M R Farlow

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, United States

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Publications (344)2112.58 Total impact

  • Li-San Wang, Adam C Naj, Robert R Graham, Paul K Crane, Brian W Kunkle, Carlos Cruchaga, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Clinton T Baldwin, Henrik Zetterberg, [......], Jean Paul Vonsattel, Sandra Weintraub, Kathleen A Welsh-Bohmer, Jennifer Williamson, Sarah Wishnek, Randall L Woltjer, Clinton B Wright, Steven G Younkin, Chang-En Yu, Lei Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a rare variant in the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) was described in a population from Iceland. This variant, in which alanine is replaced by threonine at position 673 (A673T), appears to protect against late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated the frequency of this variant in AD cases and cognitively normal controls to determine whether this variant will significantly contribute to risk assessment in individuals in the United States. To determine the frequency of the APP A673T variant in a large group of elderly cognitively normal controls and AD cases from the United States and in 2 case-control cohorts from Sweden. Case-control association analysis of variant APP A673T in US and Swedish white individuals comparing AD cases with cognitively intact elderly controls. Participants were ascertained at multiple university-associated medical centers and clinics across the United States and Sweden by study-specific sampling methods. They were from case-control studies, community-based prospective cohort studies, and studies that ascertained multiplex families from multiple sources. Genotypes for the APP A673T variant were determined using the Infinium HumanExome V1 Beadchip (Illumina, Inc) and by TaqMan genotyping (Life Technologies). The A673T variant genotypes were evaluated in 8943 US AD cases, 10 480 US cognitively normal controls, 862 Swedish AD cases, and 707 Swedish cognitively normal controls. We identified 3 US individuals heterozygous for A673T, including 1 AD case (age at onset, 89 years) and 2 controls (age at last examination, 82 and 77 years). The remaining US samples were homozygous for the alanine (A673) allele. In the Swedish samples, 3 controls were heterozygous for A673T and all AD cases were homozygous for the A673 allele. We also genotyped a US family previously reported to harbor the A673T variant and found a mother-daughter pair, both cognitively normal at ages 72 and 84 years, respectively, who were both heterozygous for A673T; however, all individuals with AD in the family were homozygous for A673. The A673T variant is extremely rare in US cohorts and does not play a substantial role in risk for AD in this population. This variant may be primarily restricted to Icelandic and Scandinavian populations.
    JAMA Neurology 12/2014; · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: a 24-week, prospective, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind study in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), demonstrated significant efficacy of 13.3 mg/24 h versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch on the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) and Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale-Severe Impairment Version (ADCS-ADL-SIV). Overall, 61% of the study population received 1 dose of concomitant memantine, regardless of dose or duration. This retrospective analysis investigated effects of concomitant memantine on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of 13.3 mg/24 h versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch. Methods: Patients were stratified according to whether or not they received at least one dose of concomitant memantine during the double-blind phase. Changes from baseline on the SIB and ADCS-ADL-SIV were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with treatment, pooled center, memantine usage and treatment-by-memantine as factors, and baseline as a covariate. Safety and tolerability were assessed. Results: Memantine-treated patients were younger than those not receiving memantine (mean 75.9 and 78.8 years, respectively), with a lower screening Mini-Mental State Examination (8.6 and 9.2, respectively). ANCOVA confirmed there was no significant interaction (p>0.1) between study treatment and memantine use on the SIB or ADCS-ADL-SIV. The incidence of adverse events was: 71.4%, 13.3 mg/24 h patch with memantine; 79.7%, 13.3 mg/24 h patch alone; 74.7%, 4.6 mg/24 h patch with memantine; and 71.1%, 4.6 mg/24 h patch alone. Conclusions: These data suggest benefit of 13.3 mg/24 h versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch, regardless of concomitant memantine use. The incidence of adverse events with high-dose patch was similar in memantine-treated patients and those not receiving memantine.
