M. J. Page

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (372)1278.34 Total impact

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    N. P. M. Kuin, W. Landsman, A. A. Breeveld, M. J. Page, C. James, H. Lamoureux, M. Mehdipour, M. Still, V. Yershov, P. J. Brown, M. Carter, K. O. Mason, T. Kennedy, F. Marshall, P. W. A. Roming, M. Siegel, S. Oates, P. J. Smith, M. De Pasquale
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    ABSTRACT: We present the calibration of the Swift UVOT grisms, of which there are two, providing low-resolution field spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and optical bands respectively. The UV grism covers the range 1700-5000 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 75 at 2600 Angstrom for source magnitudes of u=10-16 mag, while the visible grism covers the range 2850-6600 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 100 at 4000 Angstrom for source magnitudes of b=12-17 mag. This calibration extends over all detector positions, for all modes used during operations. The wavelength accuracy (1-sigma) is 9 Angstrom in the UV grism clocked mode, 17 Angstrom in the UV grism nominal mode and 22 Angstrom in the visible grism. The range below 2740 Angstrom in the UV grism and 5200 Angstrom in the visible grism never suffers from overlapping by higher spectral orders. The flux calibration of the grisms includes a correction we developed for coincidence loss in the detector. The error in the coincidence loss correction is less than 20%. The position of the spectrum on the detector only affects the effective area (sensitivity) by a few percent in the nominal modes, but varies substantially in the clocked modes. The error in the effective area is from 9% in the UV grism clocked mode to 15% in the visible grism clocked mode .
    01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: We have assembled a sample of 5 X-ray-absorbed and submm-luminous type 1 QSOs at $z \sim 2$ which are simultaneously growing their central black holes through accretion and forming stars copiously. We present here the analysis of their rest-frame UV to submm Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), including new Herschel data. Both AGN (direct and reprocessed) and Star Formation (SF) emission are needed to model their SEDs. From the SEDs and their UV-optical spectra we have estimated the masses of their black holes $M_{BH}\sim 10^{9}-10^{10}\,M_{\odot}$, their intrinsic AGN bolometric luminosities $L_{BOL}\sim(0.8 - 20)\times 10^{13} L_{\odot}$, Eddington ratios $L_{BOL}/L_{Edd}\sim 0.1 - 1.1$ and bolometric corrections $L_{BOL}/L_{X,2-10}\sim 30 - 500$. These values are common among optically and X-ray-selected type 1 QSOs (except for RX~J1249), except for the bolometric corrections, which are higher. These objects show very high far-infrared luminosities $L_{FIR}\sim$ (2 - 8)$\times10^{12}\,M_{\odot}$ and Star Formation Rates SFR$\sim 1000 M_{\odot}/$y. From their $L_{FIR}$ and the shape of their FIR-submm emission we have estimated star-forming dust masses of $M_{DUST}\sim 10^9\,M_\odot$. We have found evidence of a tentative correlation between the gas column densities of the ionized absorbers detected in X-ray (N$_{H_{ion}}$) and $SFR$. Our computed black hole masses are amongst the most massive known.
