[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To validate and compare the accuracy and performance of nomograms predicting insignificant prostate cancer and to analyze their performance in patients with different cancer locations. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 370 radical prostatectomy patients with Gleason ≤6 prostate cancer diagnosed on transrectal biopsy with at least 10 cores. We quantified the performance of each nomogram with respect to discrimination, calibration, predictive accuracy at different cut points, and the clinical net benefit. We also evaluated these parameters in subgroups of patients with predominantly anterior-apical (AA) and posterior-basal (PB) tumor location. RESULTS: Insignificant prostate cancer was present in 141 patients (38%). The Kattan and Steyerberg nomograms outperformed other studied models and demonstrated fair discrimination (areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve 0.768 and 0.770, respectively), good calibration, balanced predictive accuracy, and the highest net benefit. All nomograms were less accurate at higher levels of predicted probability. The performance of the nomograms was better in patients with PB tumors than in those with AA tumors. The loss of correlation with the actual prevalence of insignificant prostate cancer at higher levels of predicted probability was not seen in the PB subgroup but was particularly noticeable in the AA subgroup. CONCLUSION: The Kattan and Steyerberg nomograms demonstrated the best performance in predicting the probability of insignificant prostate cancer in a contemporary cohort of patients with Gleason ≤6 cancer diagnosed on specimens from an extended transrectal biopsy. However, all studied nomograms were more accurate in identifying significant rather than insignificant disease, particularly for tumors located in the apical and anterior prostate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently there is no global agreement as to how extensively a radical prostatectomy specimen should be sectioned and histologically examined. We analyzed the ability of different methods of partial sampling in detecting positive margin (PM) and extraprostatic extension (EPE)-2 pathologic features of prostate cancer that are most easily missed by partial sampling of the prostate. Radical prostatectomy specimens from 617 patients treated with open radical prostatectomy between 1992 and 2011 were analyzed. Examination of the entirely submitted prostate detected only PM in 370 (60%), only EPE in 100 (16%), and both in 147 (24%) specimens. We determined whether these pathologic features would have been diagnosed had the examination of the specimen been limited only to alternate sections (method 1), alternate sections representing the posterior aspect of the gland in addition to one of the mid-anterior aspects (method 2), and every section representing the posterior aspect of the gland in addition to one of the mid-anterior aspects, supplemented by the remaining ipsilateral anterior sections if a sizeable tumor is seen (method 3). Methods 1 and 2 missed 13% and 21% of PMs and 28% and 47% of EPEs, respectively. Method 3 demonstrated better results missing only 5% of PMs and 7% of EPEs. Partial sampling techniques missed slightly more PMs and EPEs in patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer, although even in high-risk cases none of the methods detected all of the studied aggressive pathologic features.
The American journal of surgical pathology 10/2012; · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy was shown to improve survival in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The initiation and completion rates for perioperative chemotherapy are variable. Our aim is to compare the likelihood of initiating and completing neoadjuvant (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients who underwent of RC for MIBC.
We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent RC between 1992 and 2011. NAC was advised for patients with clinical stage ≥T2, hydronephrosis, extensive lymphovascular invasion (LVI), or prostatic stromal invasion. Patients with ≥pT3 or lymph node metastases were considered for AC.
A total of 363 patients were considered for perioperative chemotherapy. Among the 141 patients who were offered NAC, 125 (88.6%) initiated NAC. A total of 222 were considered for AC, and 151 (68.0%) initiated AC ( < 0.001). In the NAC group, 118 (83.5%) completed planned number of cycles of chemotherapy and 7 (5.6%) did not complete the planned chemotherapy. In the AC group, 79 (35.5%) completed at least four cycles and 72 (47.3%) could not complete the planned cycles ( < 0.001).