    Current Alzheimer research. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of high-dose 13.3 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch in severe Alzheimer disease was evaluated in a 24-week, open-label extension to the double-blind ACTION study. Safety and tolerability, and efficacy on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale-Severe Impairment Version (ADCS-ADL-SIV), Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), and ADCS-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC) were assessed. Overall, 197 patients continued on 13.3 mg/24 h patch; 199 uptitrated from 4.6 mg/24 h to 13.3 mg/24 h patch. The incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs and discontinuations due to AEs was similar in patients who continued on, and patients who uptitrated to, 13.3 mg/24 h patch (AEs: 57.9% and 59.8%; serious AEs: 16.2% and 16.1%; discontinuations: 11.2% and 12.1%, respectively). Larger mean changes from double-blind baseline were observed in patients uptitrated on the ADCS-ADL-SIV (-4.6; SD=8.7) and SIB (-7.0; SD=16.6), than those who continued on 13.3 mg/24 h patch (-3.9; SD=8.0 and -4.7; SD=16.8, respectively). ADCS-CGIC scores were comparable. There were no clinically relevant between-group differences in safety and tolerability. Greater decline was observed in patients with delayed uptitration to high-dose 13.3 mg/24 h patch than patients who continued on high-dose patch.
    Alzheimer disease and associated disorders. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Memory impairment is the cardinal early feature of Alzheimer's disease, a highly prevalent disorder whose causes remain only partially understood. To identify novel genetic predictors, we used an integrative genomics approach to perform the largest study to date of human memory (n=14 781). Using a genome-wide screen, we discovered a novel association of a polymorphism in the pro-apoptotic gene FASTKD2 (fas-activated serine/threonine kinase domains 2; rs7594645-G) with better memory performance and replicated this finding in independent samples. Consistent with a neuroprotective effect, rs7594645-G carriers exhibited increased hippocampal volume and gray matter density and decreased cerebrospinal fluid levels of apoptotic mediators. The MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) gene and pathways related to endocytosis, cholinergic neurotransmission, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and immune regulation, among others, also displayed association with memory. These findings nominate FASTKD2 as a target for modulating neurodegeneration and suggest potential mechanisms for therapies to combat memory loss in normal cognitive aging and dementia.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.142.
    Molecular Psychiatry 11/2014; · 15.15 Impact Factor
  • International Congress of Neuropathology Rio de Janerio, Brazil; 09/2014
  • International Congress of Neuropathology Rio de Janerio; 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains anti-Aβ autoantibodies and IVIG could induce beta amyloid (Aβ) efflux from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to blood in both Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. However, the molecular mechanism underlying IVIG-induced Aβ efflux remains unclear. In this study, we used amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) transgenic mice to investigate if the IVIG could induce efflux of Aβ from the brain and whether low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), a hypothetic Aβ transporter in blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB); could mediate this clearance process. We currently provide strong evidence to demonstrate that IVIG could reduce brain Aβ levels by pulling Aβ into the blood system in AβPP transgenic mice. In the mechanistic study, IVIG could induce Aβ efflux through the in-vitro BCB membrane formed by cultured BCB epithelial cells. Both RAP (receptor-associated protein; a functional inhibitor of LRP1), and LRP1 siRNA were able to significantly inhibit the Aβ efflux. Should Aβ prove to be the underlying cause of AD, our results strongly suggest that IVIG could be beneficial in the therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) by inducing efflux of Aβ from the brain through the LRP1 in the BCB.