    01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed study of a X -ray selected sample of 5 submillimeter bright QSOs at $z\sim2$, where the highest rates of star formation (SF) and further growth of black holes (BH) occur. Therefore, this sample is a great laboratory to investigate the co-evolution of star formation and AGN. We present here the analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SED) of the 5 QSOS, including new data from Herschel PACS and SPIRE. Both AGN components (direct and reprocessed) and like Star Formation (SF) are needed to model its SED. From the SED and their UV-optical spectra we have estimated the mass of the black hole ($M_{BH} = 10^9 - 10^{10} M_{SUN}$) and bolometric luminosities of AGN ($L_{BOL} = (0.8-20) \times 10^{13} L_{SUN}$). These objects show very high luminosities in the far infrared range (at the H/ULIRG levels) and very high rates of SF (SFR = 400-1400 $M_{SUN}$/y). Known their current SFR and their BH masses, we deduce that their host galaxies must be already very massive, or would not have time to get to the local relation between BH mass and bulge. Finally, we found evidence of a possible correlation between the column density of ionized gas detected in X-rays ($NH_{ion}$) and SFR, which would provide a link between AGN and SF processes.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the most complete study to date of the X-ray emission from star-formation in high redshift (median z=0.7; z<1.5), IR-luminous (L_IR=10^10-10^13 L_sun) galaxies detected by Herschel's PACS and SPIRE instruments. For our purpose we take advantage of the deepest X-ray data to date, the Chandra deep fields (North and South). Sources which host AGN are removed from our analysis by means of multiple AGN indicators. We find an AGN fraction of 18+/-2 per cent amongst our sample and note that AGN entirely dominate at values of log[L_X/L_IR]>-3 in both hard and soft X-ray bands. From the sources which are star-formation dominated, only a small fraction are individually X-ray detected and for the bulk of the sample we calculate average X-ray luminosities through stacking. We find an average soft X-ray to infrared ratio of log[L_SX/L_IR]=-4.3 and an average hard X-ray to infrared ratio of log[L_HX/L_IR]=-3.8. We report that the X-ray/IR correlation is approximately linear through the entire range of L_IR and z probed and, although broadly consistent with the local (z<0.1) one, it does display some discrepancies. We suggest that these discrepancies are unlikely to be physical, i.e. due to an intrinsic change in the X-ray properties of star-forming galaxies with cosmic time, as there is no significant evidence for evolution of the L_X/L_IR ratio with redshift. Instead they are possibly due to selection effects and remaining AGN contamination. We also examine whether dust obscuration in the galaxy plays a role in attenuating X-rays from star-formation, by investigating changes in the L_X/L_IR ratio as a function of the average dust temperature. We conclude that X-rays do not suffer any measurable attenuation in the host galaxy.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 443(4). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel/PACS observations of the nearby (z=0.1055) dwarf galaxy that has hosted the long gamma ray burst (LGRB) 031203. Using the PACS data we have been able to place constraints on the dust temperature, dust mass, total infrared luminosity and infrared-derived star-formation rate (SFR) for this object. We find that the GRB host galaxy (GRBH) 031203 has a total infrared luminosity of 3x10^10 L_sun placing it in the regime of the IR-luminous galaxy population. Its dust temperature and specific SFR are comparable to that of many high-redshift (z=0.3-2.5) infrared (IR)-detected GRB hosts (T_dust>40K ; sSFR>10 Gyr^-1), however its dust-to-stellar mass ratio is lower than what is commonly seen in IR-luminous galaxies. Our results suggest that GRBH 031203 is undergoing a strong starburst episode and its dust properties are different to those of local dwarf galaxies within the same metallicity and stellar mass range. Furthermore, our measurements place it in a distinct class to the well studied nearby host of GRB 980425 (z=0.0085), confirming the notion that GRB host galaxies can span a large range in properties even at similar cosmological epochs, making LGRBs an ideal tool in selecting samples of star-forming galaxies up to high redshift.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 06/2014; 443(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2014; 565. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We combine NUV, optical and IR imaging of the nearby starburst galaxy M82 to explore the properties of the dust both in the interstellar medium of the galaxy and the dust entrained in the superwind. The three NUV filters of Swift/UVOT enable us to probe in detail the properties of the extinction curve in the region around the 2175A bump. The NUV colour-colour diagram strongly rules out a Calzetti-type law, which can either reflect intrinsic changes in the dust properties or in the star formation history compared to starbursts well represented by such an attenuation law. We emphasize that it is mainly in the NUV region where a standard Milky-Way-type law is preferred over a Calzetti law. The age and dust distribution of the stellar populations is consistent with the scenario of an encounter with M81 in the recent 400 Myr. The radial gradients of the NUV and optical colours in the superwind region support the hypothesis that the emission in the wind cone is driven by scattering from dust grains entrained in the ejecta. The observed wavelength dependence reveals either a grain size distribution $n(a)\propto a^{-2.5}$, where $a$ is the size of the grain, or a flatter distribution with a maximum size cutoff, suggesting that only small grains are entrained in the supernovae-driven wind.