Mary L Disis

Bastyr University, Kenmore, Washington, United States

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Publications (187)968.93 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammasome activation has been shown to regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. It is important to investigate whether immune-enhancing natural products can also activate inflammasome. The current study examined the potential of protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK), a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor, to activate inflammasome. Using THP-1 cells, we have demonstrated that PSK induces both pro-IL-1β and mature IL-1β in THP-1 cells in a caspase 1- and NLRP3-dependent manner. PSK also induces IL-1β and IL-18 in human PBMC. Cathepsin B is required for PSK-induced inflammasome activation as CA-074-Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, significantly decreased PSK-induced IL-1β. PSK induces NLRP3 at both mRNA and protein level. Comparison of PSK-induced IL-1β in bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild type C57BL/6 mice, TLR2(-/-), P2X7R(-/-) and NLRP3(-/-) mice demonstrated that PSK-induced IL-1β is dependent on both TLR2 and NLRP3. P2X7R is not required for PSK-induced inflammasome activation, but enhances PSK-induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1β induction. Altogether, these results demonstrated that PSK induces inflammasome activation and production of IL-1β in a TLR2- and NLRP3-dependent mechanism. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of the immune modulatory effects of PSK.
    Innate Immunity 12/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Mary L Disis, Sasha E Stanton
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    ABSTRACT: An effective immune response has the potential for breast cancer sterilization with marked reduction in the potential for disease relapse. Adaptive type I immune cells uniquely have the capability of (i) cytotoxic T-cell activation and proliferation until all antigen expressing cells are eradicated, (ii) traversing endothelial barriers to penetrate tumor deposits wherever they occur, and (iii) immunologic memory, which allows the persistence of destructive immunity over the years it may take for breast cancer micrometastases to become clinically evident. Numerous recent investigations suggest that some breast cancers stimulate the type of immunity that results in a decreased risk of relapse. Moreover, the endogenous type I tumor microenvironment or type I immunity induced by drugs or biologic agents may improve response to standard therapies, further lowering the probability of disease recurrence. Clin Cancer Res; 19(23); 6398-403. ©2013 AACR.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; 19(23):6398-403. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective elicitation of endogenous immunity is associated with improved prognosis for cancer patients. Clinical evidence in hematological and solid cancers shows that intratumoral injection of immunostimulatory genes primes and augments endogenous T cell responses. The ability of pro-inflammatory chemokines/cytokines to facilitate migration/activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and lymphocytes prompted our modeling of intratumoral delivery of a chemokine/cytokine combination for breast cancer treatment. Here, we demonstrate that expression of chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in tumors improves tumor specific T cell recruitment to tumor and activation in the tumor milieu. IFNγ and CCL21 were delivered into tumor cells via plasmids, and transfected cells were seeded to form spheroids on three-dimensional (3D) chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds. Co-expression of CCL21 and IFNγ, as evidenced by qRT-PCR and ELISA, induced increased recruitment, binding, and infiltration of anti-neu (p98) peptide specific T cells into the breast tumors as determined by SEM and immunofluorescence assays. The co-expression promoted recruitment of only p98 T cells, but not naïve T cells, demonstrating an antigen-restricted activation. Furthermore, the co-expression impacted T helper (Th) cell immunity, promoting an increase in secretion of pro-inflammatory Th-associated cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-associated protease, Granzyme B (GzB). Therefore, 3D CA scaffolds may be a useful breast cancer tumor microenvironment model to evaluate T cell function. Further characterization of CCL21-IFNγ mediated anti-tumor immunity will potentially benefit the development of chemokine/cytokine combination platforms as anti-cancer agents.
    Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This phase I study evaluated the feasibility of expanding HER-2/neu (HER2) vaccine-primed peripheral blood T-cells ex vivo and assessed the safety of T-cell infusions. Eight patients with HER2(+) treatment refractory metastatic cancers were enrolled. T-cells could be expanded to predefined parameters in seven patients (88 %). Ninety-two percent of adverse events were grade 1 or 2. Three of seven patients developed infusion-related inflammatory reactions at their disease sites. HER2-specific T-cells significantly increased in vivo compared to pre-infusion levels (p = 0.010) and persisted in 4/6 patients (66 %) over 70 days after the first infusion. Partial clinical responses were observed in 43 % of patients. Levels of T-regulatory cells in peripheral blood prior to infusion (p < 0.001), the level of HER2-specific T-cells in vivo (p = 0.030), and development of diverse clonal T-cell populations (p < 0.001) were associated with response. The generation of HER2 vaccine-primed autologous T-cells for therapeutic infusion is feasible and well tolerated. This approach provides a foundation for the application of T-cell therapy to additional solid tumor types.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 10/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A multi-antigen multi-peptide vaccine, targeting proteins expressed in pre-invasive breast lesions, can stimulate Type I CD4+ T-cells which have been shown to be deficient in both breast cancer patients and mice that develop mammary tumors. Transgenic mice (TgMMTV-neu) were immunized with a multi-antigen peptide vaccine specific for neu, IGFBP-2 and IGF-IR at a time when some of the animals already had pre-invasive lesions (18 weeks of age). While immunization with each individual antigen was partially effective in inhibiting tumor growth, immunization with the multi-antigen vaccine was highly effective, blocking development of palpable lesions in 65% of mice and slowing tumor growth in the infrequent palpable tumors which did arise. Protection was mediated by CD4+ T-cells and the few slow-growing tumors that did develop demonstrated a significant increase in intratumoral CD8+ T-cells as compared to controls (p=0.0007). We also combined the vaccine with agents that were, by themselves, partially effective inhibitors of tumor progression in this model; lapatinib and the RXR agonist bexarotene. While the combination of lapatinib and vaccination performed similarly to vaccination alone (p=0.735), bexarotene and vaccination significantly enhanced disease free survival (p<0.0001) and approximately 90% of mice showed no pathologic evidence of carcinomas at 1 year. The vaccine also demonstrated significant clinical efficacy in an additional transgenic model of breast cancer (TgC3(I)-Tag). Chemo-immunoprevention combinations may be an effective approach to breast cancer prevention even when the vaccine is administered in the presence of subclinical disease.
    Cancer Prevention Research 10/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • Mary L Disis, Karolina Palucka
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    ABSTRACT: There have been significant advances in the development and application of novel therapeutic approaches and improved diagnostics for cancer in the past decade. Manipulation and/or assessment of cancer-specific immunity have been central to these advances. Murine models are a standard for the preclinical development of cancer immunotherapeutics. However, critical advances in our understanding of the role of the immune microenvironment and the assessment of cancer-specific immunity have not been fully applied to rodent models. Methods to preserve the function of immune cells after cryopreservation and standard approaches to quantitative immune assays have not been developed. Furthermore, a detailed evaluation of the immune tumor environment, which can impact a clinical response to different agents, is rarely undertaken as models are being contemplated. Rapid translation of immunoncology agents to the clinic will require standardization of immunologic assay methods and a more detailed immunologic characterization of common mouse models. Outlined here are the critical elements in assessing immunity in cancer mouse models and suggestions concerning the standardization of approaches when using these models for the study of immunoncology.
    Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 09/2013; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The University of Washington (UW) Institute for Translational Health Sciences (ITHS), funded by a Clinical and Translational Sciences Award program, has supplemented its initial Kellogg Logic Model-based program evaluation with the eight judgment-based evaluative elements of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health Services Assessment Model. This article describes the relationship between the two models, the rationale for the decision to supplement the evaluation with WHO evaluative elements, the value-added results of the WHO evaluative elements, and plans for further developing the WHO assessments.
    Evaluation &amp the Health Professions 09/2013; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoprevention refers to a strategy of preventing pathogen-associated and spontaneous cancers through the use of vaccines, antibodies, and immune modulators. Immune modulators function by enhancing the endogenous ability of the immune system to monitor for malignancy, so-called "immunosurveillance." There is growing evidence that many of the most promising cancer chemoprevention agents including aspirin, COX-2 inhibitors, aromatase inhibitors, and bisphosphonates mediate their effects, in part, by enhancing immunosurveillance and reversing the immune evasive mechanisms that premalignant lesions use. In the following review, we introduce critical components of the human immune surveillance system-dendritic cells, T cells, and immune suppressive cells-and discuss the emerging data suggesting that common chemoprevention agents may modulate the function of these immunologic cells. Cancer Prev Res; 6(8); 764-73. ©2013 AACR.
    Cancer Prevention Research 08/2013; 6(8):764-73. · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • John B Liao, Mary L Disis
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    ABSTRACT: While therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancer represent only a small fraction of active clinical trials, growing interest in this area and the accumulated data supporting the use of vaccines in cancer treatment, portend further expansion of trials incorporating these strategies. This review explores the rationale for the use of vaccines for the treatment of ovarian cancer. It examines vaccine platforms that have been investigated and reviews the data from these studies. We also highlight recently reported phase 2 and 3 clinical trials with clinical outcomes as endpoints. Finally, we consider directions for the next generation of vaccines in light of these findings and our emerging understanding of agents that may augment vaccine responses by targeting the immunosuppressive impact of the tumor microenvironment.