    Neuroscience 04/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Rachelle S Doody, Martin Farlow, Paul S Aisen
    New England Journal of Medicine 04/2014; 370(15):1460. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by amyloid-beta plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, gliosis, and neuronal loss. Solanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, preferentially binds soluble forms of amyloid and in preclinical studies promoted its clearance from the brain. In two phase 3, double-blind trials (EXPEDITION 1 and EXPEDITION 2), we randomly assigned 1012 and 1040 patients, respectively, with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease to receive placebo or solanezumab (administered intravenously at a dose of 400 mg) every 4 weeks for 18 months. The primary outcomes were the changes from baseline to week 80 in scores on the 11-item cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog11; range, 0 to 70, with higher scores indicating greater cognitive impairment) and the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale (ADCS-ADL; range, 0 to 78, with lower scores indicating worse functioning). After analysis of data from EXPEDITION 1, the primary outcome for EXPEDITION 2 was revised to the change in scores on the 14-item cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog14; range, 0 to 90, with higher scores indicating greater impairment), in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Neither study showed significant improvement in the primary outcomes. The modeled difference between groups (solanezumab group minus placebo group) in the change from baseline was -0.8 points for the ADAS-cog11 score (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.1 to 0.5; P=0.24) and -0.4 points for the ADCS-ADL score (95% CI, -2.3 to 1.4; P=0.64) in EXPEDITION 1 and -1.3 points (95% CI, -2.5 to 0.3; P=0.06) and 1.6 points (95% CI, -0.2 to 3.3; P=0.08), respectively, in EXPEDITION 2. Between-group differences in the changes in the ADAS-cog14 score were -1.7 points in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (95% CI, -3.5 to 0.1; P=0.06) and -1.5 in patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (95% CI, -4.1 to 1.1; P=0.26). In the combined safety data set, the incidence of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with edema or hemorrhage was 0.9% with solanezumab and 0.4% with placebo for edema (P=0.27) and 4.9% and 5.6%, respectively, for hemorrhage (P=0.49). Solanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds amyloid, failed to improve cognition or functional ability. (Funded by Eli Lilly; EXPEDITION 1 and 2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00905372 and NCT00904683.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2014; 370(4):311-21. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), defined as onset of symptoms after age 65 years, is the most common form of dementia. Few reports investigate incidence rates in large family-based studies in which the participants were selected for family history of LOAD. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in unaffected members in the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) and Estudio Familiar de Influencia Genetica en Alzheimer (EFIGA) family studies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Families with 2 or more affected siblings who had a clinical or pathological diagnosis of LOAD were recruited as a part of the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD Family Study. A cohort of Caribbean Hispanics with familial LOAD was recruited in a different study at the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain in New York and from clinics in the Dominican Republic as part of the EFIGA study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age-specific incidence rates of LOAD were estimated in the unaffected family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA data sets. We restricted analyses to families with follow-up and complete phenotype information, including 396 NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and 242 EFIGA families. Among the 943 at-risk family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families, 126 (13.4%) developed dementia, of whom 109 (86.5%) met criteria for LOAD. Among 683 at-risk family members in the EFIGA families, 174 (25.5%) developed dementia during the study period, of whom 145 (83.3%) had LOAD. RESULTS The annual incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families per person-year were 0.03 and 0.03, respectively, in participants aged 65 to 74 years; 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, in those aged 75 to 84 years; and 0.08 and 0.07, respectively, in those 85 years or older. Incidence rates in the EFIGA families were slightly higher, at 0.03 and 0.02, 0.06 and 0.05, 0.10 and 0.08, and 0.10 and 0.07, respectively, in the same age groups. Contrasting these results with the population-based estimates, the incidence was increased by 3-fold for NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families (standardized incidence ratio, 3.44) and 2-fold among the EFIGA compared with the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families (1.71). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The incidence rates for familial dementia and LOAD in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA families are significantly higher than population-based estimates. The incidence rates in all groups increase with age. The higher incidence of LOAD can be explained by segregation of Alzheimer disease-related genes in these families or shared environmental risks.