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2014; 440(1). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the redshift z=7.084 quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The quasar is detected as a point source with both observatories. The Chandra observation provides a precise position, confirming the association of the X-ray source and the quasar, while sufficient photons are detected in the XMM-Newton observation to yield a meaningful X-ray spectrum. In the XMM-Newton observation the quasar has a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4.7 +- 0.9 times 10^44 ergs/s and a spectral slope alpha = 1.6 +0.4 -0.3 (where f_nu propto nu^-alpha). The very soft spectrum suggests that the quasar is accreting above the Eddington rate, which would help to reduce the discrepancy between the age of the quasar implied by the small size of the ionized near zone in which it sits (<10^7 years), and the characteristic e-folding time (2.5 times 10^7 years if L/L_Edd=2). Such super-Eddington accretion would also alleviate the challenging constraints on the seed black hole mass, and the remnant of an individual population III star is a plausible progenitor if an average L/L_Edd>1.46 has been maintained over the quasar's lifetime.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 11/2013; 440(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a method for selecting $z>4$ dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) using Herschel/SPIRE 250/350/500 $\mu m$ flux densities to search for red sources. We apply this method to 21 deg$^2$ of data from the HerMES survey to produce a catalog of 38 high-$z$ candidates. Follow-up of the first 5 of these sources confirms that this method is efficient at selecting high-$z$ DSFGs, with 4/5 at $z=4.3$ to $6.3$ (and the remaining source at $z=3.4$), and that they are some of the most luminous dusty sources known. Comparison with previous DSFG samples, mostly selected at longer wavelengths (e.g., 850 $\mu m$) and in single-band surveys, shows that our method is much more efficient at selecting high-$z$ DSFGs, in the sense that a much larger fraction are at $z>3$. Correcting for the selection completeness and purity, we find that the number of bright ($S_{500\,\mu m} \ge 30$ mJy), red Herschel sources is $3.3 \pm 0.8$ deg$^{-2}$. This is much higher than the number predicted by current models, suggesting that the DSFG population extends to higher redshifts than previously believed. If the shape of the luminosity function for high-$z$ DSFGs is similar to that at $z\sim2$, rest-frame UV based studies may be missing a significant component of the star formation density at $z=4$ to $6$, even after correction for extinction.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 780(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamic range of photon counting micro-channel-plate (MCP) intensified charged-coupled device (CCD) instruments such as the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) is limited at the bright end by coincidence loss, the superposition of multiple photons in the individual frames recorded by the CCD. Photons which arrive during the brief period in which the image frame is transferred for read out of the CCD are displaced in the transfer direction in the recorded images. For sufficiently bright sources, these displaced counts form read-out streaks. Using UVOT observations of Tycho-2 stars, we investigate the use of these read-out streaks to obtain photometry for sources which are too bright (and hence have too much coincidence loss) for normal aperture photometry to be reliable. For read-out-streak photometry, the bright-source limiting factor is coincidence loss within the MCPs rather than the CCD. We find that photometric measurements can be obtained for stars up to 2.4 magnitudes brighter than the usual full-frame coincidence-loss limit by using the read-out streaks. The resulting bright-limit Vega magnitudes in the UVOT passbands are UVW2=8.80, UVM2=8.27, UVW1=8.86, u=9.76, b=10.53, v=9.31 and White=11.71; these limits are independent of the windowing mode of the camera. We find that a photometric precision of 0.1 mag can be achieved through read-out streak measurements. A suitable method for the measurement of read-out streaks is described and all necessary calibration factors are given.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; 436(2). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the multi-wavelength properties of a sample of 450-\mu m selected sources from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). A total of 69 sources were identified above 4\sigma\ in deep SCUBA-2 450-\mu m observations overlapping the UDS and COSMOS fields and covering 210 sq. arcmin to a typical depth of \sigma 450=1.5 mJy. Reliable cross identification are found for 58 sources (84 per cent) in Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR data. The photometric redshift distribution (dN/dz) of 450\mu m-selected sources is presented, showing a broad peak in the redshift range 1<z<3, and a median of z=1.4. Combining the SCUBA-2 photometry with Herschel SPIRE data from HerMES, the submm spectral energy distribution (SED) is examined via the use of modified blackbody fits, yielding aggregate values for the IR luminosity, dust temperature and emissivity of =10^12 +/- 0.8 L_sol, =42 +/- 11 K and <\beta_D>=1.6 +/- 0.5, respectively. The relationship between these SED parameters and the physical properties of galaxies is investigated, revealing correlations between T_D and LIR and between \beta_D and both stellar mass and effective radius. The connection between star formation rate and stellar mass is explored, with 24 per cent of 450 \mu m sources found to be ``star-bursts'', i.e. displaying anomalously high specific SFRs. However, both the number density and observed properties of these ``star-burst'' galaxies are found consistent with the population of normal star-forming galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 436(1). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the far-infrared (FIR; rest-frame 8--1000\mu m) properties of a sample of 443 H\alpha-selected star-forming galaxies in the COSMOS and UDS fields detected by the HiZELS imaging survey. Sources are identified using narrow-band filters in combination with broad-band photometry to uniformly select H\alpha\ (and [OII] if available) emitters in a narrow redshift slice at z = 1.47+/-0.02. We use a stacking approach in Spitzer, Herschel (from PEP and HerMES surveys) and AzTEC images to describe their typical FIR properties. We find that HiZELS galaxies with observed H\alpha\ luminosities of ~ 10^{8.1-9.1} Lo have bolometric FIR luminosities of typical LIRGs, L_FIR ~ 10^{11.48+/-0.05} Lo. Combining the H\alpha\ and FIR luminosities, we derive median SFR = 32+/-5 Mo/yr and H\alpha\ extinctions of A(H\alpha) = 1.0+/-0.2 mag. Perhaps surprisingly, little difference is seen in typical HiZELS extinction levels compared to local star-forming galaxies. We confirm previous empirical stellar mass (M*) to A(H\alpha) relations and the little or no evolution up to z = 1.47. For HiZELS galaxies, we provide an empirical parametrisation of the SFR as a function of (u-z)_rest colours and 3.6\mu m photometry. We find that the observed H\alpha\ luminosity is a dominant SFR tracer when (u-z)_rest ~< 0.9 mag or when 3.6\mu m photometry > 22 mag (Vega) or when M* < 10^9.7 Mo. We do not find any correlation between the [OII]/H\alpha\ and FIR luminosity, suggesting that this emission line ratio does not trace the extinction of the most obscured star-forming regions. The luminosity-limited HiZELS sample tends to lie above of the so-called `main sequence' for star-forming galaxies, especially at low M*. This work suggests that obscured star formation is linked to the assembly of M*, with deeper potential wells in massive galaxies providing dense, heavily obscured environments in which stars can form rapidly.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 434(4). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronos is our response to ESA's call for white papers to define the science for the future L2, L3 missions. Chronos targets the formation and evolution of galaxies, by collecting the deepest NIR spectroscopic data, from the formation of the first galaxies at z~10 to the peak of formation activity at z~1-3. The strong emission from the atmospheric background makes this type of survey impossible from a ground-based observatory. The spectra of galaxies represent the equivalent of a DNA fingerprint, containing information about the past history of star formation and chemical enrichment. The proposed survey will allow us to dissect the formation process of galaxies including the timescales of quenching triggered by star formation or AGN activity, the effect of environment, the role of infall/outflow processes, or the connection between the galaxies and their underlying dark matter haloes. To provide these data, the mission requires a 2.5m space telescope optimised for a campaign of very deep NIR spectroscopy. A combination of a high multiplex and very long integration times will result in the deepest, largest, high-quality spectroscopic dataset of galaxies from z=1 to 12, spanning the history of the Universe, from 400 million to 6 billion years after the big bang, i.e. covering the most active half of cosmic history.