[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metacognitions of five groups of patients (current hallucinating patients with schizophrenia, neverhallucinated
people with psychosis, OCD patients, patients with schizotypical personality disorder, and a clinical control group) and a non-clinical group were compared. The study also explores the role of schizotypy on relationships between metacognitions and hallucinatory predisposition. A metacognitive questionnaire,
a hallucination proneness scale and a schizotypy questionnaire were administered to all groups. The results
showed how, after controlling for schizotypy, there were no significant differences between groups in their metacognitions. However, other metacognitive factors have been revealed as significant in predicting predisposition to hallucinations, controlling or not participants’ scores in schizotypy. These results are discussed in the light of existing research on auditory hallucinations and metacognitions.
Revista Mexicana de Psicología 01/2013; 30(1):11-23. · 0.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction The purpose of this work was to study the relationship of absorption, depersonalisation, and self-focused attention in subjects prone to hallucination. Methods A sample of 218 healthy subjects was given the LSHS-R Hallucination Scale (Bentall & Slade, 1985). Three groups, subjects with high, medium, and low hallucination proneness, were formed from this sample. The Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS; Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974), Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS; Sierra & Berrios, 2000), and Self-Absorption Scale (SAS; McKenzie & Hoyle, 2008) were also given to all the participants. The Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30; Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, 2004) was used as a covariant to control for the effects of emotional vulnerability on the dependent variables studied. Results The results showed that subjects highly prone to hallucinations had significantly higher absorption, depersonalisation, and self-focused attention than the subjects in the other two groups. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that absorption and depersonalisation predict hallucination proneness. Conclusions The importance of the absorption, depersonalisation, and self-focused attention variables for understanding the aetiology of hallucinations is discussed in the Conclusions, where some approaches to its treatment are also suggested.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between reported traumatic experiences in childhood and positive psychotic symptoms. We hypothesized that dissociative experiences were potential mediators between childhood trauma and hallucinations, but not delusions. The sample comprised 71 patients diagnosed with psychoses. They were assessed with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II; Carlson & Putnam, 1993), a questionnaire on trauma (TQ; Davidson, Hughes, & Blazer, 1990), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS; Kay, Opler, & Lindenmayer, 1988) delusions and hallucinations items. The results showed that childhood trauma was positively associated with the dissociation scale scores (r = .40) and also the hallucination (r = .36) and delusions scale scores (r = .32). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the dissociation variable was a potential mediator between childhood trauma and hallucinations, but not between childhood trauma and delusions. Of the 3 DES-II factors, only depersonalization showed a mediating relationship between childhood trauma and hallucinations. The main conclusion is that the impact of childhood trauma on hallucinations may not simply be direct, but mediated by dissociative experiences, especially depersonalization. Clinical implications are also briefly discussed.
Journal of Traumatic Stress 05/2012; 25(3):323-9. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to study the relationship of metacognition, absorption, and depersonalization in hallucinating patients.
A within-subjects correlational design was employed.
We formed four groups from a clinical population (schizophrenic patients with hallucinations, schizophrenic patients with no hallucinations but with delusions, schizophrenic patients recovered from positive symptoms, and patients with a non-psychotic psychiatric disorder) and a non-clinical control group. All participants were given the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, 2004), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS, Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974) and the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS, Sierra & Berrios, 2000).
Schizophrenic subjects with hallucinations scored significantly higher on the depersonalization scale than any other group, and significantly higher on the absorption scale than any group except for the clinical patient controls. Schizophrenic patients with hallucinations also had significantly more dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs than subjects with no psychiatric pathology. It was further found that the metacognition variable correlated positively with the absorption and depersonalization variables, and that these variables in turn correlated positively with each other. Finally, it should be stressed that the variables that best predict hallucination severity are depersonalization and the MCQ-30 subscale `Need to control thoughts'.
We discuss the role of metacognitive and dissociative variables in understanding hallucinations and suggest some approaches to their treatment.
British Journal of Clinical Psychology 03/2012; 51(1):100-18. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work presents affinities existing between the phenomenological view of schizophrenia and
recent cognitive research on this disorder. We postulate that the core abnormality in schizophrenia
is a particular kind of disturbance of the sense of self, which has two main aspects, an enhanced
sense of awareness or hyperreflexivity, and diminished self-affection. Noticeable parallels are
shown between “hyperreflexivity” and some cognitive models and research that concentrate on
attentional processes in schizophrenia patients. It is also argued that “diminished self-affection”
may be related to certain factors recently dealt with in cognitive research, such as “beliefs about
superstition and responsibility related to one’s own thoughts” and “dissociation.” Furthermore,
certain points which, in our opinion, could be of mutual enrichment to both viewpoints are briefly
analyzed. Finally, several limitations and problems that such mutual sharing may have are also
described, and some possible lines of future research are suggested.
Theory & Psychology 01/2012; 22(6):756– 770. · 0.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to study the potentially mediating role of certain dissociative factors, such as depersonalization, between self-focused attention and auditory hallucinations. A total of 59 patients diagnosed with schizophrenic disorder completed a self-focused attention scale ( M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985 ), the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (M. Sierra & G. E. Berrios, 2000), and the hallucination and delusion items on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (S. R. Kay, L. A. Opler, & J. P. Lindenmayer, 1988). The results showed that self-focused attention correlated positively with auditory hallucinations, with delusions, and with depersonalization. It was also demonstrated that depersonalization has a mediating role between self-focused attention and auditory hallucinations but not delusions. In the discussion, the importance of dissociative processes in understanding the formation and maintenance of auditory hallucinations is suggested.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent contributions to the theoretical conception and empirical evaluation of schizophrenia in the light of phenomenology are opening the way to new perspectives in psychotherapy. The phenomenological conception understands schizophrenia as a disturbance of the basic sense of selfhood (ipseity) characterized by hyper-reflexivity and diminished sense of self. Evaluation consists of examining the anomalous self-experience in a series of domains, which makes the conception presented operable. On this basis, a phenomenologically informed psychotherapy is introduced. Its characteristics are pointed out and early intervention is reviewed (the last frontier in psychosis) from this perspective. Finally, a series of psychotherapies which, although they do not have a phenomenological origin, may be seen from that perspective, are re-examined. These are the narrative, mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to study traumatic and dissociative experiences in a sample of Spanish psychotic patients. A total of 37 psychotic patients filled out the Dissociative Experiences Scale (E. B. Carlson & F. W. Putnam, 1993), a questionnaire on traumas (J. R. E. Davidson, D. Hughes, & D. G. Blazer, 1990), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale delusion and hallucinations items (S. R. Kay, L. A. Opler, & J. P. Lindenmayer, 1988). The results showed that 40.5% of the subjects in the sample had undergone at least 1 traumatic experience as children and 64.9% had as adults. Patients with hallucinations had experienced a higher mean number of childhood traumatic experiences than patients without hallucinations. No significant difference in the mean number of traumatic events was found between patients with and without delusions. There was no significant difference in the mean number of adulthood traumatic events between patients with and without hallucinations and delusions. Subjects with childhood traumas scored higher on the Dissociative Experiences Scale than those who had had such experiences as adults. Patients with hallucinations and delusions also scored higher on the dissociation scale than patients who did not show those positive psychotic symptoms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The life of Saint Teresa of Jesus, the most famous mystic of sixteenth-century Spain, was characterized by recurrent visions and states of ecstasy. In this paper, we examine social components related to Teresa’s personal crises and the historical conditions of her times, factors that must be taken into account to understand these unusual forms of experience and behavior. Many of these factors (e.g., increasing individualism and reflexivity) are precursors of the condition of modern times. Indeed, certain parallels can be observed between Saint Teresa and certain present-day psychopathological disorders. The analogy should not, however, be carried too far. Religion played a particularly crucial role in Teresa’s cultural context; as a result, it would be misleading to view her mystical experiences as resulting from a mental disorder
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship between a predisposition to hallucinations and meta-cognitive variables and thought-control techniques, controlling for the possible effect of anxiety. In order to do so, we start out with the hypothesis that anxiety does not, in itself, explain the association between meta-cognitions and a predisposition to auditory and visual hallucinations.
A within-participants correlational design was employed.
Four psychometric tests relating to predisposition to hallucinations, anxiety, meta-cognitions and thought-control techniques were administered to 150 participants.
It was found that, after controlling for participants' anxiety levels, the 'loss of cognitive confidence' factor predicted the score on the scale of predisposition to both auditory and visual hallucinations. Thought-control strategies based on worry were also found to be predictive of a greater predisposition to hallucinations, regardless of whether or not participants' anxiety level was controlled.
Meta-cognitive variables of cognitive confidence and thought control through worry are positively associated with a predisposition to hallucinations.
The correlational nature of the design does not allow inferences about causal relationships.
British Journal of Clinical Psychology 10/2006; 45(Pt 3):309-17. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model, the aim of the present correlational study is to investigate whether metacognitive variables have any influence on paranoid ideation in non-clinical subjects. For this purpose, a battery of tests was administered to 148 participants in an attempt to identify the type of metacognitive beliefs that characterized them and to measure their levels of paranoid ideation and trait anxiety. The results show that, once the subject’s level of anxiety is controlled, loss of cognitive confidence is the only metacognitive variable that predicts subjects’ scores in paranoid ideation. Without this statistical control of trait anxiety, the regression equation would include two more metacognitive factors related to uncontrollability and danger of thoughts and positive beliefs about worry. These results are discussed in the light of recent contributions supporting the extension of models already consolidated in the field of emotional disorders, as the S-REF model, to that of psychotic symptoms.
International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 01/2005; 5(3):463-469. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on the relationship between cognitive intrusions and auditory hallucinations established by Morrison and Baker (2000) and Morrison, Haddock and Tarrier (1995) the present study examines the possible effect of the repeated suppression of self-discrepant thoughts on the vividness of auditory illusions in a sample from a non-clinical population. Sixty-one participants were randomly assigned to a suppression of thoughts group (n = 31) or a focalization of thoughts group (n = 30) with different levels of self-discrepancy. After carrying out the task over a period of 48 hours, participants were presented with non-vocal auditory stimulation and asked to state whether they heard any verbalizations, and if so, how clearly. Results show how the repeated suppression of self-discrepant thoughts has a considerable effect on the vividness of illusions (F(1, 50) = 16.09; p < 0.001). The implications of these results for psychological therapy are analysed, with special emphasis on the importance of a research line based on acceptance.