    Gynecologic Oncology 06/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous lines of evidence demonstrate that breast cancer is immunogenic; yet, there are few biologically relevant immune targets under investigation restricting the exploration of vaccines to limited breast cancer subtypes. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is a promising vaccine candidate since it is overexpressed in most breast cancer subtypes, is part of a dominant cancer growth pathway, and has been validated as a therapeutic target. We questioned whether IGF-IR was immunogenic in cancer patients. IGF-IR-specific IgG antibodies were significantly elevated in early-stage breast cancer patients at the time of diagnosis as compared to volunteer donors (p = 0.04). Predicted T-helper epitopes, derived from the IGF-IR extracellular and transmembrane domains, elicited a significantly higher incidence of Th2 immunity in breast cancer patients as compared to controls (p = 0.01). Moreover, the magnitude of Th2 immunity was greater in breast cancer patients compared to controls (p = 0.02). In contrast, both breast cancer patients and volunteer donors demonstrated a similar incidence of Th1 immunity to IGF-IR domains with the predominant response directed against epitopes in the intracellular domain of the protein. As the incidence of IGF-IR type I immunity was not associated with a breast cancer diagnosis, we questioned whether other factors were contributing to the presence of IGF-IR-specific T-cells in both populations. While age was not associated with Th1 immunity, we observed a significantly greater magnitude of IGF-IR IFN-γ-secreting T-cells in obese subjects as compared to overweight (p < 0.001) or healthy-weight (p = 0.006) subjects, regardless of breast cancer diagnosis. No significant difference was observed for Th2 incidence or magnitude when stratified by age (p = 0.174, p = 0.966, respectively) or body mass index (p = 0.137, p = 0.174, respectively). Our data demonstrate that IGF-IR is a tumor antigen and IGF-IR-specific Th1 immunity may be associated with obesity rather than malignancy.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polysaccharide K (PSK) is a widely used mushroom extract that has shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of actions of PSK. We recently reported that PSK can activate toll-like receptor 2 and enhances the function of NK cells. The current study was undertaken to study the effect of PSK on gamma delta (γδ) T cells, another important arm of the innate immunity. In vitro experiments using mouse splenocytes showed that γδ T cells produce IFN-γ after treatment with PSK and have up-regulated expression of CD25, CD69, and CD107a. To investigate whether the effect of PSK on γδ T cells is direct or indirect, purified γδ T cells were cultured either alone or together with bone marrow-derived DC in a co-culture or trans-well system and then stimulated with PSK. Results showed that direct cell-to-cell contact between γδ T cells and DC is required for optimal activation of γδ T cells. There was also reciprocal activation of DC by PSK-activated γδ T cells, as demonstrated by higher expression of costimulatory molecules and enhanced production of IL-12 by DC in the presence of γδ T cells. PSK can also co-stimulate γδ T cells with anti-TCR and anti-CD3 stimulation, in the absence of DC. Finally, in vivo treatment with PSK activates γδ T cells among the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and depleting γδ T cells during PSK treatment attenuated the anti-tumor effect of PSK. All together, these results demonstrated that γδ T cells are activated by PSK and contribute to the anti-tumor effect of PSK.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 05/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 is highly expressed on dendritic cells (DC), so the current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on DC activation and the potential of using PSK as a vaccine adjuvant. In vitro experiments using mouse bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) demonstrated that PSK induces DC maturation as shown by dose-dependent increase in the expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII, and CD40. PSK also induces the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines by DC, including IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-6, at both mRNA and protein levels. In vivo experiments using PSK as an adjuvant to OVAp323-339 vaccine showed that PSK as adjuvant leads to enlarged draining lymph nodes with higher number of activated DC. PSK also stimulates proliferation of OVA-specific T cells, and induces T cells that produce multiple cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α. Altogether, these results demonstrate the ability of PSK to activate DC in vitro and in vivo and the potential of using PSK as a novel vaccine adjuvant.