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we explore the impact of the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of galaxies as well as the effects of simultaneous AGN and starburst activity in these same galaxies. To do this we apply a multi-component, multi-band spectral synthesis technique to a sample of 250 micron selected galaxies of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, with IRS spectra available for all galaxies. Our results confirm that the inclusion of the IRS spectra plays a crucial role in the spectral analysis of galaxies with an AGN component improving the selection of the best-fit hot dust model (torus). We find a correlation between the obscured star formation rate (SFR) derived from the IR luminosity of the starburst component, SFR_IR and SFR_PAH, derived from the luminosity of the PAH features, L_PAH, with SFR_FIR taking higher values than SFR_PAH. The correlation is different for AGN- and starburst-dominated objects. The ratio of L_PAH to that of the starburst component, L_PAH/L_SB, is almost constant for AGN-dominated objects but decreases with increasing L_SB for starburst-dominated objects. SFR_FIR increases with the accretion luminosity, L_acc, with the increase less prominent for the very brightest, unobscured AGN-dominated sources. We find no correlation between the masses of the hot and cold dust components. We interpret this as a non-constant fraction of gas driven by the gravitational effects to the AGN while the starburst is ongoing. We also find no evidence of the AGN affecting the temperature of the cold dust component, though this conclusion is mostly based on objects with a non-dominant AGN component. We conclude that our findings do not provide evidence that the presence of AGN affects the star formation process in the host galaxy, but rather that the two phenomena occur simultaneously over a wide range of luminosities.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2013; 434(3). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5 × 10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2 × 10(11) solar masses at z ≈ 2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19 kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4 × 10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z ≈ 1.5.
    Nature 05/2013; · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present strong empirical evidence for a physical connection between the occurrence of a starburst (SB) and a luminous AGN phase. Drawing infrared (IR), X-ray, and optically selected samples from COSMOS, we find that the locus of type-2 AGN hosts in the optical colour-magnitude (U-V/V) and colour-colour (U-V/V-J) space significantly overlaps with that of IR-luminous (L_IR > 10^10 L_sun) galaxies. Based on our observations, we propose that, when simultaneously building their black hole and stellar masses, type-2 AGN hosts are located in the same part of colour-colour space as dusty star-forming galaxies. In fact, our results show that IR-luminous galaxies at z<1.5 are on average 3 times more likely to host a type-2 AGN (L_X > 10^42 erg/s) than would be expected serendipitously, if AGN and star-formation events were unrelated. In addition, the optical and infrared properties of the AGN/SB hybrid systems tentatively suggest that the AGN phase might be coeval with a particularly active phase in a galaxy's star-formation history. Interestingly, we also find a significant fraction of type-2 AGN hosts offset from the dusty galaxy sequence in colour-colour space, possibly representing a transitional or post-starburst phase in galaxy evolution. Our findings are consistent with a scenario whereby AGN play a role in the termination of star-formation in massive galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2013; 433(2). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have assembled a sample of 5 X-ray and submm-luminous QSOs which are therefore both growing their central black holes through accretion and forming stars copiously. Hence, they are good laboratories to investigate the co-evolution of star formation and AGN. Our XMM-Newton observations reveal strong outflowing ionized winds from the QSOs which could terminate star formation. SCUBA maps have shown that they are also surrounded by submm source overdensities, placing them in the centres of high density peaks of the z 2 Universe. In one case we have already proved that the submm sources are indeed massive (but with undernourished black holes, if any) star-forming galaxies associated to the QSO. We present here the analysis of new PACS and SPIRE Herschel data (together with our existing and archival optical-NIR-MIR observations) on the central QSOs. Both AGN (direct and reprocessed) and Star Formation (SF) emission are needed to model their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). The fits are reasonable in all cases except perhaps for RXJ1633. We confirm the presence of strong FIR emission due to SF in these objects, at the ULIRG/HLIRG level, with SFR 1000-2000 Msun/y. Our sources have different relative direct/reprocessed and AGN/SF contributions. We therefore confirm that these objects are both forming stars copiously and growing by strong accretion, but with diverse properties.