[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the target molecules of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), we used proteomic-based approach in the extracted proteins from porcine cauda equina. Two of 31 CIDP patients had markedly elevated serum autoantibodies against vinculin, a cell adhesion protein. Both of the patients with anti-vinculin antibodies had similar clinical manifestation, which are compatible with those of “typical” CIDP. Immunocytochemistry showed that vinculin was stained at the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerves by serum samples. Our results suggest that vinculin is a possible immunological target molecule in a subpopulation of typical CIDP patients.
Journal of neuroimmunology 07/2015; 287. DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.07.012 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline renal diseases are increasingly noted in veterinary practice. It is important to diagnose and identify the pathological basis of renal dysfunction accurately at an early stage, but there are only a few reports on this area in clinical veterinary medicine. We investigated the efficacy of measurement of urinary albumin (u-Alb) and urinary transferrin (u-Tf) for early diagnosis using 5-µl urine samples collected noninvasively by catheterization from normal (IRIS stage I) cats and cats with stage I chronic kidney disease (CKD). The u-Alb levels in normal and stage I CKD cats were 6.0 ± 4.5 and 11.2 ± 8.4 mg/dl, respectively, and the u-Tf levels were 0.09 ± 0.42 and 0.52 ± 0.79 mg/dl, respectively. Based on ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of u-Alb and u-Tf were higher than those of the currently used biomarker, the plasma creatinine level. The sensitivity of u-Alb was higher than that of u-Tf, whereas the specificity of u-Tf was higher than that of u-Alb. The validity of the threshold albumin level (20 mg/dl) was confirmed by measurements using SDS-PAGE. Since leakage of u-Tf in urine precedes leakage of u-Alb, inclusion of u-Tf in biochemistry tests may be appropriate for IRIS staging as a diagnostic marker of early diagnosis of renal disorder in cats.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 03/2015; 77(8). DOI:10.1292/jvms.14-0427 · 0.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FUSE-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR) is a c-myc transcriptional suppressor. A splice variant of FIR that lacks exon 2 in the transcriptional repressor domain (FIRΔexon2) upregulates c-myc transcription by inactivating wild-type FIR. The ratio of FIRΔexon2/FIR mRNA was increased in human colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Because FIRΔexon2 is considered to be a dominant negative regulator of FIR, FIR heterozygous knockout (FIR+/−) C57BL6 mice were generated. FIR complete knockout (FIR−/−) was embryonic lethal before E9.5; therefore, it is essential for embryogenesis. This strongly suggests that insufficiency of FIR is crucial for carcinogenesis. FIR+/− mice exhibited prominent c-myc mRNA upregulation, particularly in the peripheral blood (PB), without any significant pathogenic phenotype. Furthermore, elevated FIRΔexon2/FIR mRNA expression was detected in human leukemia samples and cell lines. Because the single knockout ofTP53 generates thymic lymphoma, FIR+/-TP53-/- generated T-cell type acute lymphocytic/lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with increased organ or bone marrow invasion with poor prognosis. RNA-sequencing analysis of sorted thymic lymphoma cells revealed that the Notch signaling pathway was activated significantly in FIR+/−TP53−/− compared with that in FIR+/+TP53−/− mice. Notch1 mRNA expression in sorted thymic lymphoma cells was confirmed using qRT-PCR. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that c-myc mRNA was negatively correlated with FIR but positively correlated with Notch1 in sorted T-ALL/thymic lymphoma cells. Moreover, the knockdown of TP53 or c-myc using siRNA decreased Notch1 expression in cancer cells. In addition, an adenovirus vector encoding FIRΔexon2 cDNA increased bleomycin-induced DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggest that the altered expression of FIRΔexon2 increased Notch1 at least partially by activating c-Myc via a P53-independent pathway. In conclusion, the alternative splicing of FIR, which generates FIRΔexon2, may contribute to both colorectal carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify serum cytokine networks specific to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), serum samples of two subgroups (18 patients with typical CIDP and 12 patients with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy [MADSAM]) were analyzed with multiplex magnetic bead-based cytokine assay. TNF-α, HGF, MIP-1β and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in total CIDP patients than in normal controls. Of these, HGF levels were elevated in typical CIDP patients, but not in MADSAM patients. Patients with high HGF levels showed good responses to steroid treatment. Different cytokine profiles among the CIDP subtypes presumably reflect differences in pathophysiology.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 12/2014; 279. DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.12.017 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment has demonstrated favorable wound healing effect after periodontal therapy. One of the reasons may be the positive biological effect of the low-level laser on the irradiated tissues, although the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation on cell proliferation and laser-induced differential expression of proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by proteomic analysis. In the first experiment, HGFs were exposed to low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation and the laser-induced cell proliferation and damage were evaluated on day 3. In the second experiment, proteomic analysis was performed on day 1 after irradiation. The peptides prepared from HGFs were analyzed by a hybrid ion trap-Fourier transform mass spectrometer, Mascot search engine, and UniProtKB database. A significant increase in cell proliferation without cell damage after irradiation was observed. Among the total identified 377 proteins, 59 proteins, including galectin-7, which was associated with the process of wound healing, were upregulated and 15 proteins were downregulated in laser-treated HGFs. In the third experiment, the increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of galectin-7 in the irradiated HGFs was validated by various analytical techniques. In addition, the effect of recombinant human galectin-7 on the modulation of HGFs proliferation was confirmed. The results indicate that low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation can promote HGF proliferation and induce a significant change in protein expression and the upregulation of galectin-7 expression may partly contribute to the increase in cell proliferation.
Lasers in Medical Science 11/2014; 30(7). DOI:10.1007/s10103-014-1691-4 · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most human cancers show chromosomal instability (CIN), but the precise mechanisms remain uncertain. Annexin A2 is frequently overexpressed in human cancers, and its relationship to tumorigenesis is poorly understood. We found that annexin A2 is overexpressed in the nuclei of CIN cells compared with cells with microsatellite instability (MIN). Ectopic annexin A2 expression in MIN cells results in a high level of aneuploidy and induces lagging chromosomes; suppression of annexin A2 in CIN cells reduces such CIN signatures with apoptosis of highly aneuploid cells. Ectopic expression of annexin A2 in MIN cells reduces the expression of centromere proteins. Conversely, annexin A2-knockdown in CIN cells increases the expression of centromere proteins. Moreover, the endogenous expression levels of centromere proteins in CIN cells were greatly reduced compared with MIN cell lines. The reduced expression of centromere proteins likely occurred due to aberrant centromere localization of coilin, a major component of the Cajal bodies. These results suggest that nuclear accumulation of annexin A2 has a crucial role in CIN by disrupting centromere function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H+ was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humans have three major apolipoprotein E(ApoE) alleles (APOE;ε2,ε3,and ε4) that produce three ApoE protein isoforms.
The ε2 allele encodes the ApoE2 isoform (Cys112,Cys158), whereas ε3 encodes the wild-type ApoE3 isoform (Cys112,Arg158),
and ε4 encodes the ApoE4 isoform (Arg112,Arg158). Because the type of ApoE expressed is related to sporadic Alzheimer’s disease
risk and familial hyperlipidemia, many clinical studies have utilized ApoE typing in recent years. ApoE serotyping is
based on the correlation between ApoE genotype and isoform; it is therefore possible to determine the genotype from
the blood ApoE isoform combination. Serotyping ApoE using Mass Spectrometry (MS) promises highly accurate results
while requiring minimal amounts of blood and reagents, resulting in lower costs, which suggest that proteomic-based
ApoE serotyping may eventually become a routine clinical laboratory test. Not limited to ApoE,
proteomic analysis of human samples could be used to intentionally determine
— and perhaps unintentionally reveal — personal genetic information.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of antimicrobial therapy are vital.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used as a rapid and accurate microbial diagnostic method for species identification of pathogens. Although this technology requires a growth step to obtain bacterial colonies for the acquisition of substantial spectra in most cases, it can also be used to analyze clinical specimens such as urine and cerebrospinal fluid for direct bacterial identification. There are very few reports describing the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the direct detection of microorganisms causing bacterial meningitis.
We describe a case of bacterial meningitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in which MALDI-TOF MS provided a rapid bacteriological diagnosis, thus enabling early and appropriate treatment.
Identification of microbes based on MALDI-TOF MS is now an important technology in clinical microbiology laboratories that are required to provide a rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 05/2014; 435. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.04.024 · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection that destroys the gingiva and surrounding tissues of the oral cavity. In recent years, studies have shown a definite association between periodontal disease and other inflammatory conditions of the body. High-throughput analysis of proteins has become possible with the development of mass spectrometry technology. This breakthrough in proteome technology enables comparative studies of comprehensive protein expression and identification of protein. In case of periodontal disease, proteome analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), as well as gel-free methods, has been reported. As a fluid lying in close proximity to periodontal tissue, the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is the principal target in the search for biomarkers of periodontal disease, because its protein composition may reflect the disease pathophysiology. Biochemical marker analysis of GCF is effective for objective diagnosis in the early and advanced stages of periodontal disease. Increasing numbers of recent reports have provided evidence that the proteomic approach is a promising tool for the discovery and identification of biochemical markers of periodontal disease. This search is of continuing interest in the field of experimental and clinical periodontal disease research. In this article, we summarize recent comprehensive proteomic studies aimed at discovering and identifying biomarkers of periodontal disease in GCF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of human cancer shows chromosomal instability (CIN). Although the precise mechanism remains largely uncertain, proper progression of mitosis is crucial. B-type lamins were suggested to be components of the spindle matrix of mitotic cells and to be involved in mitotic spindle assembly; thus, B-type lamins may contribute to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. Here, using a proteomic approach, we identified lamin B2 as a novel protein involved in CIN. Lamin B2 expression decreased in colorectal cancer cell lines exhibiting CIN, as compared with colorectal cancer cell lines exhibiting microsatellite instability (MIN), which is mutually exclusive to CIN. Importantly, lamin B2 knockdown in MIN-type colorectal cancer cells induced CIN phenotypes such as aneuploidy, chromosome mis-segregation and aberrant spindle assembly, whereas ectopic expression of lamin B2 in CIN-type colorectal cancer cells prevented their CIN phenotypes. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis showed a lower expression of lamin B2 in cancer tissues extracted from patients with sporadic colorectal cancer (CIN-type) than that from patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; MIN type). Intriguingly, mitotic lamin B2 in MIN cancer cells was localized outside the spindle poles and mitotic lamin B2 localization was diminished in CIN cancer cells, suggesting an important role of lamin B2 in proper mitotic spindle formation. The obtained results suggest that lamin B2 maintains chromosome integrity by ensuring proper spindle assembly and that its downregulation causes CIN in colorectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Previous histochemical studies in demyelinating form of Guillain-Barré
syndrome (GBS), acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), have shown
complement deposition on the surface of the Schwann cells, and therefore unknown
epitopes would be present on the outer surface of the Schwann cells.
Methods: We used proteomic-based approach to search for the target molecules of AIDP
in the extracted proteins from schwannoma cells. Sera were obtained from 40 GBS patients,
31 inflammatory disease controls, and 46 normal controls.
Results: We found that patients with AIDP after cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have
serum autoantibodies against membrane-organizing extension spike protein (moesin),
which is expressed in the Schwann cell processes at the nodes of Ranvier and is crucial for
myelination. Of the 40 GBS patients, six had recent CMV infection and five of them (83%)
had high levels of serum IgG antibodies against moesin. The anti-moesin antibodies were
found in none of disease controls including five with CMV infection but no neuropathy, and
only two (4%) of the 46 normal control subjects. Immunocytochemistry showed that moesin
was stained at the distal tips of schwannoma cells by sera from the CMV-related AIDP
patients but not by sera from controls.
Conclusion: Moesin is a possible immunological target molecule of pathogenic
autoantibodies in patients with CMV-related AIDP.
Classification of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that levels of serum
anti-moesin antibodies accurately distinguishes CMV-related AIDP from non-CMV related
AIDP (sensitivity 83%, specificity 93%).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) typing is considered important because of the association between ApoE and Alzheimer's disease and familial dyslipidemia and is currently performed by genetic testing (APOE genotyping). ApoE levels in plasma and serum are clinically determined by immunoassay.
Combining an ApoE immunoassay reagent with proteomic analysis using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we attempted to resequence ApoE from trace amounts of serum for typing (serotyping). Most (24 of 33) ApoE mutant proteins registered to date with Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, such as ApoE2 and ApoE4, involve lysine and arginine mutations. Digestion of mutant ApoE with trypsin will thus result in fragments that differ substantially from wild-type ApoE3 in terms of mass, making serotyping ideally suited to mass spectrometry analysis.
The mean coverage of the amino acid sequence of full-length ApoE was 91.6% in the protein resequence. Residues 112 and 158 (which are mutated in ApoE2 and ApoE4) were covered in all samples, and the protein sequences were used for serotyping. Serotypes including all heterozygous combinations (ApoE2/E3, E2/E4, E3/E4) corresponded exactly to the APOE genotyping results in each of the subjects.
Our novel ApoE serotyping method with protein resequencing requires no synthesis of stable isotope-labeled peptides or genome analysis. The method can use residual blood from samples collected for routine clinical tests, thus enabling retrospective studies with preserved body fluids. The test could be applied to samples from subjects whose DNA is unavailable. In future studies, we hope to demonstrate the capability of our method to detect rare ApoE mutations.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85356. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085356 · 3.23 Impact Factor