[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of diet in the prevention of diabetes remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate two different dietary aspects, i.e. adherence to the Mediterranean diet and glycaemic load (GL), in relation to diabetes occurrence.
We analysed data from the Greek cohort of the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). From a total of 22,295 participants, actively followed for a median of 11.34 years, 2,330 cases of incident type 2 diabetes were recorded. All participants completed a validated, interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at enrolment. From this information, we calculated a ten point Mediterranean diet score (MDS), reflecting adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as the dietary GL. We estimated HRs and the corresponding 95% CIs of diabetes using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for potential confounders.
A higher MDS was inversely associated with diabetes risk (HR 0.88 [95% CI 0.78, 0.99] for MDS ≥6 vs MDS ≤3). GL was positively associated with diabetes (HR 1.21 [95% CI 1.05, 1.40] for the highest vs the lowest GL quartile). A significant protection of about 20% was found for a diet with a high MDS and a low GL.
A low GL diet that also adequately adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean diet may reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Because of their antioxidant and antimutagenic properties, flavonoids may reduce cancer risk. Some flavonoids have antiestrogenic effects that can inhibit the growth and proliferation of endometrial cancer cells.Methods:In order to examine the relation between dietary flavonoids and endometrial cancer, we analysed data from an Italian case-control study including 454 incident, histologically confirmed endometrial cancers and 908 hospital-based controls. Information was collected through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We applied data on food and beverage composition to estimate the intake of flavanols, flavanones, flavonols, anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavones, and proanthocyanidins. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multiple logistic regression models conditioned on age and study centre and adjusted for major confounding factors.Results:Women in the highest quartile category of proanthocyanidins with 3 mers vs the first three quartile categories had an OR for endometrial cancer of 0.66 (95% CI=0.48-0.89). For no other class of flavonoids, a significant overall association was found. There was a suggestion of an inverse association for flavanones and isoflavones among women with body mass index <25 kg m(-2), and, for flavanones, among parous or non-users of hormone-replacement therapy women.Conclusion:High consumption of selected proanthocyanidins may reduce endometrial cancer risk.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 6 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.447 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four cohort studies have examined the relation between flavonoids and pancreatic cancer risk providing inconsistent results.
We conducted a case-control study between 1991 and 2008 in Northern Italy. Subjects were 326 cases with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 frequency-matched controls (admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute non-neoplastic conditions) who answered a reproducible and valid food-frequency questionnaire. We computed odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression models conditioned on gender, age and study center, and adjusted for education, history of diabetes, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and energy intake.
Proanthocyanidins with three or more mers were inversely related to pancreatic cancer risk. The ORs were similar in all classes of polymers with three or more mers and in their combination (OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake, 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.69), and did not substantially change after adjustment for fruit and vegetable consumption, and for vitamin C and folate intakes. Eating an additional portion of fruits rich in proanthocyanidins every day reduced the risk of pancreatic cancer by 25%.
Dietary proanthocyanidins-mostly present in apples, pears and pulses-may convey some protection against pancreatic cancer risk.
Annals of Oncology 11/2011; 23(6):1488-93. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The association of diabetes mellitus with HCC suggests that dietary glycemic load (GL) may influence HCC risk. We have examined the association between dietary GL and HCC.
We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Italy in 1999-2002, including 185 HCC cases and 412 controls who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional multiple logistic regression.
We observed a positive association between GL and HCC overall, with an OR of 3.02 (95% CI 1.49-6.12) for the highest quintile of GL compared with the lowest and a significant trend. The OR among HCC cases with evidence of chronic infection with HBV and/or HCV was 3.25 (95% CI 1.46-7.22), while the OR among those with no evidence of infection was 2.45 (95% CI 0.69-8.64), with no significant trend. The association was not explained by the presence of cirrhosis or diabetes.
High dietary GL is associated with increased risk for HCC. The positive association was most pronounced among HCC cases with HBV and/or HCV markers.
Annals of Oncology 07/2009; 20(10):1736-40. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are of paramount etiologic importance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but other factors are likely to be important. The association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with HCC raises the possibility that dietary glycemic load (GL) may interact with chronic hepatitis infection in the causation of HCC.
We conducted a case-control study of 333 HCC patients and 360 controls in Athens, Greece. Third-generation assays were used to determine chronic HBV and HCV infection and information from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate dietary GL.
After adjustment for possible confounding factors through multiple logistic regression, we found a nonsignificant positive association between GL and HCC, which was exclusively accounted for by a positive association between GL and HCC cases with chronic infection with hepatitis B and/or C. For the latter group of patients, the odds ratio at the highest compared with the lowest GL quintile was 1.95 (95% confidence interval 1.09-3.48). The association was strengthened after exclusion of subjects with diabetes.
Our results indicate that, among patients with chronic infection with HBV and/or HCV, reduction of dietary GL could reduce risk or delay development of HCC.
Annals of Oncology 07/2009; 20(10):1741-5. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on the association between vitamin D and upper digestive tract neoplasms are limited.
In two case-control studies in Italy, we examined the relation between dietary vitamin D intake and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE; 304 cases) and oral/pharyngeal cancer (804 cases). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by multiple logistic regression.
Adjusted ORs for SCCE and oral/pharyngeal cancer were 0.58 (95% CI 0.39-0.86) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.60-0.94), respectively, for the highest tertile of vitamin D intake. Using a reference group of those in the highest tertile of vitamin D who were never/former smokers, ORs were 8.7 (95% CI 4.1-18.7) for SCCE and 10.4 (95% CI 6.9-15.5) for oral/pharyngeal cancer among heavy smokers in the lowest vitamin D tertile; similarly, compared with those in the highest tertile of vitamin D who drank <3 alcoholic drinks/day, corresponding ORs were 41.9 (95% CI 13.7-128.6) for SCCE and 8.5 (95% CI 5.7-12.5) for oral/pharyngeal cancer, among heavy alcohol drinkers in the lowest vitamin D tertile.
We observed inverse associations between dietary vitamin D intake and risk of SCCE and, perhaps, oral/pharyngeal cancer, which were most pronounced among heavy current smokers and heavy consumers of alcohol.
Annals of Oncology 06/2009; 20(9):1576-81. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated gastric cancer risk in relation to dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), which represent indirect measures of carbohydrate absorption and consequently of dietary insulin demand, in a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1997 and 2007, including 230 patients with the incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer and 547 frequency matched controls, admitted to the same hospitals as cases with acute non-neoplastic conditions. We used conditional logistic regression models, including terms for major recognised gastric cancer risk factors and non-carbohydrate energy intake. The odds ratios (ORs) in the highest vs lowest quintile were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.0-3.3) for GI and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.3-4.9) for GL. Compared with participants reporting low GL and high fruits/vegetables intake, the OR rose across strata of high GL and low fruits/vegetables, to reach 5.0 (95% CI: 2.2-11.5) for those reporting low fruits/vegetables intake and high GL. Our study may help to explain the direct relation observed in several studies between starchy foods and gastric cancer risk.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2009; 100(3):558-61. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D has been suggested to play a protective role against several cancers, including breast cancer.
We used data from a case-control study conducted in Italy from 1991 to 1994 to study the relation between dietary intake of vitamin D and breast cancer risk. Subjects were 2569 women with incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer and 2588 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to deciles of vitamin D intake were estimated by multiple logistic regression models.
After allowance for major risk factors for breast cancer and dietary covariates including calcium and energy intake, there was no association with vitamin D up to the seventh decile. Thereafter, the OR declined, so that the overall trend was statistically significantly inverse. The OR for subjects in the three highest deciles of consumption compared with those in the lowest ones combined was 0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.90). Intake of vitamin D >3.57 microg or 143 IU appeared to have a protective effect against breast cancer. The inverse association was consistent across strata of menopausal status.
This study adds to the existing evidence that vitamin D intake in inversely associated with breast cancer risk.
Annals of Oncology 08/2008; 20(2):374-8. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavonoids may play an important role in explaining the protective effect of vegetables and fruit against cancer.
To investigate the relation between flavonoids and laryngeal cancer risk, we have applied data on the composition of foods and beverages in terms of six principal classes of flavonoids to a case-control study of laryngeal cancer conducted from 1992 to 2000 in Italy. Cases were 460 subjects with incident, histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer; controls were 1088 patients admitted for acute, non-neoplastic diseases. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated through multiple logistic regression models, including terms for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy intake.
Significant inverse relations were found for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake for flavan-3-ols (OR = 0.64), flavanones (OR = 0.60), flavonols (OR = 0.32) and total flavonoids (OR = 0.60), although the overall trends in risk were significant only for flavanones and flavonols. No consistent associations were observed for isoflavones, anthocyanidins and flavones. The estimates did not differ substantially across strata of alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, body mass index and education, and tended to persist even after controlling for vegetable and fruit intake.
This study provides support for a beneficial effect of selected flavonoids on laryngeal cancer risk.
Annals of Oncology 07/2007; 18(6):1104-9. · 7.38 Impact Factor