[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are collectively the third most common type of genitourinary neoplasms, surpassed only by prostate and bladder cancer. Cure rates for renal cell carcinoma are related to tumor grade and stage; therefore, diagnostic methods for early detection and new therapeutic modalities are of paramount importance. Epigenetics can be defined as inherited modifications in gene expression that are not encoded in the DNA sequence itself. Epigenetics may play an important role in the pursuit of early diagnosis, accurate prognostication and identification of new therapeutic targets.
We used PubMed to conduct a comprehensive search of the English medical literature using search terms including epigenetics, DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA regulation (miRNA) and RCC. In this review, we discuss the potential application of epigenetics in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of kidney cancer.
During the last decade, many different types of epigenetic alterations of DNA have been found to be associated with malignant renal tumors. This has led to the research of the diagnostic and prognostic implications of these changes in renal malignancies as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes, with the aim of achieving a survival benefit.
Epigenetics has become a promising field in cancer research. The potential to achieve early detection and accurate prognostication in kidney cancer might be feasible through the application of epigenetics. The possibility to reverse these epigenetic changes with new therapeutic agents motivates researchers to continue pursuing better treatment options for kidney cancer and other malignancies.
Central European Journal of Urology 08/2015; 68(2):157-64. DOI:10.5173/ceju.2015.453
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RALNU) has been previously utilized for management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The da Vinci Xi surgical system was released in April of 2014. We describe our operative technique and early experience for RALNU using the da Vinci Xi system highlighting unique features of this surgical platform.
A total of 10 patients with a diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma underwent RALNU using the da Vinci Xi system between April and November of 2014. A novel, oblique "in line" robotic trocar configuration was utilized to access the upper abdomen (nephrectomy portion) and pelvis (bladder cuff excision) without undocking. The port hopping feature of da Vinci Xi was utilized to facilitate optimal, multi-quadrant visualization during RALNU.
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was successfully completed without open conversion in all 10 patients. Mean operative time was 184 min (range 140-300 min), mean estimated blood loss was 121 cc (range 60-300 cc), and mean hospital stay was 2.4 days. Final pathology demonstrated high grade urothelial carcinoma in all patients. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. No intra-operative complications were encountered. One patient developed a pulmonary embolus after being discharged. No patients required a blood transfusion. Mean patient follow-up was 130 days (range 15-210 days).
The use of da Vinci Xi with a novel, oblique "in line" port configuration and camera port hopping technique allows for an efficient and reproducible method for RALNU without the need for repositioning the patient or the robot during surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercalcemia of malignancy is a common finding associated with different types of cancers; however, its association with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is rare. We report a case of a 69-year-old male with nonmetastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who developed hypercalcemia that failed to respond to medical management, but resolved completely after undergoing resection of the tumor through radical cystectomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pelvic lipomatosis is a rare benign disease, associated with overgrowth of fat in the perivesical and perirectal area. It is of unknown etiology. We describe a 45-year-old male with pelvic lipomatosis causing bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain that affected his quality of life. Surgical excision of the pelvic mass with bladder preservation was performed. After surgery, the patient had a marked improvement in his quality of life, with resolution of bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-expanding stents are relatively new in the field of urology and have primarily been used for permanent remodeling of benign or malignant stricture. We are presenting a rare and interesting case of a ureterocolic fistula that formed secondary to placement of an expandable, retrievable metal stent in the ureter. After multiple retrieval efforts, the self-expanding metal stent was finally retrieved and a ureterocolic fistula was appreciated on antegrade pyelography. The patient chose to manage it non-surgically, with routine nephroureteral catheter exchanges, and her creatinine continues to remain stable.
Central European Journal of Urology 08/2013; 66(2):239-41. DOI:10.5173/ceju.2013.02.art33
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To validate and compare the accuracy and performance of nomograms predicting insignificant prostate cancer and to analyze their performance in patients with different cancer locations.
Our cohort consisted of 370 radical prostatectomy patients with Gleason ≤6 prostate cancer diagnosed on transrectal biopsy with at least 10 cores. We quantified the performance of each nomogram with respect to discrimination, calibration, predictive accuracy at different cut points, and the clinical net benefit. We also evaluated these parameters in subgroups of patients with predominantly anterior-apical (AA) and posterior-basal (PB) tumor location.
Insignificant prostate cancer was present in 141 patients (38%). The Kattan and Steyerberg nomograms outperformed other studied models and demonstrated fair discrimination (areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve 0.768 and 0.770, respectively), good calibration, balanced predictive accuracy, and the highest net benefit. All nomograms were less accurate at higher levels of predicted probability. The performance of the nomograms was better in patients with PB tumors than in those with AA tumors. The loss of correlation with the actual prevalence of insignificant prostate cancer at higher levels of predicted probability was not seen in the PB subgroup but was particularly noticeable in the AA subgroup.
The Kattan and Steyerberg nomograms demonstrated the best performance in predicting the probability of insignificant prostate cancer in a contemporary cohort of patients with Gleason ≤6 cancer diagnosed on specimens from an extended transrectal biopsy. However, all studied nomograms were more accurate in identifying significant rather than insignificant disease, particularly for tumors located in the apical and anterior prostate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently there is no global agreement as to how extensively a radical prostatectomy specimen should be sectioned and histologically examined. We analyzed the ability of different methods of partial sampling in detecting positive margin (PM) and extraprostatic extension (EPE)-2 pathologic features of prostate cancer that are most easily missed by partial sampling of the prostate. Radical prostatectomy specimens from 617 patients treated with open radical prostatectomy between 1992 and 2011 were analyzed. Examination of the entirely submitted prostate detected only PM in 370 (60%), only EPE in 100 (16%), and both in 147 (24%) specimens. We determined whether these pathologic features would have been diagnosed had the examination of the specimen been limited only to alternate sections (method 1), alternate sections representing the posterior aspect of the gland in addition to one of the mid-anterior aspects (method 2), and every section representing the posterior aspect of the gland in addition to one of the mid-anterior aspects, supplemented by the remaining ipsilateral anterior sections if a sizeable tumor is seen (method 3). Methods 1 and 2 missed 13% and 21% of PMs and 28% and 47% of EPEs, respectively. Method 3 demonstrated better results missing only 5% of PMs and 7% of EPEs. Partial sampling techniques missed slightly more PMs and EPEs in patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer, although even in high-risk cases none of the methods detected all of the studied aggressive pathologic features.
The American journal of surgical pathology 10/2012; 37(2). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e318268ccc1 · 5.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy was shown to improve survival in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The initiation and completion rates for perioperative chemotherapy are variable. Our aim is to compare the likelihood of initiating and completing neoadjuvant (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients who underwent of RC for MIBC.
We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent RC between 1992 and 2011. NAC was advised for patients with clinical stage ≥T2, hydronephrosis, extensive lymphovascular invasion (LVI), or prostatic stromal invasion. Patients with ≥pT3 or lymph node metastases were considered for AC.
A total of 363 patients were considered for perioperative chemotherapy. Among the 141 patients who were offered NAC, 125 (88.6%) initiated NAC. A total of 222 were considered for AC, and 151 (68.0%) initiated AC ( < 0.001). In the NAC group, 118 (83.5%) completed planned number of cycles of chemotherapy and 7 (5.6%) did not complete the planned chemotherapy. In the AC group, 79 (35.5%) completed at least four cycles and 72 (47.3%) could not complete the planned cycles ( < 0.001).
Patients with MIBC are more likely to initiate and complete NAC than AC.
Indian Journal of Urology 10/2012; 28(4):424-6. DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.105756
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of our analysis was to determine if delays in treatment caused by active surveillance result in significant pathological changes when patients no longer meet the criteria on repeat biopsy and to study whether or not these changes may affect treatment outcomes.
Out of 207 men who were on active surveillance, 47 (23%) no longer met the criteria after one of the repeat biopsies. Twenty-two underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution and formed the main group (Group 1) of this study. One hundred sixty-four patients met the criteria for active surveillance but underwent immediate surgery. Of these patients, we selected 38 (23%) with the lowest predicted biochemical recurrence-free survival. These patients formed the comparison group (Group 2). Pathological features as well as postoperative biochemical outcomes were compared between the groups.
Seven patients (32%) in Group 1 and four (11%) in Group 2 have predominantly high-grade cancer (i.e., ≥4/5 + 3) at pathology. The visually estimated percent of carcinoma was also higher in patients initially managed by active surveillance (median 12.5 vs. 5.0 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, P = 0.009). Other pathological characteristics were similar in both groups. With limited duration of follow-up, postoperative biochemical recurrence-free survival did not differ significantly between the groups.
Our study has demonstrated that both tumor grade and volume may increase during active surveillance. However, the clinical significance of these changes with respect to the outcomes of delayed treatment remains to be established.
The Prostate 10/2012; 72(14):1573-9. DOI:10.1002/pros.22507 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenal tumors are among the commonest incidental findings discovered. The increased incidence of diagnosing adrenal incidentalomas is due to the widespread availability and use of noninvasive imaging studies. Extensive research has been conducted to define a cost-effective diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to guide physicians in managing incidental adrenal lesions. However, there is little consensus on the optimal management strategy. Published literature to date, describes a wide spectrum of treatment options ranging from excision of all adrenal lesions regardless of the size and functional status to extensive hormonal and radiological evaluation to avoid surgery. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the presentation, evaluation and management of adrenal incidentalomas. Additionally, we propose a management algorithm to optimally manage these tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: A summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the reconstructive options after radical cystectomy (RC), their outcomes, and their complications. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding indications, surgical details, postoperative care, complications, functional outcomes, as well as quality-of-life measures of patients with different forms of urinary diversion (UD). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: An English-language literature review of data published between 1970 and 2012 on patients with UD following RC for bladder cancer was undertaken. No randomized controlled studies comparing conduit diversion with neobladder or continent cutaneous diversion have been performed. Consequently, almost all studies used in this report are of level 3 evidence. Therefore, the recommendations given here are grade C only, meaning expert opinion delivered without a formal analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Indications and patient selection criteria have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. Renal function impairment is primarily caused by obstruction. Complications such as stone formation, urine outflow, and obstruction at any level must be recognized early and treated. In patients with orthotopic bladder substitution, daytime and nocturnal continence is achieved in 85-90% and 60-80%, respectively. Continence is inferior in elderly patients with orthotopic reconstruction. Urinary retention remains significant in female patients, ranging from 7% to 50%. CONCLUSIONS: RC and subsequent UD have been assessed as the most difficult surgical procedure in urology. Significant disparity on how the surgical complications were reported makes it impossible to compare postoperative morbidity results. Complications rates overall following RC and UD are significant, and when strict reporting criteria are incorporated, they are much higher than previously published. Fortunately, most complications are minor (Clavien grade 1 or 2). Complications can occur up to 20 yr after surgery, emphasizing the need for lifelong monitoring. Evidence suggests an association between surgical volume and outcome in RC; the challenge of optimum care for elderly patients with comorbidities is best mastered at high-volume hospitals by high-volume surgeons. Preoperative patient information, patient selection, surgical techniques, and careful postoperative follow-up are the cornerstones to achieve good long-term results.
European Urology 08/2012; 63(1). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.08.050 · 13.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7 are 7-transmembrane chemokine receptors of the stroma-derived factor (SDF-1). CXCR4, but not CXCR7, has been examined in bladder cancer (BCa). This study examined the functional and clinical significance of CXCR7 in BCa.
CXCR4 and CXCR7 levels were measured in BCa cell lines, tissues (normal = 25; BCa = 44), and urine specimens (n = 186) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and/or immunohistochemistry. CXCR7 function in BCa cells were examined by transient transfections using a CXCR7 expression vector or small interfering RNA.
In BCa cell lines, CXCR7 messenger RNA levels were 5- to 37-fold higher than those for CXCR4. Transient overexpression of CXCR7 in BCa cell lines promoted growth and chemotactic motility. CXCR7 colocalized and formed a functional complex with epidermal growth factor receptor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, Erk, and src and induced their phosphorylation. CXCR7 also induced up-regulation of cyclin-D1 and bcl-2. Suppression of CXCR7 expression reversed these effects and induced apoptosis. CXCR7 messenger RNA levels and CXCR7 staining scores were significantly (5- to 10-fold) higher in BCa tissues than in normal tissues (P < .001). CXCR7 expression independently associated with metastasis (P = .019) and disease-specific mortality (P = .03). CXCR7 was highly expressed in endothelial cells in high-grade BCa tissues when compared to low-grade BCa and normal bladder. CXCR7 levels were elevated in exfoliated urothelial cells from high-grade BCa patients (P = .0001; 90% sensitivity; 75% specificity); CXCR4 levels were unaltered.
CXCR7 promotes BCa cell proliferation and motility plausibly through epidermal growth factor receptor receptor and Akt signaling. CXCR7 expression is elevated in BCa tissues and exfoliated cells and is associated with high-grade and metastasis.
Cancer 06/2012; 119(1). DOI:10.1002/cncr.27661 · 4.89 Impact Factor