Mikio Oka

Kawasaki Medical University, Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (258)675.94 Total impact

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    PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10):e0139809. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0139809 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2015; 21(19):4327-4336. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0357 · 8.72 Impact Factor

  • European Respiratory Journal 09/2015; 46(suppl 59):PA2675. DOI:10.1183/13993003.congress-2015.PA2675 · 7.64 Impact Factor

  • European Respiratory Journal 09/2015; 46(suppl 59):PA4523. DOI:10.1183/13993003.congress-2015.PA4523 · 7.64 Impact Factor

  • European Respiratory Journal 09/2015; 46(suppl 59):OA1780. DOI:10.1183/13993003.congress-2015.OA1780 · 7.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a β-galactoside-binding protein that exhibits various biological reactions, such as chemoattraction, cell aggregation, and apoptosis. Recent studies demonstrated that Gal-9 has a role as an immunomodulator in excessive immunological reactions by expanded regulatory T cells (Tregs). We examined the role of Gal-9 in the pathogenesis of one of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) as compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Gal-9, transforming growth factor-β1, and interleukin (IL)-10 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with COP and IPF were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) expressing Tregs were evaluated by flow cytometry. The effect of Gal-9 on interactions between human lung fibroblast cells and hyarulonan was assessed in vitro. Gal-9 and IL-10 levels in the BALF were significantly higher in patients with COP than in patients with IPF. The number of CD4+Foxp3high+cells was significantly higher in the BALF of patients with COP than in those with IPF. Gal-9 levels significantly correlated with the absolute number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+cells or CD4+Foxp3high+cells, but not with the absolute number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3-cells, in the BALF of patients with COP. Gal-9 suppressed the CD44-dependent interaction of human lung fibroblast cells with hyarulonan in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that increased Gal-9 levels in the lung have a protective role against lung inflammation and fibrosis in patients with COP through the induction of Tregs in the lung and CD44-dependent inhibitory effects on lung fibroblast cells.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 08/2015; 193(5). DOI:10.1007/s00408-015-9775-x · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics of fever after cancer chemotherapy in order to reduce unnecessary medical care. Retrospectively, 1016 consecutive cycles of cancer chemotherapy were analyzed. Fever was defined as a temperature of ≥37.5 °C lasting for 1 h. Age, sex, tumor histology, the treatment regimen, the timing of fever onset, the number of days for which the fever persisted, the cause of the fever, the presence or absence of radiotherapy, and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were examined. The patients included 748 males and 268 females (median age = 68, range = 29-88), of whom 949, 52, and 15 were suffering from lung cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and other diseases, respectively. Fever was observed in 367 cycles (36 %), including 280 cycles (37 %) involving males and 87 cycles (32 %) involving females. Fever occurred most commonly in the first cycles and was higher than later cycles (41 vs. 30 %, p < 0.001). Fever occurred most frequently on posttreatment days 4 (8 %), 3 (7 %), and 12 (7 %), and the distribution of fever episodes exhibited two peaks on posttreatment days 3 and 4 and 10-14. Fever on posttreatment days 3 and 4 was most commonly observed in patients treated with gemcitabine (20 %) or docetaxel (18 %). The causes of fever included infection (47 %; including febrile neutropenia [24 %]), adverse drug effects (24 %), unknown causes (19 %), and tumors (7 %). Radiotherapy led to a significant increase in the frequency of fever (46 vs. 34 %, p < 0.001). Thirty-three percent of patients received G-CSF, and the incidence ratios of fever in patients who received G-CSF were higher than those who did not receive G-CSF (44 vs. 31 %, p < 0.001). The febrile episodes that occurred on posttreatment days 3 and 4 were considered to represent adverse drug reactions after cancer chemotherapy. Physicians should be aware of this feature of chemotherapy-associated fever and avoid unnecessary examination and treatments including prescribing antibiotics.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00520-015-2820-8 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune responses to tumor antigens have been reported in cancer patients. However, the relevance of such spontaneous immune responses to the clinical course has not been studied extensively. We showed that the overall survival of patients with antibodies against NY-ESO-1 or XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen was prolonged in gastric or lung cancer patients, respectively.
