[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), which is hydrolyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme, is a natural regulator of hematopoiesis. Here it is shown that Ac-SDKP inhibits TGF-beta action in mesangial cells. Because TGF-beta is thought to play a pivotal role in the development and progression of glomerulonephritis, the therapeutic effects of Ac-SDKP on an established model of renal dysfunction and histologic alteration in Wistar-Kyoto rats with anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis was examined. Fourteen days after the induction of anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis, the rats were treated subcutaneously with Ac-SDKP at a dose of 1 mg/kg per d for 4 wk. Treatment with Ac-SDKP significantly improved proteinuria and renal dysfunction, including increased plasma blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and decreased creatinine clearance. Histologic examination showed severe glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in the vehicle-treated rats, whereas these histologic injuries were significantly ameliorated in rats that were treated with Ac-SDKP. The histologic improvements were accompanied by the suppression of gene and protein expression of fibronectin, interstitial collagen, and TGF-beta1 in the nephritic kidney. Furthermore, treatment with Ac-SDKP resulted in the inhibition of Smad2 phosphorylation, an increase in Smad7 expression in the kidney, and reduction of macrophage accumulation into the glomeruli and tubulointerstitium in nephritic rats. In conclusion, Ac-SDKP significantly ameliorated the progression of renal dysfunction and fibrosis even after the establishment of nephritis. The inhibitory effect of Ac-SDKP was mediated in part by the inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad signal transduction and the inflammatory response. These findings suggest that Ac-SDKP treatment may be a novel and useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of progressive renal diseases.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2006; 17(3):674-85. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2005040385 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), which is a tetrapeptide hydrolyzed by ACE, inhibits the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-induced expression of extracellular matrix proteins via inhibition of the Smad signaling in human mesangial cells. To test in vivo the antifibrotic efficacy of Ac-SDKP, we examined whether long-term Ac-SDKP treatment can prevent renal insufficiency and glomerulosclerosis in diabetic db/db mice. Diabetic db/db mice or nondiabetic db/m mice were treated with Ac-SDKP for 8 weeks using osmotic minipumps. The treatment with Ac-SDKP increased plasma Ac-SDKP concentrations by approximately threefold in both groups but did not affect the blood glucose levels. Histologically, the increased glomerular surface area, mesangial matrix expansion, and overproduction of extracellular matrix proteins in db/db mice were significantly inhibited by Ac-SDKP. Furthermore, Ac-SDKP treatment normalized the increased plasma creatinine value in db/db mice, whereas the albuminuria in Ac-SDKP-treated db/db mice was somewhat decreased as compared with nontreated db/db mice, although the difference was not statistically significant. In addition, the nuclear translocation of Smad3 was inhibited by Ac-SDKP. These results demonstrate that long-term Ac-SDKP treatment ameliorates renal insufficiency and glomerulosclerosis in db/db mice via inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad pathway, suggesting that Ac-SDKP could be useful in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested whether polysaccharide fucoidin, which inhibits leukocyte rolling in the mesenteric venule, has protective effects in the rat myocardial 30-min ischemia and 6-h reperfusion injury model. Intravenous infusion of fucoidin (27 microg/kg/min from 10 min before to 6 h after reperfusion) significantly attenuated myocardial infarct size 6 h after reperfusion. In this ischemia and reperfusion heart model, expression of P-selectin (determined immunohistochemically) was observed on the venular endothelial cells in the heart 30 min after reperfusion and also was sustained after 6 h. Neutrophil infiltration as estimated by myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased 2 h after reperfusion and kept increasing with time until 6 h after reperfusion. Four-hour infusion of fucoidin after reperfusion significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration, whereas the 2-h infusion of fucoidin did not. These results indicate that neutrophil infiltration and myocardial injury are attributed to expression of P-selectin after reperfusion, and that one of the inhibitory mechanisms of fucoidin seems to be blockade of P-selectin-mediated neutrophil rolling on the vessel wall.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular and diuretic actions of carperitide were studied in experimental animals. Carperitide relaxed various canine arteries and veins that were contracted by high K+ or norepinephrine. Carperitide stimulated particulate guanylate cyclase from rat thoracic aortas. Carperitide had almost no effect on coronary perfusion pressure or heart rate, but caused a slight decrease in contractile force in isolated guinea pig hearts. Carperitide tended to decrease isoproterenol-induced renin release from isolated rat kidney slices and elicited decreases in angiotensin II-induced aldosterone release from bovine zona glomerulosa cells. Intravenous injection of carperitide elicited decreases in arterial blood pressure and total peripheral resistance in the anesthetized and conscious dogs. Carperitide also elicited transient increases in cardiac output and coronary blood flow followed by slight decreases in them. Intravenous infusion of carperitide elicited decreases in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary pressure and right atrial pressure in association with elevating plasma carperitide (ANP like immuno-reactivity) level in dogs with heart failure induced by coronary artery occlusion and saline loading. These results suggest that carperitide decreases both preload and afterload and can improve the untoward hemodynamic alterations in animals with acute experimental heart failure.