Patients with MIBC are more likely to initiate and complete NAC than AC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenal tumors are among the commonest incidental findings discovered. The increased incidence of diagnosing adrenal incidentalomas is due to the widespread availability and use of noninvasive imaging studies. Extensive research has been conducted to define a cost-effective diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to guide physicians in managing incidental adrenal lesions. However, there is little consensus on the optimal management strategy. Published literature to date, describes a wide spectrum of treatment options ranging from excision of all adrenal lesions regardless of the size and functional status to extensive hormonal and radiological evaluation to avoid surgery. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the presentation, evaluation and management of adrenal incidentalomas. Additionally, we propose a management algorithm to optimally manage these tumors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: A summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the reconstructive options after radical cystectomy (RC), their outcomes, and their complications. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding indications, surgical details, postoperative care, complications, functional outcomes, as well as quality-of-life measures of patients with different forms of urinary diversion (UD). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: An English-language literature review of data published between 1970 and 2012 on patients with UD following RC for bladder cancer was undertaken. No randomized controlled studies comparing conduit diversion with neobladder or continent cutaneous diversion have been performed. Consequently, almost all studies used in this report are of level 3 evidence. Therefore, the recommendations given here are grade C only, meaning expert opinion delivered without a formal analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Indications and patient selection criteria have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. Renal function impairment is primarily caused by obstruction. Complications such as stone formation, urine outflow, and obstruction at any level must be recognized early and treated. In patients with orthotopic bladder substitution, daytime and nocturnal continence is achieved in 85-90% and 60-80%, respectively. Continence is inferior in elderly patients with orthotopic reconstruction. Urinary retention remains significant in female patients, ranging from 7% to 50%. CONCLUSIONS: RC and subsequent UD have been assessed as the most difficult surgical procedure in urology. Significant disparity on how the surgical complications were reported makes it impossible to compare postoperative morbidity results. Complications rates overall following RC and UD are significant, and when strict reporting criteria are incorporated, they are much higher than previously published. Fortunately, most complications are minor (Clavien grade 1 or 2). Complications can occur up to 20 yr after surgery, emphasizing the need for lifelong monitoring. Evidence suggests an association between surgical volume and outcome in RC; the challenge of optimum care for elderly patients with comorbidities is best mastered at high-volume hospitals by high-volume surgeons. Preoperative patient information, patient selection, surgical techniques, and careful postoperative follow-up are the cornerstones to achieve good long-term results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Type - Prognosis (inception cohort) Level of Evidence 2 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? A significant proportion of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer do not require immediate treatment and could be managed by active surveillance, which usually includes serial measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and regular biopsies. The rate of rise in PSA levels, which could be calculated as PSA velocity or PSA doubling time, was previously suggested to be associated with the biological aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Although these parameters are obvious candidates for predicting tumour progression in active surveillance patients, earlier studies that examined this topic provided conflicting results. Our analysis showed that PSA velocity and PSA doubling time calculated at different time-points, by different methods, over different intervals, and in different sub-groups of active surveillance patients provide little if any prognostic information. Although we found some significant associations between PSA velocity and the risk of progression as determined by biopsy, the actual clinical significance of this association was small. Furthermore, PSA velocity did not add to the predictive accuracy of total PSA. OBJECTIVE: • To study whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity (PSAV) and PSA doubling time (PSADT) are associated with biopsy progression in patients managed by active surveillance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: • Our inclusion criteria for active surveillance are biopsy Gleason sum <7, two or fewer positive biopsy cores, ≤20% tumour present in any core, and clinical stage T1-T2a. Changes in any of these parameters during the follow-up that went beyond these limits are considered to be progression. • This study included 250 patients who had at least one surveillance biopsy, an available PSA measured no earlier than 3 months before diagnosis, and at least one PSA measurement before each surveillance biopsy. • We evaluated the association between PSA kinetics and progression at successive surveillance biopsies in different sub-groups of patients by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) as well as sensitivity and specificity of different thresholds. RESULTS: • Over a median follow-up of 3.0 years, the disease of 64 (26%) patients progressed. • PSADT was not associated with biopsy progression, whereas PSAV was only weakly associated with progression in certain sub-groups. • However, incorporation of PSAV in models including total PSA resulted in a moderate increase in AUC only when the entire cohort was analysed. In other sub-groups the predictive accuracy of total PSA was not significantly improved by adding PSAV. CONCLUSIONS: • Our findings confirm that PSA kinetics should not be used in decision-making in patients with low-risk prostate cancer managed by active surveillance. • Regular surveillance biopsies should remain as the principal method of monitoring cancer progression in these men.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gender, smoking history, patient age, and tumor size have been found to impact the likelihood of benign histology at the time of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Providing external validation of these variables and evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and tumor location on the likelihood of benign histology during NSS for T1 tumors were the objectives of this study.