    Immunobiology 05/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Proteomics technologies are well suited for harnessing the immune response to tumor antigens for diagnostic applications as in the case of breast cancer. We previously reported a substantial impact of hormone therapy (HT) on the proteome. Here we investigated the effect of HT on the immune response toward breast tumor antigens. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Plasmas collected 0-10 months prior to diagnosis of ER+ breast cancer from 190 post-menopausal women and 190 controls that participated in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study were analyzed for the effect of HT on IgG reactivity against arrayed proteins from MCF-7 or SKBR3 breast cancer cell line lysates following extensive fractionation. RESULTS: HT user cases exhibited significantly reduced autoantibody reactivity against arrayed proteins compared to cases who were not current users. An associated reduced level of IL-6 and other immune-related cytokines was observed among HT users relative to non-users. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our findings suggest occurrence of a global altered immune response to breast cancer derived proteins associated with HT. Thus a full understanding of factors that modulate the immune response is necessary to translate autoantibody panels into clinical applications.
    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 02/2013; · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The speed and effectiveness of current approaches to research translation are widely viewed as disappointing given small gains in real population health outcomes despite huge investments in basic and translational science. We identify critical value questions-ethical, social, economic, and cultural-that arise at moments throughout the research pathway. By making these questions visible, and promoting discussion of them with diverse stakeholders, we can facilitate handoffs along the translational pathway and increase uptake of effective interventions. Who is involved with those discussions will determine which research projects, populations, and methods get prioritized. We argue that some upfront investment in community and interdisciplinary engagement, shaped by familiar questions in ethics, social justice, and cultural knowledge, can save time and resources in the long run because interventions and strategies will be aimed in the right direction, that is, toward health improvements for all. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 445-451.
    Clinical and Translational Science 12/2012; 5(6):445-451. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum autoantibodies, directed against oncogenic proteins, have been frequently detected in the sera of patients with breast cancer. It is unknown whether serum antibodies that are identified in patients with established disease could also be detected in patients with newly diagnosed disease or even predate the diagnosis of breast cancer. Using sera collected at the time of treatment, at the time of diagnosis, or before the time of diagnosis, the current study aimed to address the temporal relationship between breast cancer development and serum antibody response. Starting from serum antibodies to eight known breast cancer antigens, we first identified four serum antibodies, HER2/neu, p53, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cyclin B1, which are significantly increased in the sera collected from patients with breast cancer at the time of treatment. These antibodies were also elevated in breast cancer sera collected at the time of diagnosis. Finally, comparison of antibody responses in prediagnostic samples from women before the development of breast cancer and in controls showed that antibodies to the HER2/neu and p53 can be detected in sera that were collected on average more than 150 days before a breast cancer diagnosis. These results showed that serum autoantibodies commonly reported in sera from patients with established disease can also be detected in prediagnostic sera and may be useful for the early detection of breast cancer.
    Cancer Prevention Research 06/2012; 5(8):1036-43. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We questioned whether the vaccine adjuvant combination of TLR-7 ligand agonist, imiquimod, with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) would result in enhanced dendritic cell recruitment and activation with increased antigen-specific immunity as compared with either adjuvant used alone. The adjuvant effects of GM-CSF and imiquimod were studied in ovalbumin (OVA) and MMTVneu transgenic mice using peptide-based vaccines. Type I immunity, serum cytokines, myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSC), and regulatory T cells (Treg) levels were examined. Both GM-CSF and imiquimod equally induced local accumulation and activation of dendritic cells. Both adjuvants effectively enhanced OVA-specific T-cell responses. We further evaluated the antitumor efficacy of adjuvant GM-CSF and imiquimod immunizing against murine insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2), a nonmutated oncoprotein overexpressed in the tumors of MMTVneu transgenic mice. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in the mice receiving IGFBP-2 peptides with GM-CSF (P = 0.000), but not in imiquimod vaccine-treated groups (P = 0.141). Moreover, the addition of imiquimod to GM-CSF negated the antitumor activity of the vaccine when GM-CSF was used as the sole adjuvant. While GM-CSF stimulated significant levels of antigen-specific T-helper cell (T(H))1, imiquimod induced elevated serum interleukin (IL)-10. Both MDSC and Tregs were increased in the imiquimod-treated but not GM-CSF-treated groups (P = 0.000 and 0.006, respectively). Depleting MDSC and Treg in animals immunized with imiquimod and IGFBP-2 peptides restored antitumor activity to the levels observed with vaccination using GM-CSF as the sole adjuvant. Adjuvants may induce regulatory responses in the context of a self-antigen vaccine. Adjuvant triggered immunosuppression may limit vaccine efficacy and should be evaluated in preclinical models especially when contemplating combination approaches.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2012; 18(11):3122-31. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the identification of peripheral blood biomarkers would enhance early detection strategies for breast cancer, the discovery of protein markers has been challenging. In this study, we sought to identify coordinated changes in plasma proteins associated with breast cancer based on large-scale quantitative mass spectrometry. We analyzed plasma samples collected up to 74 weeks before diagnosis from 420 estrogen receptor (ER)(+) cases and matched controls enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative cohort. A gene set enrichment analysis was applied to 467 quantified proteins, linking their corresponding genes to particular biologic pathways. On the basis of differences in the concentration of individual proteins, glycolysis pathway proteins exhibited a statistically significant difference between cases and controls. In particular, the enrichment was observed among cases in which blood was drawn closer to diagnosis (effect size for the 0-38 weeks prediagnostic group, 1.91; P, 8.3E-05). Analysis of plasmas collected at the time of diagnosis from an independent set of cases and controls confirmed upregulated levels of glycolysis proteins among cases relative to controls. Together, our findings indicate that the concomitant release of glycolysis proteins into the plasma is a pathophysiologic event that precedes a diagnosis of ER(+) breast cancer.