    JAMA neurology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Falls are common in the elderly, especially in those with cognitive impairment. The elderly are often treated with several medications, which may have both beneficial and deleterious effects. The use and type of medication in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and association with falls is limited. We examined the association between falls and medication use in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Diagnosis, demographics, medication use, apolipoprotein E4 allele status and functional activity level at baseline were gathered for 810 participants enrolled in the ADNI, including healthy controls and subjects with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's. Reports detailing adverse event falls were tabulated. Baseline characteristics were compared between subjects with and without one or more falls. Cox proportional hazards models were conducted to evaluate the association between subject characteristics and hazard of the first fall. Age (p < 0.0001), Functional Activities Questionnaire (p = 0.035), Beers List (p = 0.0477) and medications for treating cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's (p = 0.0019) were associated with hazard of fall in the univariate model. In the final multivariate model, after adjusting for covariates, Alzheimer's medication use (p = 0.0005) was associated with hazard of fall. Medication was changed by the clinician after an adverse fall event in 9 % of the falls. About 7 % of the falls were reported as serious adverse events and 6 % were reported to be severe. We found a significant association between the use of symptomatic medication treating cognitive symptoms in AD and hazard of fall after adjusting for age and Beers List medication use. Additional pharmacovigilance of the association between falls and Alzheimer's medication use is warranted.
    Drugs & Aging 12/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether variability in blood pressure (BP) is negatively associated with performance on cognitive testing. Multinational, longitudinal, observational cohort study. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. Individuals with a screening diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or normal cognition (N=626). Mean, variance, and maximum BP were calculated based on measures collected from screening to 36 months. Analysis of covariance models were used to determine the association between BP measures and cognitive scores at 36 months after adjusting for covariates. Greater variability in systolic (P<.05) but not diastolic (P>.18) BP was associated with worse global (Modified Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Component and Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes) and executive (Trail-Making Test Part B, Animal Fluency, and Vegetable Fluency) function and episodic memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Total Score). There is a clinically significant association between greater systolic BP variability and greater cognitive dysfunction. These results should be verified in other well-characterized cohorts, and the neuroanatomical pathophysiology underlying the observed greater cognitive impairment should be further explored.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 12/2013; 61(12):2168-73. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network Trials Unit (DIAN-TU) was formed to direct the design and management of interventional therapeutic trials of international DIAN and autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) participants. The goal of the DIAN-TU is to implement safe trials that have the highest likelihood of success while advancing scientific understanding of these diseases and clinical effects of proposed therapies. The DIAN-TU has launched a trial design that leverages the existing infrastructure of the ongoing DIAN observational study, takes advantage of a variety of drug targets, incorporates the latest results of biomarker and cognitive data collected during the observational study, and implements biomarkers measuring Alzheimer's disease (AD) biological processes to improve the efficiency of trial design. The DIAN-TU trial design is unique due to the sophisticated design of multiple drugs, multiple pharmaceutical partners, academics servings as sponsor, geographic distribution of a rare population and intensive safety and biomarker assessments. The implementation of the operational aspects such as home health research delivery, safety magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) at remote locations, monitoring clinical and cognitive measures, and regulatory management involving multiple pharmaceutical sponsors of the complex DIAN-TU trial are described.
    Revue Neurologique 09/2013; · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 levels correlate with increased brain Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which suggests a disruption in the degradation and clearance of Aβ from the brain. In addition, APOE ε4 carriers have lower CSF Aβ42 levels than non-carriers. The hypothesis of this investigation was that CSF Aβ42 levels would correlate with regulatory region variation in genes that are biologically associated with degradation or clearance of Aβ from the brain. CSF Aβ42 levels were tested for associations with Aβ degradation and clearance genes and APOE ε4. Twenty-four SNPs located within the 5' and 3' regions of 12 genes were analyzed. The study sample consisted of 99 AD patients and 168 cognitively normal control subjects. CSF Aβ42 levels were associated with APOE ε4 status in controls but not in AD patients; A2M regulatory region SNPs were also associated with CSF Aβ42 levels in controls but not in AD patients, even after adjusting for APOE ε4. These results suggest that genetic variation within the A2M gene influences CSF Aβ42 levels.