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Using new homogeneous LFs in the FUV and in the FIR Herschel/PEP and Herschel/HerMES, we study the evolution of the dust attenuation with redshift. With this information in hand, we are able to estimate the redshift evolution of the total (FUV + FIR) star formation rate density SFRD_TOT. By integrating SFRD_TOT, we follow the mass building and analyze the redshift evolution of the stellar mass density (SMD). This letter aims at providing a complete view of star formation from the local universe to z = 4 and, using assumptions on earlier star formation history, compares this evolution to what was known before in an attempt to draw a homogeneous picture of the global evolution of star formation in galaxies. The main conclusions of this letter are: 1) the dust attenuation A_FUV is found to increase from z = 0 to z \sim 1.2 and then starts to decrease up to our last data point at z = 3.6; 2) the estimated SFRD confirms published results up to z = 2. At z > 2, we observe either a plateau or a small increase up to z = 3 and then a likely decrease up to z = 3.6; 3) the peak of A_FUV is delayed with respect to the plateau of SFRD_TOT and a likely origin might be found in the evolution of the bright ends of the FUV and FIR LFs; 4) using assumptions (namely exponential rise and linear rise with time) for the evolution of the star formation density from z = 3.6 to z_form = 10, we integrate SFRD_TOT and find a good agreement with the published SMDs.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Massive present-day early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies probably gained the bulk of their stellar mass and heavy elements through intense, dust-enshrouded starbursts-that is, increased rates of star formation-in the most massive dark-matter haloes at early epochs. However, it remains unknown how soon after the Big Bang massive starburst progenitors exist. The measured redshift (z) distribution of dusty, massive starbursts has long been suspected to be biased low in z owing to selection effects, as confirmed by recent findings of systems with redshifts as high as ∼5 (refs 2-4). Here we report the identification of a massive starburst galaxy at z = 6.34 through a submillimetre colour-selection technique. We unambiguously determined the redshift from a suite of molecular and atomic fine-structure cooling lines. These measurements reveal a hundred billion solar masses of highly excited, chemically evolved interstellar medium in this galaxy, which constitutes at least 40 per cent of the baryonic mass. A 'maximum starburst' converts the gas into stars at a rate more than 2,000 times that of the Milky Way, a rate among the highest observed at any epoch. Despite the overall downturn in cosmic star formation towards the highest redshifts, it seems that environments mature enough to form the most massive, intense starbursts existed at least as early as 880 million years after the Big Bang.
    Nature 04/2013; 496(7445):329-333. · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We exploit the deep and extended far infrared data sets (at 70, 100 and 160 um) of the Herschel GTO PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) Survey, in combination with the HERschel Multi tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) data at 250, 350 and 500 um, to derive the evolution of the restframe 35 um, 60 um, 90 um, and total infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) up to z~4. We detect very strong luminosity evolution for the total IR LF combined with a density evolution. In agreement with previous findings, the IR luminosity density increases steeply to z~1, then flattens between z~1 and z~3 to decrease at z greater than 3. Galaxies with different SEDs, masses and sSFRs evolve in very different ways and this large and deep statistical sample is the first one allowing us to separately study the different evolutionary behaviours of the individual IR populations contributing to the IR luminosity density. Galaxies occupying the well established SFR/stellar mass main sequence (MS) are found to dominate both the total IR LF and luminosity density at all redshifts, with the contribution from off MS sources (0.6 dex above MS) being nearly constant (~20% of the total IR luminosity density) and showing no significant signs of increase with increasing z over the whole 0.8<z<2.2 range. Sources with mass in the 10< log(M/Msun) <11 range are found to dominate the total IR LF, with more massive galaxies prevailing at the bright end of the high-z LF. A two-fold evolutionary scheme for IR galaxies is envisaged: on the one hand, a starburst-dominated phase in which the SMBH grows and is obscured by dust, is followed by an AGN dominated phase, then evolving toward a local elliptical. On the other hand, moderately starforming galaxies containing a low-luminosity AGN have various properties suggesting they are good candidates for systems in a transition phase preceding the formation of steady spiral galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; 436(3). · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,278.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • University College London
      • • Department of Space and Climate Physics
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011–2012
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Department of Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2011
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2009
    • Universities Space Research Association
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2000–2002
    • Universidad de Cantabria
      Santander, Cantabria, Spain