    Cancer Research 02/2012; 72(8):1935-42. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer remains one of the most prevalent and lethal malignancies in women. The inability to diagnose small volume metastases early has limited effective treatment of stage 4 breast cancer. Here we report the rational development and use of a multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) for targeting metastatic breast cancer in a transgenic mouse model and imaging with magnetic resonance (MR). SPIONs coated with a copolymer of chitosan and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were labeled with a fluorescent dye for optical detection and conjugated with a monoclonal antibody against the neu receptor (NP-neu). SPIONs labeled with mouse IgG were used as a nontargeting control (NP-IgG). These SPIONs had desirable physiochemical properties for in vivo applications such as near neutral zeta potential and hydrodynamic size around 40 nm and were highly stable in serum containing medium. Only NP-neu showed high uptake in neu expressing mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC) cells which was reversed by competing free neu antibody, indicating their specificity to the neu antigen. In vivo, NP-neu was able to tag primary breast tumors and significantly, only NP-neu bound to spontaneous liver, lung, and bone marrow metastases in a transgenic mouse model of metastatic breast cancer, highlighting the necessity of targeting for delivery to metastatic disease. The SPIONs provided significant contrast enhancement in MR images of primary breast tumors; thus, they have the potential for MRI detection of micrometastases and provide an excellent platform for further development of an efficient metastatic breast cancer therapy.
    ACS Nano 02/2012; 6(3):2591-601. · 12.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 12/2011; 9(1):214. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to characterize VTX-2337, a novel Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonist in clinical development, and investigate its potential to improve monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy that includes the activation of natural killer (NK) cells. HEK-TLR transfectants were used to compare the selectivity and potency of VTX-2337, imiquimod, CpG ODN2006, and CL075. The ability of VTX-2337 to induce cytokine and chemokine production from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and activation of specific immune cell subsets was examined. The potential for VTX-2337 to activate NK cell activity through direct and indirect mechanisms was also investigated. Finally, we tested the potential for VTX-2337 to augment antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), especially in individuals with low-affinity FcγR3A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). VTX-2337 selectively activates TLR8 with an EC(50) of about 100 nmol/L and stimulates production of TNFα and interleukin (IL)-12 from monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDC). VTX-2337 stimulates IFNγ production from NK cells and increases the cytotoxicity of NK cells against K562 and ADCC by rituximab and trastuzumab. Effects of VTX-2337 on NK cells were, in part, from direct activation as increased IFNγ production and cytotoxic activity were seen with purified NK cells. Finally, VTX-2337 augments ADCC by rituximab in PBMCs with different FcγR3A genotypes (V/V, V/F, and F/F at position 158). VTX-2337 is a novel small-molecule TLR8 agonist that activates monocytes, DCs, and NK cells. Through the activation of NK cells, it has the potential to augment the effectiveness of monoclonal antibody treatments where a polymorphism in FcγR3A limits clinical efficacy.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2011; 18(2):499-509. · 7.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
968.93 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Bastyr University
      Kenmore, Washington, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • University of Everett Washington
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1994–2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Center for Translational Medicine in Women's Health
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
      • • Division of Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2011
    • Providence Portland Medical Center
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Division of Hematology/Oncology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute of Medical Science
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2008–2010
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Oncology
      Rochester, MN, United States
    • Korea University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2008
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Immunology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
    • Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD)
      • BD Biosciences
      Franklin Lakes, NJ, United States
  • 2000–2006
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • III. Department of Medicine
      Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
  • 2004
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Surgery
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Medicine
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2002
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1999
    • Saint Vincent Hospital
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States