    OncoImmunology 11/2014; 3(11):e970032. DOI:10.4161/21624011.2014.970032 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tregs infiltrate tumors and inhibit immune responses against them. Methods: We investigated subpopulations of Foxp3 CD4 T cells previously defined by Miyara et al. (Immunity 30, 899-911, 2009) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in lung cancer. We also showed that Tregs in healthy donors that express CCR4 could be efficiently eliminated in vitro by cotreatment with antihuman (h) CCR4 mAb (KM2760) and NK cells. Results: In lung cancer, the number of activated/effector Tregs and non-Tregs, but not resting/naive Tregs, was increased in TILs compared with the number of those cells in PBMCs. The non-Treg population contained Th2 and Th17. CCR4 expression on activated/effector Tregs and non-Tregs in TILs was down-regulated compared with that on those cells in PBMCs. Chemokinetic migration of CD25 CD4 T cells containing the Treg population sorted from the PBMCs of healthy donors to CCL22/MDC was abrogated by pretreatment with anti-hCCR4 mAb (KM2760). The inhibitory activity of CD25 CD127 CD4 Tregs on the proliferative response of CD4 and CD8 T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 coated beads was abrogated by adding an anti-hCCR4 mAb (KM2760) and CD56 NK cells to the culture. Conclusions: The findings suggested the CCR4 on activated/effector Tregs and non-Tregs was functionally involved in the chemokinetic migration and accumulation of those cells to the tumor site. In vitro findings of efficient elimination of Tregs may give the basis for implementation of a clinical trial to investigate Treg depletion by administration of an anti-hCCR4 mAb to solid cancer patients.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 10/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000364 · 5.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The cancer/testis antigen XAGE1 (GAGED2a) is expressed in approximately 40% of advanced lung adenocarcinomas. We investigated the clinical relevance of the XAGE1 (GAGED2a) immune responses in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Experimental design: The XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen expression and EGFR mutation were determined with tumor tissues. The XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antibody and T-cell immune responses, as well as immune cell phenotypes, were analyzed with blood samples. Patients with EGFR wild-type (EGFRwt) tumors were treated with conventional platinum-based doublet chemotherapy and patients with EGFR-mutated (EGFRmt) tumors were treated with EGFR-TKI and conventional chemotherapy. The overall survival (OS) rates of the antibody-positive and -negative patients were investigated. Results: The results showed that the OS of antibody-positive patients was prolonged significantly compared with that of antibody-negative patients with either XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen-positive EGFRwt (31.5 vs. 15.6 months, P = 0.05) or EGFRmt (34.7 vs. 11.1 months, P = 0.001) tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of the XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antibody was a strong predictor for prolonged OS in patients with XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen-positive tumors and in patients with either EGFRwt or EGFRmt tumors. On the other hand, XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen expression was a worse predictor in patients with EGFRmt tumors. Phenotypic and functional analyses of T cells indicated immune activation in the antibody-positive patients. Conclusions: The findings suggest that production of the XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antibody predicts good prognosis for patients with lung adenocarcinoma as an immune biomarker and the protective effect of this naturally occurring immune response supports the concept of immunotherapy.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2014; 20(19). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0742 · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are frequently heterogeneous and in approximately 70% of cases, NSCLCs are diagnosed and staged by small biopsies or cytology rather than by examination of surgically resected specimens. Thus, in most patients, the diagnosis is established based on examination of preoperative specimens alone. Recently, classification of NSCLC into pathologic subtypes has been shown to be important for selecting the appropriate systemic therapy, from both the point of view of treatment efficacy and prevention of toxicity. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 225 patients to compare the preoperative classification of the NSCLC subtype on biopsy specimens with the postoperative classification based on examination of the resected specimens, in order to compare the accuracy of the two for the diagnosis of various histological subtypes of NSCLC. In 169 of the 225 (75.1%) patients, the preoperative diagnosis was definite malignancy. Histologically, the final pathologic diagnosis made from the surgical specimens was adenocarcinoma (ADC) in 169 patients, and in 75.5% of these cases, the diagnosis was concordant with the preoperative diagnosis. Among the patients who had squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) in the preoperative specimens, the diagnosis was concordant with the preoperative diagnosis in 65.7% of cases. Misclassified preoperative biopsies included an even number of SQCs and ADCs, with all the misclassified biopsies being ADCs morphologically mimicking SQC due to solid growth. Significantly higher specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy were observed for the diagnosis of SQC. Our study suggested that the concordance rates for diagnosis of the NSCLC subtypes, especially the "squamous" or "non-squamous" histologies, between preoperative and surgical specimens were satisfactory, as compared with previous reports. Therefore, pretreatment diagnosis of lung cancer using small samples is reasonable for selecting the optimal treatment. However, in order not to lose the opportunity for selecting an effective treatment, we should be aware that the diagnosis in preoperative small samples might be different from that based on examination of the surgical specimens. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2032698427120488