Data were analyzed for consecutive patients undergoing NSS for T1 disease. Central tumors either were completely encircled by renal parenchyma, descended below the cortico-medullary junction, or were in direct opposition to the collecting system, renal sinus, or the hilar structures. Categorical variables were evaluated with chi-square test, and continuous variables were analyzed with independent sample t test. Logistic regression identified independent predictors of final pathology.
NSS was performed in 316 patients, of whom 79 (24 %) had benign tumors. Patients with benign tumors were more likely to be female, to have a lower BMI, and to have peripheral tumors. On multivariate analysis, female gender (hazard ratio, 3.97; 95 % CI, 2.92-4.53, p < 0.001), peripheral tumor location (hazard ratio, 2.27; 95 % CI, 1.73-3.21, p = 0.014), and lower BMI (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95 % CI, 1.12-1.94, p = 0.015) were independently associated with benign histopathology at the time of surgical resection.
Prospectively identifying which T1 tumors are benign would have tremendous implications for the patient. Ours is the first study that has identified the impact of tumor location and BMI on the risk of benign histology. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these findings and incorporate these data into future nomograms.
International Urology and Nephrology 06/2012; 44(5):1319-24. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this report is to describe the oncologic outcomes of men with margin-positive prostate cancer who were managed expectantly following radical prostatectomy.
Between January 1992 and January 2011, 2166 men underwent an open radical prostatectomy by a single surgeon. Of these patients, 1592 (74%) had complete data and met the inclusion criteria of negative lymph nodes and no history of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This cohort was dichotomized by the presence or absence of at least one positive surgical margin. Groups were compared for differences in recurrence-free and overall survival.
In total, 507 (32%) of 1592 patients had at least one positive surgical margin. Clinical and pathological characteristics of these patients indicated more aggressive disease. The median follow up for biochemical recurrence and overall survival was 3.4 years and 7.7 years, respectively. Of those patients with a positive margin, 147 (29%) recurred, with estimated 5 and 10 year biochemical recurrence rates of 31% and 47%, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of a positive margin was associated with a 2.45-fold increased hazard of recurrence (p < 0.001). Despite initial observation, surgical margin status was not associated with a decrease in overall survival on both uni- (p = 0.684) and multivariate analyses (p = 0.177).
Although a positive surgical margin is associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence, patients in our series were not at an increased risk of all-cause mortality.
The Canadian Journal of Urology 06/2012; 19(3):6280-6. · 0.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer treatment presents multiple challenges that can negatively affect health-related quality of life (HrQoL), and that can be further compromised by maladaptive personality styles and psychological adjustment difficulties. This study examined the utility of a comprehensive psychosocial screening tool to identify psychosocial traits that prospectively predict HrQoL status among men treated for localized prostate cancer. The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) was administered to 66 men (M age = 68 years, 59% White) treated by either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy along with standard measures of general and prostate-cancer-specific quality of life assessed at a 12-month follow-up. Higher scores on both summary MBMD Management Guides (Adjustment Difficulties and Psych Referral) and higher scores on personality styles characterized by avoidance, dependency, depression, passive aggressiveness, and self-denigration predicted lower HrQoL (β range = -.21 to -.50). Additionally, higher scores on the MBMD Depression, Tension-Anxiety, and Future Pessimism scales predicted lower HrQoL. Finally, higher scores on the MBMD Intervention Fragility and Utilization Excess scale also consistently predicted poorer mental and physical health functioning over time. These results point to the utility of the MBMD to help screen for potential impairments in mental and physical health functioning in men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.