    Neurobiology of aging 09/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 24-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind ACTION study investigated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients had probable AD and Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥3-≤12. Primary outcome measures were as follows: Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) and AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale-Severe Impairment Version (ADCS-ADL-SIV). Secondary outcomes were as follows: ADCS-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC), 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-12), and safety/tolerability. Of 1014 patients screened, 716 were randomized to 13.3 mg/24 h (N = 356) or 4.6 mg/24 h (N = 360) patch. Baseline characteristics/demographics were comparable. Completion rates were as follows: 64.3% (N = 229) with 13.3 mg/24 h and 65.0% (N = 234) with 4.6 mg/24 h patch. The 13.3 mg/24 h patch was significantly superior to 4.6 mg/24 h patch on cognition (SIB) and function (ADCS-ADL-SIV) at Week 16 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.049, respectively) and 24 (primary endpoint; P < 0.0001 and P = 0.025). Significant between-group differences (Week 24) were observed on the ADCS-CGIC (P = 0.0023), not NPI-12 (P = 0.1437). A similar proportion of the 13.3 mg/24 h and 4.6 mg/24 h patch groups reported adverse events (AEs; 74.6% and 73.3%, respectively) and serious AEs (14.9% and 13.6%). The 13.3 mg/24 h patch demonstrated superior efficacy to 4.6 mg/24 h patch on SIB and ADCS-ADL-SIV, without marked increase in AEs, suggesting higher-dose patch has a favorable benefit-to-risk profile in severe AD.
    CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 08/2013; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of cortical amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein plaques, which result from the sequential action of β-secretase and γ-secretase on amyloid precursor protein. Semagacestat is a small-molecule γ-secretase inhibitor that was developed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 1537 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease underwent randomization to receive 100 mg of semagacestat, 140 mg of semagacestat, or placebo daily. Changes in cognition from baseline to week 76 were assessed with the use of the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale for cognition (ADAS-cog), on which scores range from 0 to 70 and higher scores indicate greater cognitive impairment, and changes in functioning were assessed with the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale, on which scores range from 0 to 78 and higher scores indicate better functioning. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was used. The trial was terminated before completion on the basis of a recommendation by the data and safety monitoring board. At termination, there were 189 patients in the group receiving placebo, 153 patients in the group receiving 100 mg of semagacestat, and 121 patients in the group receiving 140 mg of semagacestat. The ADAS-cog scores worsened in all three groups (mean change, 6.4 points in the placebo group, 7.5 points in the group receiving 100 mg of the study drug, and 7.8 points in the group receiving 140 mg; P=0.15 and P=0.07, respectively, for the comparison with placebo). The ADCS-ADL scores also worsened in all groups (mean change at week 76, -9.0 points in the placebo group, -10.5 points in the 100-mg group, and -12.6 points in the 140-mg group; P=0.14 and P<0.001, respectively, for the comparison with placebo). Patients treated with semagacestat lost more weight and had more skin cancers and infections, treatment discontinuations due to adverse events, and serious adverse events (P<0.001 for all comparisons with placebo). Laboratory abnormalities included reduced levels of lymphocytes, T cells, immunoglobulins, albumin, total protein, and uric acid and elevated levels of eosinophils, monocytes, and cholesterol; the urine pH was also elevated. As compared with placebo, semagacestat did not improve cognitive status, and patients receiving the higher dose had significant worsening of functional ability. Semagacestat was associated with more adverse events, including skin cancers and infections. (Funded by Eli Lilly; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00594568.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2013; 369(4):341-50. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying genetic variants other than APOE ε4 associated with rate of hippocampal volume loss, a key AD endophenotype, has been an important goal. Combining whole exome sequencing (WES) and imaging genetics we recently identified two functional single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in participants with APOE-ε3/ε3 genotypes (Nho 2013). Minor alleles were associated with more rapid hippocampal volume loss. In further analyses of the same WES data, we identified protective functional SNVs.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 07/2013; 9(4). · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    Molecular Psychiatry 07/2013; 18(7):739. · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteins, widely studied as potential biomarkers, play important roles in numerous physiological functions and diseases. Genetic variation may modulate corresponding protein levels and point to the role of these variants in disease pathophysiology. Effects of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a gene were analyzed for corresponding plasma protein levels using genome-wide association study (GWAS) genotype data and proteomic panel data with 132 quality-controlled analytes from 521 Caucasian participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Linear regression analysis detected 112 significant (Bonferroni threshold p = 2.44×10(-5)) associations between 27 analytes and 112 SNPs. 107 out of these 112 associations were tested in the Indiana Memory and Aging Study (IMAS) cohort for replication and 50 associations were replicated at uncorrected p<0.05 in the same direction of effect as those in the ADNI. We identified multiple novel associations including the association of rs7517126 with plasma complement factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1) level at p<1.46×10(-60), accounting for 40 percent of total variation of the protein level. We serendipitously found the association of rs6677604 with the same protein at p<9.29×10(-112). Although these two SNPs were not in the strong linkage disequilibrium, 61 percent of total variation of CFHR1 was accounted for by rs6677604 without additional variation by rs7517126 when both SNPs were tested together. 