    Diagnostic Pathology 05/2014; 9(1):103. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-9-103 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a β-galactoside-binding protein involved in various biologic processes, including cell aggregation, adhesion, chemoattraction, and apoptosis. Little is known, however, about the regulation mechanisms of Gal-9 production. Recent studies reported high plasma Gal-9 levels in humans infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 and dengue virus. Viral respiratory infections such as influenza are common human illnesses. A synthetic double-stranded RNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyIC), mimics the effects of viruses in various cell types and induces the expression of Gal-9 in endothelial cells. To examine the potential link between viral infection and Gal-9 expression, we measured plasma Gal-9 concentrations in patients with influenza. Subjects were 43 patients with influenza virus infection, 20 with pneumococcal pneumonia, and 20 healthy adults. Gal-9 concentrations in the plasma and in culture supernatants of human airway epithelial cells were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Gal-9 concentrations were higher in patients with influenza infection than in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia and healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Patients with influenza were effectively differentiated from those with pneumococcal pneumonia or healthy subjects, based on the plasma levels of Gal-9 (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, using a human airway epithelial cell line, we showed that the presence of PolyIC but not lipopolysaccharides increased the Gal-9 concentration in the culture medium (p < 0.05), suggesting that PolyIC enhanced Gal-9 production. These findings support our proposal that Gal-9 production is induced by influenza virus infection in humans. In conclusion, plasma Gal-9 could be a new biomarker for patients with influenza infection.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2014; 232(4):263-7. DOI:10.1620/tjem.232.263 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a clinical trial of an NY-ESO-1 cancer vaccine using 4 synthetic overlapping long peptides (OLP; peptides #1, 79-108; #2, 100-129; #3, 121-150; and #4, 142-173) that include a highly immunogenic region of the NY-ESO-1 molecule. Nine patients were immunized with 0.25 mg each of three 30-mer and a 32-mer long NY-ESO-1 OLP mixed with 0.2 KE Picibanil OK-432 and 1.25 mL Montanide ISA-51. The primary endpoints of this study were safety and NY-ESO-1 immune responses. Five to 18 injections of the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine were well tolerated. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever and injection site reaction (grade 1 and 2). Two patients showed stable disease after vaccination. An NY-ESO-1-specific humoral immune response was observed in all patients and an antibody against peptide #3 (121-150) was detected firstly and strongly after vaccination. NY-ESO-1 CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were elicited in these patients and their epitopes were identified. Using a multifunctional cytokine assay, the number of single or double cytokine-producing cells was increased in NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells after vaccination. Multiple cytokine-producing cells were observed in PD-1 (-) and PD-1 (+) CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our study indicated that the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 was well tolerated and elicited NY-ESO-1-specific humoral and CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in immunized patients.
    Journal of Immunotherapy 02/2014; 37(2):84-92. DOI:10.1097/CJI.0000000000000017
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    ABSTRACT: We established CD4 T-cell clones, Mz-1B7, and Ue-21, which recognized the NY-ESO-1 121-138 peptide from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of an esophageal cancer patient, E-2, immunized with an NY-ESO-1 protein and determined the NY-ESO-1 minimal epitopes. Minimal peptides recognized by Mz-1B7 and Ue-21 were NY-ESO-1 125-134 and 124-134, respectively, both in restriction to DRB1*08:03. Using a longer peptide, 122-135, and five other related peptides, including either of the minimal epitopes recognized by the CD4 T-cell clones, we investigated the free peptide/DR recognition on autologous EBV-B cells as APC and peptide/DR tetramer binding. The results showed a discrepancy between them. The tetramers with several peptides recognized by either Mz-1B7 or the Ue-21 CD4 T-cell clone did not bind to the respective clone. On the other hand, unexpected binding of the tetramer with the peptide not recognized by CD4 T-cells was observed. The clone Mz-1B7 did not recognize the free peptide 122-135 on APC, but the peptide 122-135/DRB1*08:03 tetramer bound to the TCR on those cells. The failure of tetramer production and the unexpected tetramer binding could be due to a subtly modified structure of the peptide/DR tetramer from the structure of the free peptide/DR molecule. We also demonstrated that the NY-ESO-1 123-135/DRB1*08:03 tetramer detected ex vivo CD4 T-cell responses in PBMCs from patients after NY-ESO-1 vaccination in immunomonitoring.
    Vaccine 01/2014; 32(8). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.12.042 · 3.62 Impact Factor

  • Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases 01/2014; 04(02):64-72. DOI:10.4236/ojrd.2014.42010
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    ABSTRACT: GM (γ marker) allotypes, genetic variants of immunoglobulin γ chains, have been reported to be strongly associated with susceptibility to lung cancer, but the mechanism(s) underlying this association is not known. One mechanism could involve their contribution to humoral immunity to lung tumor-associated antigens. Here, we aimed to determine whether particular GM and KM (κ marker) allotypes were associated with antibody responsiveness to XAGE-1b, a highly immunogenic lung tumor-associated cancer-testis antigen. Sera from 89 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were allotyped for 8 GM and 2 KM determinants and characterized for antibodies to a synthetic XAGE-1b protein. The distribution of various GM phenotypes was significantly different between XAGE-1b antibody positive and negative patients (p = 0.023) as well as in the subgroup of XAGE-1b antigen-positive advanced NSCLC (p = 0.007). None of the patients with the GM 1,17 21 phenotype was positive for the XAGE-1b antibody. In patients with the antigen-positive advanced disease, the prevalence of GM 1,2,17 21 was significantly higher in the antibody positive group than in those who lacked the XAGE-1b antibody (p = 0.026). This phenotype also interacted with a particular KM phenotype: Subjects with GM 1,2,17 21 and KM 3,3 phenotypes were almost four times (OR=3.8) as likely to be positive for the XAGE-1b antibody as the subjects who lacked these phenotypes. This is the first report presenting evidence for the involvement of immunoglobulin allotypes in immunity to a cancer-testis antigen, which has important implications for XAGE-1b-based immunotherapeutic interventions in lung adenocarcinoma.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 12/2013; 176(1). DOI:10.1111/cei.12247 · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We clarified the clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease complicated by pneumothorax. Methods: We retrospectively selected 220 patients who satisfied the diagnostic criteria for NTM disease proposed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Nine patients with pulmonary NTM disease were complicated with pneumothorax. We investigated the patients' background, laboratory findings, radiological findings, treatment and prognoses. Results: There were nine patients, including six men and three women, with a mean age of 73.2 years. Seven patients had underlying respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) excluding pulmonary NTM disease. The causative microorganisms was Mycobacterium avium in four patients, M. intracellulare in four patients, and M. kansasii in one patient. Regarding the radiological findings, pneumothorax was recognized in the right lung in five patients, in the left lung in three patients, and in both lungs heterogeneously in one patient. Although most patients exhibited multiple cavities and extensive lesions over the unilateral lung fields, three patients were simultaneously diagnosed with pulmonary NTM disease at the onset of pneumothorax. As for treatment, thoracic drainage was performed in seven patients, while one patient was advised only to rest and one patient required both thoracic drainage and surgery. The responses to the treatment was poor in each case, and five patients died due to pneumonia or heart failure. Conclusion: In this study, the rate of pneumothorax complications in the patients with pulmonary NTM disease (4.1%) was higher than that of other reports. The responses to treatment, and prognoses were poor due to the presence of other complications.
    Internal Medicine 11/2013; 52(22):2511-5. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.52.0465 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Viral respiratory infection is the most common cause of acute asthma exacerbation in patients with stable asthma. The replication of most respiratory viruses requires the generation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), resulting in the activation of host immune responses. Synthetic dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyIC), mimics the effects of viruses in various cell types. To evaluate new therapies for mite antigen-induced chronic asthma, we developed an acute exacerbation model of mouse chronic asthma using mite antigen and PolyIC. We also examined the preventive effects of recombinant galectin-9 (Gal-9) on acute asthma exacerbation in this model. Methods: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was examined to evaluate the exacerbation of chronic asthma. To analyze airway inflammation, the numbers of inflammatory cells and concentrations of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were estimated by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results: AHR was accelerated by intranasal administration of PolyIC in addition to mite antigen. Levels of cytokines that contribute to AHR, including interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and RANTES (CCR5), and of Gal-9 in the BALF were elevated in this acute asthma exacerbation mouse model. Intranasal administration of recombinant Gal-9 reduced the PolyIC-induced AHR and levels of these cytokines in the BALF. Further, Gal-9 suppressed the production of cytokines induced by PolyIC in the alveolar macrophages. CONCLUSIONS. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous Gal-9 suppressed dsRNA-induced AHR in an acute exacerbation model of chronic asthma in mice, and suggest that recombinant Gal-9 could be therapeutically effective for preventing acute asthma exacerbation.
    Experimental Lung Research 11/2013; 39(10). DOI:10.3109/01902148.2013.850558 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-propionyl cysteaminylphenol-maleimide-dextran (NPCMD) is a toxic tyrosinase substrate developed to treat melanoma. We investigated the effect of NPCMD on innate immune responses in monocytes. CD14(+) monocytes and a monocytic cell line, THP-1, were stimulated with NPCMD in vitro. Cytokines in the culture supernatants were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. NPCMD stimulated CD14(+) monocytes and THP-1 cells to secrete TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8, but not IL-10 or IL-12. TNFα secretion from THP-1 cells stimulated with NPCMD was inhibited by addition of an anti-TLR4 mAb in culture. Moreover, NPCMD stimulated production of pro-IL-1β in CD14(+) monocytes and monocytic cell line THP-1 cells and activated the NLRP3-inflammasome, resulting in production of mature IL-1β. Use of ASC and NLRP3-deficient THP-1 cell lines established involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome in an IL-1β secretion in treatment with NPCMD. Inhibition of IL-1β secretion by an endocytosis inhibitor, cytochalasin B, and a lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 Me, suggested the involvement of lysosomal rupture and leakage of cathepsin B into the cytosol in NLRP3 activation by NPCMD. The immunopotentiating effect of NPCMD mediated by TLR4 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation could be useful for eliciting effective adaptive immune responses against melanoma and other tumors.
    Journal of dermatological science 11/2013; 73(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2013.11.006 · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Koji Kurose · Yoshihiro Ohue · Mikio Oka ·
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    ABSTRACT: Despite receiving multidisciplinary therapy, patients with advanced or recurrent cancer experience poor survival. Therefore, novel and effective therapies should be developed. In various malignancies, tumor cells can evade the host immune defenses, in which CD4+CD25+ regulatory Tcells (Treg) play an important role. Tregs maintain self-tolerance and homeostasis in the immune system, thereby suppressing the antitumor immune responses in cancer patients. Thus, Tregs are crucial in controlling antitumor immune responses. Several clinical studies have shown that the presence of Tregs at the tumor site was correlated with poor prognosis, and Tregs reportedly suppress the antigen-specific T-cell induction in immunotherapy. Therefore, controlling Treg function may be a promising immunotherapy. Based on the findings of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma research, Tregs have been shown to display high cell-surface expression of the CC chemokine receptor, CCR4. The anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody recognizes the CCR4 molecule and induces robust ADCC activity against CCR4-positive cells such as Tregs. Thus, Treg depletion using humanized anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibodies may enhance the host immune response against tumors. The current ongoing clinical trial investigates the use of humanized anti-human-CCR4 monoclonal antibody, mogamulizumab, in the treatment of advanced solid tumors.
    Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 09/2013; 40(9):1150-5.

Publication Stats

4k Citations
675.94 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2014
    • Kawasaki Medical University
      • • Department of Acute Medicine
      • • Department of Respiratory Medicine
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
  • 2007
    • Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Isahaya Hospital
      Isahara, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 2006
    • Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital
      Kawasaki, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1993-2005
    • Nagasaki University Hospital
      Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 1995-2001
    • Nagasaki University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan