M Newton

St. Mark's Hospital, Harrow, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (11)72 Total impact

  • D A Gorard, M Newton, W R Burnham
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced age and comorbidity as well as gastrointestinal (GI) disease contribute to the increased mortality after upper GI endoscopy in inpatients when compared to outpatients. The aim of this study was to measure comorbidity in inpatients undergoing endoscopy using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II severity of disease classification and to assess the usefulness of the APACHE II system in predicting outcome. During a 10-week period, 155 consecutive inpatients undergoing upper GI endoscopy were prospectively scored using APACHE II. They were followed up for 30 days, the measured endpoint being death. Of these, 92 (59%) inpatients were admitted with GI hemorrhage, 14 (9%) were admitted for other reasons but subsequently bled, and 49 (32%) were endoscoped for reasons other than bleeding. The mean (SEM) APACHE II score in patients with GI bleeding was 8.0 (0.5), and in patients without bleeding was 6.5 (0.6; p = 0.07). Eighteen patients (12%) died within 30 days of endoscopy. APACHE scores were higher at 10.5 (1.2) in patients who died, compared to 7.1 (0.4) in those who lived (p < 0.01). Increased acute physiology scores led to this difference. Age and chronic health scores were similar in both groups. In the 18 patients who died, 9 had GI bleeding and their mean APACHE score was 13.8 (1.5); 9 had been endoscoped for other reasons and had a lower score of 7.2 (1.3; p < 0.01). These latter 9 deaths amounted to a 18% mortality in the nonbleeding group, which was greater than expected. APACHE II scores can help predict poor outcome in inpatients referred for endoscopy. However, the APACHE II system has limitations and failed to identify (by means of a high score) some patients without GI bleeding who subsequently died. A tool to measure comorbidity, such as the APACHE II system, is necessary when comparing groups of patients in different settings.
    Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 06/2000; 30(4):392-6. · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • M Newton, W R Burnham, M A Kamm
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    ABSTRACT: Esophagitis is a common endoscopic finding, although its prevalence and contribution to morbidity and mortality in hospital inpatients has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of esophagitis among hospital inpatients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, to assess factors associated with the presence of esophagitis, and to determine the mortality of patients with esophagitis. All inpatients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a district general hospital were assessed prospectively for one year. The reason for referral, endoscopy findings, and one-month mortality were determined together with a history of nasogastric intubation, periods spent supine, and drug use. Of 595 inpatients who underwent gastroscopy, 58% were referred for investigation of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Esophagitis was found in 196 (33%). Esophagitis was significantly associated with wide-bore nasogastric intubation (p = 0.021; relative risk, 2.61; 95% CI, 0.64-6.06) but not with fine-bore nasogastric intubation. Esophagitis was also significantly associated with being nursed supine (p = 0.015; relative risk, 1.41; 95% CI, -1.75-6.72). There was no association between esophagitis and specific drug therapy. Mortality among patients with esophagitis was higher than those without esophagitis (p = 0.04; relative risk, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.34-3.22). Reflux esophagitis is common in hospital inpatients who are endoscoped. Although the underlying diseases are likely to account for the high mortality, the associations of wide-bore nasogastric intubation and being nursed supine should alert caregivers to an increased risk. If nasogastric intubation is required for feeding only, fine-bore tubes should be considered.
    Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 05/2000; 30(3):264-9. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations which allow reflux may be due to altered afferent pathways from the fundus. We aimed to determine whether fundal inflammation is the underlying cause. Two endoscopic biopsies were taken from each of the gastric antrum and fundus in 25 asymptomatic controls with a normal endoscopy (median age 54 range 13-83 years), and 33 patients with erosive oesophagitis (median age 52, 11-78 years). No patient had taken acid suppression therapy or antibiotics for at least 1 month. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa stain and examined in a blinded fashion by one pathologist for the presence of gastritis (Sydney classification) and Helicobacter pylori. Chronic gastritis was common in both groups, but was usually mild. In Helicobacter pylori-negative subjects, there was significantly less chronic gastritis in the antrum and the fundus in oesophagitis patients than in controls (p < 0.05). When present, gastric atrophy was usually antral and mild in severity. There was no difference in the incidence of gastric atrophy in patients with oesophagitis compared with controls (24% compared with 40%; p > 0.05). Chronic gastritis is not more common in patients with oesophagitis, and is unlikely to play a part in the pathogenesis of this disease.
    Diseases of the Esophagus 02/2000; 13(1):56-60. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The response of the oesophagus to refluxed gastric contents is likely to depend on intact neural mechanisms in the oesophageal mucosa. The epithelial innervation has not been systematically evaluated in health or reflux disease. To study oesophageal epithelial innervation in controls, and also inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa in patients with reflux oesophagitis and healed oesophagitis. Ten controls, nine patients with reflux oesophagitis, and five patients with healed oesophagitis. Oesophageal epithelial biopsy specimens were obtained at endoscopy. The distribution of the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), and the neuropeptides calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Density of innervation was assessed by the proportion of papillae in each oesophageal epithelial biopsy specimen containing immunoreactive fibres (found in the subepithelium and epithelial papillae, but not penetrating the epithelium). The proportion of papillae positive for PGP immunoreactive nerve fibres was significantly increased in inflamed tissue when compared with controls, and non-inflamed and healed tissue. There was also a significant increase in VIP immunoreactive fibres within epithelial papillae. Other neuropeptides showed no proportional changes in inflammation. Epithelial biopsy specimens can be used to assess innervation in the oesophagus. The innervation of the oesophageal mucosa is not altered in non-inflamed tissue of patients with oesophagitis but alters in response to inflammation, where there is a selective increase (about three- to fourfold) in VIP containing nerves.
    Gut 04/1999; 44(3):317-22. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients admitted acutely to hospital may be at risk of increased morbidity and mortality as a result of gastroesophageal reflux and its complications. The recognized association of gastroesophageal reflux with cardiac and respiratory disease, the use of drugs that reduce lower esophageal sphincter pressure, and the supine position in which many patients are nursed may increase the risk of gastroesophageal reflux. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of refluxlike symptoms in a series of consecutive unselected patients admitted acutely through the accident and emergency department of a district general hospital and to study the effect of hospitalization on these symptoms. Patients were interviewed by questionnaire on two occasions: immediately following admission and again 7-10 days later. The frequency of symptoms of heartburn, acid regurgitation, dysphagia, nausea, and belching were recorded on a 6-point scale, in addition to whether these symptoms occurred at night. Medication history, the number of days spent on bed rest, nasogastric intubation, and operation history were also recorded. In all, 275 patients were interviewed, of whom 229 had a second interview; 27% (62) had symptoms at least once a week (49% reported symptoms at least once a month) prior to admission, of whom 4% (9) had daily heartburn and/or acid regurgitation. Following admission to hospital there was a significant (P < 0.001) fall in the prevalence and frequency of refluxlike symptoms. There was a significant association of refluxlike symptoms with number of days spent in bed (P < 0.05) and with the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in hospital (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis confirmed the association of NSAIDs with refluxlike symptoms. Nasogastric intubation and surgery were not associated with heartburn. In conclusion, symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation become less frequent following admission to hospital. This probably relates to a reduction in physical exertion following hospital admission but may reflect a reduction in anxiety levels or treatment of underlying disease. Patients on prolonged bed rest and those given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are at increased risk of refluxlike symptoms and may require antireflux measures.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/1999; 44(1):140-8. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gastric fundus affects afferent control of lower oesophageal sphincter function. Nitric oxide is an important relaxant of the fundus. We postulated that gastric distensibility, compliance and nitric oxide sensitivity may be altered in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). 9 patients with erosive oesophagitis (6 males; median age 55 years) and 16 healthy controls (9 males; median age 36 years) were studied fasting with a gastric barostat. Minimal distending pressure (MDP) and gastric compliance (Deltav/Deltap) were determined by increasing intrabag pressure in 2-mm Hg increments. The pressures required to produce initial sensation and maximum tolerated sensation were recorded. With the intrabag pressure set at MDP +2 mm Hg, 500 microg sublingual glyceryl trinitrate was administered and the percentage change in intrabag volume from initial volume recorded. The MDP was significantly greater in patients than controls (7.5 vs. 6.7 mm Hg median; p = 0.02). Gastric compliance was similar in both groups (57.8 vs. 67.2 ml/mm Hg; p = 0.4). There was no difference between groups in the pressure at first intragastric sensation (11.2 vs. 10.3 mm Hg above MDP; p = 0.5) or in the maximal tolerated pressure (15.8 vs. 14.3 mm Hg above MDP; p = 0.2). The proportional change in gastric volume from baseline in response to glyceryl trinitrate was smaller in patients than controls (66 (3-200) vs. 120 (26-1,053)%; p = 0.02). Gastric MDP may be altered in GERD, but gastric compliance and sensitivity to distension are normal. Major gastric relaxation occurs in response to a nitric oxide donor, but this appears to be diminished in patients with GERD. Upper gut nitrinergic mechanisms may be altered in oesophageal reflux disease.
    Digestion 01/1999; 60(6):572-8. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • M Newton, W R Burnham, M A Kamm
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    ABSTRACT: Proton-pump inhibitors are the most effective drug treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. With the increasing trend toward 'on demand' therapy, it is important to determine how quickly oesophageal acid reflux is reduced, and whether this differs between the available compounds. A 2 x 2 double-blind crossover study. Eight patients with Savary-Miller grade II oesophagitis underwent 24 h pre-treatment oesophageal pH monitoring. Each patient was randomly allocated to receive daily omeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 30 mg for 2 days, in two separate double-blind periods, with a washout period of 14 days. Two further oesophageal pH recordings were obtained during the second 48 h period of treatment with each drug. Five patients completed the study and their results are presented. Lansoprazole significantly reduced the percentage of total reflux time (P = 0.04) and percentage upright reflux time (P=0.04) on the second day of treatment compared to the pre-treatment, while this was not achieved with omeprazole. There was a significant difference in the reduction of the total reflux time (P= 0.011), upright reflux time (P=0.021) and total reflux episodes (P < 0.001) on day 2 of treatment when comparing lansoprazole with omeprazole. All patients on lansoprazole had a decrease in symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation, with complete resolution in four patients. Three patients had a decrease in these symptoms with omeprazole, including complete resolution in two. This study was limited by the small number of patients who underwent this demanding investigation. However, lansoprazole appears to have a more rapid onset of reduction of acid gastro-oesophageal reflux than omeprazole over a 48 h period.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 10/1998; 10(9):753-8. · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/1998; 114. · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/1998; 114. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major pathophysiological abnormalities in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is thought to involve transient lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxations. One component of the neural mechanism controlling the LOS appears to be a reflex are whose afferent limb originates in the gastric fundus. As inflammation is known to be associated with neural activation an investigation was made to determine whether gastric infection with H pylori is altered in prevalence or distribution in patients with reflux disease. Five groups of subjects referred for endoscopy-group 1: 25 controls (asymptomatic individuals with anaemia and normal endoscopy); group 2: 36 subjects with erosive oesophagitis alone (Savary-Millar grades I-III); group 3: 16 subjects with duodenal ulcer alone; group 4: 15 subjects with oesophagitis with duodenal ulcer; group 5: 16 subjects with Barrett's oesophagus. No patients were receiving acid suppressants or antibiotics. An antral biopsy specimen was taken for a rapid urease test, and two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, fundus, and oesophagus (inflamed and non-inflamed) for histological evidence of inflammation and presence of H pylori using a Giemsa stain. Nine (36%) controls had H pylori. Patients with duodenal ulcer alone had a significantly higher incidence of colonisation by H pylori than other groups (duodenal ulcer 15 (94%); oesophagitis 13 (36%); oesophagitis+duodenal ulcer 6 (40%); Barrett's oesophagus 4 (25%)). H pylori was not more common in oesophagitis. When H pylori colonised the gastric antrum it was usually found in the gastric fundus. There was no difference in anatomical distribution of H pylori in the different patient groups. In Barrett's oesophagus H pylori was found in two of 16 in the metaplastic epithelium. H pylori is not more common and its distribution does not differ in those with oesophagitis compared with control subjects, and is therefore unlikely to be aetiologically important in these patients. H pylori, however, can colonise Barrett's epithelium.
    Gut 02/1997; 40(1):9-13. · 10.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    D A Gorard, M Newton, W R Burnham
    Gut 10/1995; 37(3):445. · 10.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

104 Citations
72.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2000
    • St. Mark's Hospital
      Harrow, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • St. Mark's Hospital
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States