Journal of Personality Assessment 05/2012; · 1.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Type - Prognosis (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Active surveillance is an established management option for patients with favourable-risk prostate cancer. However, about 25-30% of active surveillance patients demonstrate biopsy progression within the first 3-5 years of follow-up. Although several factors, such as the results of the diagnostic and surveillance biopsies, are known to be associated with the risk of progression, our ability to accurately predict this risk remains limited. Our analysis demonstrated that the overall number of positive cores in the diagnostic and first surveillance biopsies is strongly associated with the risk of progression in active surveillance patients. Furthermore, combined results of diagnostic and first surveillance biopsies provide more information about the probability of progression than they do separately. The most important variable affecting the progression-free survival was the overall number of cores positive for cancer. By 3 years of active surveillance, most of the patients who had four positive cores in the diagnostic and surveillance biopsies progressed, while those who had only one positive core had an excellent prognosis. These findings could be used to improve the accuracy of assessments of the prognosis of patients with low-risk prostate cancer and to help them make informed decisions about their treatment. OBJECTIVE: • To analyse the prognostic importance of information provided by the diagnostic biopsy, the first surveillance biopsy and a combination thereof to identify active surveillance patients with a particularly high risk of progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: • The present study included 161 active surveillance patients who had at least two surveillance biopsies. • The first surveillance biopsy was performed within 1 year of the diagnosis. Further surveillance biopsies usually took place every 1-2 years. • Progression on the surveillance biopsy was defined as the presence of Gleason 4/5 cancer, > two positive cores or >20% involvement of any core. • Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between biopsy characteristics and progression. Three distinct statistical models were built using characteristics of diagnostic biopsies, surveillance biopsies, and a combination thereof. Harrell's c-index was used to quantify the predictive accuracy of each multivariate Cox model. RESULTS: • The median follow-up was 3.6 years; 46 (28.6%) patients progressed. • In multivariate analysis the major factor associated with progression was the number of positive cores. • The model based on the combined results of diagnostic and first surveillance biopsies was significantly more predictive than the models based on the individual results of each biopsy. • Patients with four positive cores in the diagnostic and first surveillance biopsies had estimated 5-year progression rate of 100%. CONCLUSION: • The total number of positive cores in the diagnostic and first surveillance biopsies provides important information about the risk of prostate cancer progression in active surveillance patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of low-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa) has increased in the prostate-specific antigen era. A significant amount of low-risk PCas progress slowly and may not impact patient survival. Thus, these patients may be subjected to unnecessary interventions that result in physical and psychological complications. The active surveillance (AS) protocol has been used over the few past decades. It was designed so that patients with low-risk PCa can be monitored for a period of time, during which they are free from complication of interventions, and can be treated with curative intention on evidence of disease progression. Institutions have developed different selection criteria and follow-up schedules for suitable patients with PCa. Recently, long-term data have emerged suggesting that AS is a reasonable option for appropriately selected patients with low-risk PCa who have a life expectancy of < 10 years. Subsequently, the AS protocol has been recognized by various guidelines as part of the treatment strategy for PCa. However, the challenges that remain for AS are the risk of under-staging of PCa and the low uptake and high attrition rate of AS, and questions remain regarding its long-term efficacy. Recent advances in AS for PCa, such as better imaging modality, combining AS with limited local therapy, as well as the role of AS in association with chemoprevention, are discussed.