78 other SNP-protein associations in the ADNI sample exceeded genome-wide significance (5×10(-8)). Our results confirmed previously identified gene-protein associations for interleukin-6 receptor, chemokine CC-4, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and angiotensinogen, although the direction of effect was reversed in some cases. This study is among the first analyses of gene-protein product relationships integrating multiplex-panel proteomics and targeted genes extracted from a GWAS array. With intensive searches taking place for proteomic biomarkers for many diseases, the role of genetic variation takes on new importance and should be considered in interpretation of proteomic results.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):70269-. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Treatment of Alzheimer's disease with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can result in symptomatic benefits, but patients often show variable responses. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to investigate relationships between easily identifiable baseline characteristics/demographics and cognitive response in patients treated with either donepezil 23 mg/d or 10 mg/d and to identify factors potentially influencing response. METHODS: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from a large, 24-week, randomized, double-blind, international study enrolling patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (baseline Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE], 0-20) (NCT 00478205). Cognitive changes in subgroups of patients based on selected baseline and demographic characteristics were compared using the least squares mean changes in Severe Impairment Battery scores at Week 24. Univariate and multivariate analyses were also performed. RESULTS: Donepezil 23 mg/d provided statistically significant incremental cognitive benefits over donepezil 10 mg/d irrespective of baseline functional severity, measured by scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living-severe version (P < 0.05). When patients were categorized by baseline cognitive severity (MMSE score), significant benefits of donepezil 23 mg/d over 10 mg/d were seen in both subgroups when based on MMSE scores of 0-9 versus 10-20 (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively), and in the more severe subgroup when based on MMSE scores of 0-16 versus 17-20 (P < 0.0001 and P > 0.05). Statistically significant incremental cognitive benefits of donepezil 23 mg/d over 10 mg/d were also observed regardless of age, gender, weight, or prestudy donepezil 10 mg/d treatment duration (P < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the only significant interaction was between treatment and baseline MMSE score. CONCLUSIONS: The cognitive benefits of donepezil 23 mg/d over 10 mg/d were achieved regardless of the patient's age, gender, weight, duration of prior donepezil 10 mg/d, and functional severity. The influence of baseline cognitive severity on response seemed to be dependent on the level of impairment, with cognitive benefits of donepezil 23 mg/d over 10 mg/d most apparent in those patients at a more advanced stage of disease. These data may be useful in helping practicing physicians make informed decisions for their patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease.
    BMC Geriatrics 06/2013; 13(1):56. · 2.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
2,112.58 Total Impact Points


  • 1992–2013
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Miami
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Neurology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Kentucky
      • Sanders-Brown Center on Aging
      Lexington, KY, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2002–2008
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Neurosciences
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 2005–2007
    • Eli Lilly
      • Lilly Research Laboratories
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
    • Novartis
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • Nova Southeastern University
      Florida, New York, United States
    • Capital Medical University
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1997–2006
    • University of Cambridge
      • Brain Repair Centre
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2005
    • Banner Sun Health Research Institute
      Sun City, Arizona, United States
  • 1990–2005
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2003
    • Georgetown University
      • Department of Neurology
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Neurology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1994
    • Gracie Square Hospital, New York, NY
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1993
    • Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • Indiana University East
      Indiana, United States
  • 1992–1993
    • Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta
      • Division of Neuropathology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy