Saudi subjects including 106 RA patients and 126 matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted using QIAamp(R) DNA mini kit (Qiagen CA, USA). TNF-α and TNF-β genes were amplified using Arms primers.
The frequencies of TNF-α (-308) allele G and genotype GG were significantly higher in RA patients as compared to controls while allele A and genotype AA were predominant in control group. On the other hand the frequency of TNF-β (+252) GG and AA genotypes were significantly higher in RA patients as compared to controls while GA genotype was predominant in controls. It was inferred that genotype GG positive individuals at position -308 of TNF-α were susceptible to RA while genotype AA might has a protective effect on RA susceptibility in Saudis. Whereas GG and AA genotype of TNF-β at +252 position might exert additive susceptibility to RA and GA might be refractory. However, there was no significant association between duration of morning stiffness, RF positivity and number of joints involved and distribution of alleles/genotypes of TNF-α (-308) or TNF-β (+252) polymorphism. It may be concluded that the TNF-α (-308) and TNF-β (+252) polymorphisms might influence the susceptibility to RA in Saudi population. These results might have prognostic value for future clinical observations.
Clinical medicine insights. Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders. 01/2011; 4:55-63.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a naturally occurring neurotoxin produced by legumes of the genus Astragalus and Arthrium fungi. Acute exposure to 3-NPA results in striatal astrocytic death and variety of behavior dysfunction in rats. Oxidative stress has been reported to play an important role in 3-NPA-induced neurotoxicity. Trolox is a potent free radical chain breaking antioxidant which has been shown to restore structure and function of the nervous system following oxidative stress. This rapid and efficient antioxidant property of trolox was attributed to its enhanced water solubility as compared with alpha-tocopherol. This investigation was aimed to study the effect of trolox against 3-NPA-induced neurotoxicity in female Wistar rats. The animals received trolox (0, 40 mg, 80 mg and 160 mg/kg, orally) daily for 7 days. 3-NPA (25 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered daily 30 min after trolox for the same duration. One additional group of rats served as control (vehicle only). On day 8, the animals were observed for neurobehavioral performance. Immediately after behavioral studies, the animal's brains were dissected out for histological studies. Lesions in the striatal dopaminergic neurons were assessed by immunohistochemical method using tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining. Administration of 3-NPA alone caused significant depletion of striatal dopamine and glutathione, whereas, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) were significantly increased suggesting an elevated level of oxidative stress. Trolox significantly and dose-dependently protected animals against 3-NPA-induced neurobehavioral, neurochemical and structural abnormalities. These results clearly suggest that protective effect of trolox against 3-NPA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated through its free radical scavenging activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced behavioral abnormalities [excitation with choreiform and circling movements (ECC) syndrome] in rats. The animals were intraperitoneally injected with IDPN (100 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. PTX was administered daily 30 min before IDPN in the doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg for 9 days. The animals were observed for neurobehavioral abnormalities including dyskinetic head movements, circling, tail hanging, air righting reflex, and contact inhibition of the righting reflex. The onset of ECC syndrome was observed on day 8 in the group treated with IDPN alone; all animals in this group became dyskinetic on day 10. Co-treatment with PTX dose dependently delayed the onset time and significantly reduced the incidence and severity of IDPN-induced ECC syndrome; high dose of PTX completely inhibited the abnormal behavioral signs in IDPN-treated rats. Administration of IDPN caused significant depletions in cerebral glutathione and vitamin E levels. Treatment with PTX dose dependently attenuated IDPN-induced oxidative stress in rats. The beneficial effects of PTX against IDPN toxicity may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of combination of selenium and vitamin E on experimentally induced dyskinesia in rats. The dyskinetic syndrome was produced in 4 groups of 6 male rats each weighing 250-300g by intraperitoneal (ip) administration of iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) in doses of 100m/kg body weight daily for 12 days. A group of 6 rats (group 1) served as control and received normal saline only. The rats in group 2 (IDPN only) received normal saline (ip) 30 minutes before the administration of IDPN. The animals in groups 3, 4 and 5 received selenous acid (5 μmol/kg). vitamin E (500mg/kg p.0.) and a combination of selenous acid and vitamin E respectively, daily, 30 minutes before IDPN for 12 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose of IDPN, the dyskinetic behavior including vertical head movements (retrocollis), horizontal head movements (laterocollis), circling and backwalking of each rat was studied for a period of 10 minutes. Immediately after behavioral studies, the animals were sacrificed and brains were dissected out for the analysis of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and vitamin E. The results of this study showed that treatment of rats with IDPN only for 12 days produced dyskinetic syndrome in all the rats characterized by vertical and horizontal head movements, circling and backwalking. Concomitant treatment of rats with vitamin E and selenium individually reduced IDPN induced dyskinesia, and the symptoms were almost completely absent when the combination of these two agents was used. Our biochemical studies showed that IDPN produced a significant increase in conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in a-tocopherol in the brain of the rats, suggesting the role of free radicals in IDPN induced dyskinesia. Administration of vitamin E and or selenium protected the animals against IDPN induced lipid peroxidation in brain tissues. The results are discussed in relation to the beneficial effects of antioxidants in IDPN neurotoxicity.
International Journal of Neuroscience 07/2009; 78(3-4):185-192. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This investigation was aimed to study the effect of magnesium on 1–methyl–4–phenyl–1,2,3,6–tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)–induced neurotoxicity in mice. Four groups of mice were given magnesium sulfate (MgSO4.7H2O) in drinking water at four different concentrations of 0.0 g/l (control), 2.5 g/l (low), 5.0 g/l (medium) and 10.0 g/l (high) respectively for a period of 16 weeks; these animals also received MPTP (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally daily) during the last five days of Mg treatment. Other four groups of mice were given similar dose regimen of MgSO4 but received injections of saline instead of MPTP. Seventy–two hr after the last dose of MPTP, neurobehavioural studies including locomotor activity, pole climbing test and heat nociception test were performed and striata were collected for the analysis of dopamine. The results of this study show that treatment of mice with MgSO4 or MPTP individually has no effect on their behaviour. Concomitant administration of low dose of MgSO4 (2.5 g/l) along with MPTP produced increase in motor activity and latency to heat stimuli; whereas medium and high doses of MgSO4 in combination with MPTP produced opposite (as compared to low dose) effects resulting in a decrease in motor activity and latency to heal stimuli and increase in pole climbing time. However, MgSO4 dose–dependently exacerbated MPTP–induced depletion of striatal dopamine. The mortality was drastically increased (30–55%) in the animals receiving combined treatments of MPTP and MgSO4 as compared to the mice treated with MPTP alone (12%). This study clearly points towards the ability of MgSO4 to modify MPTP–induced neurotoxicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment was carried out to test the null hypothesis that intramuscular trivalent chromium administration would not remove lipids from the heart and ascending aorta of the hyoercholesterolemic rabbits and would not lower their serum cholesterol levels. A novel computer-based method, previously described, was used to assess the sizes of the intracardiac and aortic lesions. Clinical chemistry and histopathology were performed through routine methods. The sizes of the lipid deposits in the coronary vasculature of the hypercholesterolemic rabbits were greatly reduced as a result of the intramuscular chromium chloride injections. Lipid deposits in the ascending aorta were similarly reduced, as well as the serum cholesterol concentrations. The terminal serum chromium concentrations in the chromium-treated group were in the range of 3,258-4,513 microg/L, whereas, in the untreated animals, the concentrations were 3.2 to 6.3 microg/L. The general condition of the chromium-treated animals was good and they were continuing to gain weight up to the time they were killed. However, it was found that their liver function tests had become abnormal even though there was no evidence of hepatic histopathological lesions specifically affecting the chromium-treated group. The kidney function tests and histopathology were normal. These findings suggest that a more aggressive approach than those tried hitherto might be useful in treating atherosclerotic human patients with chromium.
Biological trace element research 03/2009; 130(3):262-72. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frequencies of apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles and genotypes were examined in 230 Saudi subjects including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; n=60) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG; n=40) patients as well as 130 control subjects.
The presence of glaucoma in patients was based on clinical examination and/or ophthalmic records. The APOE allele frequency (epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by reverse-hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques.
Analysis of data showed a complete absence of epsilon2 allele and a significantly lower frequency of the epsilon3 allele in primary glaucoma patients (90.5%) compared to the control subjects (95.7%, p=0.034, relative risk [RR]=0.473, protective fraction [PF]=0.318). The frequency of the epsilon4 allele was significantly higher in the glaucoma patients (9.5%) compared to the control subjects (4.2%, p=0.034, RR=2.169, etiological fraction [EF]=0.329). The epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype was more common in controls than patients (p=0.060, RR=0.465, PF=0.322). The difference in genotype (epsilon3/epsilon4) was not statistically significant between the two groups (p=0.283). Genotype epsilon4/epsilon4 was found only in 3% of patients while being completely absent in the controls (p=0.080). The genotypes, epsilon2/epsilon2, epsilon2/epsilon3, and epsilon2/epsilon4, were absent in both the test and control groups. When patients were divided on the basis of types of glaucoma, POAG patients had a significantly higher frequency of epsilon4 allele and epsilon4/epsilon4 genotype than controls whereas there was no significant difference between PACG patient and control groups in frequencies of APOE alleles and genotypes.
This study indicates that the epsilon4 allele may be associated with POAG and could be a risk factor while epsilon3 may be protective for POAG, and APOE polymorphisms may not be associated at all with PACG in Saudis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective and specific alpha-2 adrenergic agonist with sedative, analgesic and sympathetic activities. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of in utero exposure of dexmedetomidine on foetal development and postnatal behaviour in the offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically treated with dexmedetomidine (0, 5, 10 and 20 microg/kg, subcutaneously) daily from gestation day 7 to day 19. Another group of animals received only a single acute dose of dexmedetomidine (20 microg/kg) on gestational day 19 to mimic a model for systemic analgesia during labour. Administration of dexmedetomidine did not affect the frequency of implantations. Chronic administration of 10 and 20 microg/kg of dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the body weight and crown-rump length of pups, whereas a single acute dose (20 microg/kg) did not affect these parameters. None of the pups exhibited any external malformations or skeletal abnormalities irrespective of treatment assigned. All the pups showed a normal postnatal weight gain during the developmental phase. No significant differences were observed among any of the groups with respect to behavioural performances of offspring in beam balance, grip strength and inclined plane tests as well as motor activity. In conclusion, acute exposure to dexmedetomidine at the anticipated delivery time does not exert any adverse effects on perinatal morphology of pups, their birth weight, crown-rump length, physical growth and postnatal behavioural performances. Since this study was conducted in rats, its clinical relevance in human beings remains to be unclear and warrants further studies.