Postgraduate Medicine 05/2012; 124(3):50-8. · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The surgical implications of renal cell carcinoma with coexisting bland and tumour thrombi of the inferior vena cava is not well described. In this study we review our experience managing these tumours. On multivariate analysis, we found that the presence of bland thrombus was associated with an increased need for surgical interruption of the inferior vena cava. OBJECTIVE: • To study the role of interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and associated bland and tumour thrombi. METHODS: • We reviewed 129 consecutive patients with the preoperative diagnosis of RCC with tumour thrombus who underwent radical nephrectomy and tumour thrombectomy in one academic institution between May 1997 and February 2011. RESULTS: • Percentages of patients with levels I, II, III and IV tumour thrombus were 29%, 13%, 48% and 9%, respectively. • The perioperative mortality rate was 2.3%. There were 29 (22%) perioperative complications recorded. • In all, 19 patients underwent surgical interruption of the IVC by ligation or segmental resection, including one level II, 14 level III and four level IV thrombi. • A total of 15 patients (12%) had bland thrombus associated with the tumour thrombus; four of these underwent intraoperative IVC filter placement and eight underwent surgical IVC interruption. • Advanced level of tumour thrombus was the only significant factor predicting association of bland thrombus (odds ratio [OR]= 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.082-4.037, P= 0.028). • On multivariate analysis, level of thrombus (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.30-7.74, P= 0.011) and association of bland thrombus (OR = 9.07, 95% CI: 2.42-34.01, P= 0.001) were significant factors for IVC interruption. CONCLUSIONS: • Surgical interruption of the IVC is a feasible option in selected patients with chronic IVC obstruction. Association of bland thrombus with tumour thrombus should alert the surgical team to the potential for a challenging surgery. • Precise preoperative imaging to assess the degree of venous obstruction and to help with differentiation between bland and tumour thrombus is key to achieving a surgical outcome with minimal morbidity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the rationale for active surveillance (AS) in patients with low-risk prostate cancer is well established, eligibility criteria vary significantly across different programs.
To compare the ability of contemporary AS criteria to identify patients with certain pathologic tumor features based on the results of an extended transrectal prostate biopsy.
The study cohort included 391 radical prostatectomy patients who had prostate cancer with Gleason scores ≤ 6 on transrectal biopsy with ≥ 10 cores.
Radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant treatment. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We identified patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of five AS protocols including those of Epstein, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS), University of California, San Francisco, and University of Miami (UM). We evaluated the ability of these criteria to predict three pathologic end points: insignificant disease defined using a classical and updated formulation, and organ-confined Gleason ≤ 6 prostate cancer. Measures of diagnostic accuracy and areas under the receiver operating curve were calculated for each protocol and compared.
A total of 75% of the patients met the inclusion criteria of at least one protocol; 23% were eligible for AS by all studied criteria. The PRIAS and UM criteria had the best balance between sensitivity and specificity for both definitions of insignificant prostate cancer and a higher discriminative ability for the end points than any criteria including patients with two or more positive cores. The Epstein criteria demonstrated high specificity but low sensitivity for all pathologic end points, and therefore the discriminative ability was not superior to those of other protocols.
Significant variations exist in the ability of contemporary AS criteria to predict pathologically insignificant prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. These differences should be taken into account when making treatment choices in patients with low-risk prostate cancer.
European urology 03/2012; 62(3):462-8. · 7.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Active surveillance is an established management option for patients with low risk prostate cancer. However, little is known about the characteristics associated with the increased probability of progression in patients on active surveillance. We analyzed our active surveillance cohort in search of such features.
A total of 272 men with prostate cancer have enrolled in our active surveillance program since 1994, of whom 249 underwent at least 1 surveillance biopsy and were included in analysis. Our active surveillance inclusion criteria are biopsy Gleason grade less than 7, 2 or fewer positive biopsy cores, 20% or less tumor in any core and clinical stage T1-T2a. Changes in any of these parameters during followup that went beyond these limits were considered progression. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to determine patient characteristics associated with an increased risk of progression.
A total of 64 patients (26%) showed progression at a median 2.9-year followup on a mean of 2.3 surveillance biopsies. The progression risk was significantly increased in black patients (adjusted HR 3.87-4.12), and in men with a smaller prostate and higher prostate specific antigen density. The latter 2 variables had no specific cutoff for an association with progression.
Black men with low risk prostate cancer should be advised that the risk of progression on active surveillance may be higher than that in the available literature. Integral prognostic tools incorporating race and prostate specific antigen density may be useful to accurately assess the individual risk of progression in patients on active surveillance.
The Journal of urology 03/2012; 187(5):1594-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of our analysis was to determine if delays in treatment caused by active surveillance result in significant pathological changes when patients no longer meet the criteria on repeat biopsy and to study whether or not these changes may affect treatment outcomes.
Out of 207 men who were on active surveillance, 47 (23%) no longer met the criteria after one of the repeat biopsies. Twenty-two underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution and formed the main group (Group 1) of this study. One hundred sixty-four patients met the criteria for active surveillance but underwent immediate surgery. Of these patients, we selected 38 (23%) with the lowest predicted biochemical recurrence-free survival. These patients formed the comparison group (Group 2). Pathological features as well as postoperative biochemical outcomes were compared between the groups.
Seven patients (32%) in Group 1 and four (11%) in Group 2 have predominantly high-grade cancer (i.e., ≥4/5 + 3) at pathology. The visually estimated percent of carcinoma was also higher in patients initially managed by active surveillance (median 12.5 vs. 5.0 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, P = 0.009). Other pathological characteristics were similar in both groups. With limited duration of follow-up, postoperative biochemical recurrence-free survival did not differ significantly between the groups.
Our study has demonstrated that both tumor grade and volume may increase during active surveillance. However, the clinical significance of these changes with respect to the outcomes of delayed treatment remains to be established.
The Prostate 03/2012; 72(14):1573-9. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that presents as a solitary metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. We report our experience with two patients who presented with hematuria within 1 year of their radical nephrectomy. Both patients underwent endoscopic resection of the tumor metastasis. One patient developed a metastasis in the head of pancreas 12 months following endoscopic resection. The other patient developed bilateral femoral and spinal bone metastasis. Our aim is to report our experience, and discuss the proposed modes of spread, management and prognosis.
The Canadian Journal of Urology 02/2012; 19(1):6121-3. · 0.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma may have dramatic and life-threatening coagulation complications from their disease. They are at risk for either clotting or bleeding events. We report the case of a man with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation who had both clotting and bleeding in addition to thrombocytopenia. The patient did not respond to supportive therapy and was treated with docetaxel despite a platelet count of 46/mm³. The treatment resulted in resolution of disseminated intravascular coagulation, normalization of the platelet count, and resolution of hematuria. We review disseminated intravascular coagulation in prostate cancer and different possible treatments.
American journal of therapeutics 01/2012; 19(1):e59-61. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the diagnostic performance of individual prostate biopsy cores. The 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy scheme has emerged as a standard of care. However, quality of sampling may vary in different areas of the prostate included in this procedure.
Two-hundred fifty men underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution. All participants had a systematic 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy containing lateral and medial cores from each side of the apical, medial and basal thirds of the prostate. Biopsy results were matched with histologic maps of the prostatectomy specimens. Sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and overall accuracy were calculated for each biopsy core location and compared between different groups of cores. In addition, patients in the upper quartile of prostate weight were compared with the rest of the cohort.
Sensitivity, NPV, and overall accuracy were significantly lower for apical cores. Average NPV and overall accuracy of basal and mid-lateral biopsies were inferior to those of medial biopsies on the same levels. However, sensitivity of these lateral cores was similar to that of the medial cores. Sensitivities of apical and mid cores were significantly lower in patients with larger prostates.
Decreased accuracy in lateral mid- and basal cores results from higher frequencies of cancer in corresponding prostate areas, and therefore additional samples should be taken at these locations. In addition, diagnostic accuracy of apical cores may be improved through better targeting of the prostatic apex. This may be particularly important in patients with larger prostates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the genitourinary tract are rare and aggressive tumors carrying a bad prognosis. With squamous cell and transitional cell carcinoma being the most commonly reported urethral malignancies, primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urethra is extremely rare. To date, only 5 cases have been reported in the literature. We present the first case of primary SCC occurring in the bulbar urethra in an 89-year-old male. We discuss the clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features of SCC of the urethra. Furthermore, we summarize the available literature and discuss the possible treatment options for this rare yet aggressive neoplasm.
Urologia Internationalis 10/2011; 88(4):477-9. · 1.07 Impact Factor