Masahiro Kumagai

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

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Publications (31)73.85 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cell motility by actin cytoskeleton is essential for differentiation processes of excystation and encystation of Entamoeba. We recently studied an actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin (Cfl) of Entamoeba invadens (Ei), and demonstrated its contribution to the encystation and excystation of E. invadens through actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Profilin is also an actin-binding protein but its function is different from that of Cfl in actin assembly. This study investigated E. invadens profilins in relation to encystation and excystation which were induced in axenic culture systems. A homology search of the E. invadens genome database and molecular cloning identified four profilins of the parasite named EiPFN1, EiPFN2, EiPFN3, and EiPFN4. There were also multiple genes of profilin in Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) and Entamoeba dispar (Ed), each of which had three profilins. A search for conserved domains revealed that these profilins of Entamoeba had actin, phosphoinositide, and poly-proline binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EiPFN3 and EiPFN4 formed the same clades including EhPFN3 and EdPFN3, and EhPFN2 and EdPFN2, respectively, while EiPFN1 and EiPFN2 were separated from EhPFN1 and EdPFN1. Rabbit anti-EiPFN1 serum reacted with recombinant EiPFN3 and EiPFN4 but not EiPFN2, and also reacted with EiPFN in lysates of cysts and trophozoites. Immunofluorescence staining with this antiserum showed co-localization of EiPFN with actin beneath the cell membrane through the life stages and also showed cytoplasmic localization. Both proteins proved to be rich in pseudopodia of trophozoites. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the mRNA level of EiPFN1 and EiPFN4 in trophozoites was comparable but that of EiPFN2 and EiPFN3 was very low. During encystation, the mRNA expression of EiPFN1 and EiPFN4 increased remarkably in the early phase much higher than that of EiPFN2 and EiPFN3. Then, the expression of all four PFNs sharply decreased in the later phase. This was in contrast to the sharp decrease in the mRNA level of EiCfl-2 during encystation in our previous study. In cysts, EiPFN1 was most abundantly expressed and EiPFN4 was at a lower level, while the expressions of EiPFN2 and EiPFN3 were virtually absent. Following the induction of excystation, mRNA levels of EiPFN1, EiPFN2, and EiPFN4 in cysts 5 h after induction were significantly higher than those in cysts before induction, while that of EiPFN3 was slightly higher than before induction. The mRNAs of EiPFN1 increased most extensively when the excystation was induced in the presence of cytochalasin D. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) to EiPFN1 inhibited both encystation and excystation but not growth. These findings demonstrate different expression of EiPFNs and the contribution of EiPFN to the encystation and excystation.
    Parasitology Research 12/2011; 110(6):2095-104. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica forms chitin-walled cysts during encystation process, where formation of the cyst wall needs not only chitin synthase but also chitinase. During excystation, quadruplet amoebae emerge from the chitin-walled cysts by dissolving the wall, so that chitinase may be necessary for excystation process as well. There is, however, no report on chitinase expression during excystation. In this study, we used Entamoeba invadens, a reptilian amoeba, as a model for encystation and excystation of E. histolytica, and studied chitinase mRNA expression in those processes. Although expression of three E. invadens chitinases designated EiChit1, EiChit2, and EiChit3 during encystation has been reported, we identified another enzyme named as EiChit4 in the E. invadens genome database. Therefore, we investigated the primary structure and mRNA expression of these four chitinases of Ei in the excystation as well as the encystation by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Like EiChit1, EiChit4 had an 8 × Cys chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a hydrophilic spacer between the CBD and catalytic domain, and was also closer to EiChit1 than EiChit2 and EiChit3 in the phylogenetic tree. During encystation, the expression of all four chitinases increased in the early phase; the increase in EiChit1 and EiChit4 was much higher than in EiChit2 and EiChit3. Then, the expression of all four chitinases sharply decreased in the later phase. In cysts, EiChit1 was most abundantly expressed and EiChit4 was at a lower level, while the expressions of EiChit2 and EiChit3 were virtually absent. Following the induction of excystation, mRNA levels of EiChit1 and EiChit4 in cysts 5 h after induction were significantly lower than those in cysts before induction, while those of EiChit2 and EiChit3 were remarkably higher than before induction. The mRNAs of only EiChit2 and EiChit3 remarkably increased when the excystation was induced in the presence of cytochalasin D. These data demonstrate different structures and expressions of four chitinases in the differentiation of E. invadens.
    Parasitology Research 02/2011; 109(2):417-23. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The differentiation processes of excystation and encystation of Entamoeba are essential for infection and completion of their life-cycle, and the processes need cell motility and its control by actin cytoskeletal reorganization. This study investigated actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin (Cfl) family proteins, which are important molecules in actin cytoskeletal reorganization, in Entamoeba invadens in relation to the encystation and excystation. Axenic culture systems were used to induce encystation and excystation. A homology search of the E. invadens genome database and molecular cloning identified three ADF/Cfl family proteins of the parasite (named for short as EiCfl-1, EiCfl-2, and EiCfl-3). This is different from other Entamoeba species, i.e. Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar, each of which has only one ADF/Cfl family protein. These ADF/Cfl of E. invadens do not have Ser3 (serine locates third from first methionine), similar to E. histolytica, E. dispar, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, although the activity of ADF/Cfl is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the Ser3 in metazoans. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Entamoeba Cfl formed a distinctive clade that is separate from other organisms, and the branches of the tree were separated in two consistent with the presence and absence of Ser3. Rabbit anti-EiCfl-2 serum reacted with all recombinant EiCfls and EiCfl in lysates of cysts, trophozoites and metacystic amoebae. Immunofluorescence staining with this antiserum showed co-localization of EiCfl with actin beneath the cell membrane through the life stages. Both proteins proved to be rich in pseudopodia of trophozoites and metacystic amoebae. Real-time RT-PCR showed that mRNAs of EiCfl-2 and actins were highly expressed, but there were few mRNA of EiCfl-1 and EiCfl-3. Remarkably decreased mRNA levels were observed in EiCfl-2 and actins during encystation. All three EiCfls and actins became transcribed after the induction of excystation. The mRNAs of only EiCfl-1 and EiCfl-3 increased remarkably when the excystation was induced in the presence of cytochalasin D. These findings demonstrate that EiCfl-2 and actins co-localize beneath the cell membrane in trophozoites and cysts as well as metacystic amoebae being rich in pseudopodia, that EiCfl-1 and EiCfl-3 are expressed only after the induction of excystation, and that enhanced excystation by cytochalasin D is associated with high expression of EiCfl-1 and EiCfl-3.
    Experimental Parasitology 01/2011; 127(1):195-201. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many attempts have been undertaken to make permanent preparations of helminth eggs. However, the resulting preparations either lacked durability or tended to deform thin-shelled eggs, such as those of the hookworm. To overcome these drawbacks, we have modified 2 aspects of the glycerin-jelly mounting procedure. First, we gradually changed the media in which the helminth eggs soaked, from 10% formalin via water to a 70% ethanol and 5% glycerin solution. It took 10 days, which is much longer than the time required for the processes previously reported. Second, we used a hole slide glass instead of a slide glass. Eggs of 11 species of helminths have been prepared with this procedure, and have kept their morphology without apparent change for more than 4 yr.
    Journal of Parasitology 11/2009; 96(2):440-1. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the functions of cysteine proteases involved in the pathogenicity and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica have been demonstrated, little is known about the functions of serine proteases. We examined the involvement of serine proteases in amoebic excystation and metacystic development using inhibitors specific for serine proteases. Entamoeba invadens IP-1 strain was used as the model of excystation and metacystic development of E. histolytica. Four serine protease inhibitors, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 4-(2-aminoethyl) bezensulfonylfluoride hydrochloride, 3, 4-dichloroisocoumarin, and N-tosyl-phe-chloromethylketone, decreased the number of metacystic amoebae in a dose-dependent manner, without showing cytotoxicity to cysts. PMSF inhibited not only the increase but also the development of metacystic amoebae as determined by the change of nucleus number from four- to one-nucleate amoebae. The protease activity in cyst lysates was also inhibited by PMSF and the band of protease on gelatin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was weaker than controls when treated with PMSF. Three serine protease families, S28 (three types), S9 (two), and S26 (one) were retrieved from the database of E. invadens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that amebic enzymes from the serine protease families formed different clades from those from other organisms. The expression levels of these serine proteases in cysts 5 h after the induction of excystation as assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were higher than those observed prior to induction assayed by real-time RT-PCR; the increase in one type of S9 (named S9-3) expression was the highest. The expression of S9 enzymes also increased from cysts to trophozoites higher than the other family serine proteases. Thus, the results show that Entamoeba uses their serine proteases in the excystation and metacystic development, which leads to successful infection.
    Parasitology Research 08/2009; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) ProteinChip assays with weak cationic exchange chips were used for protein profiling of different isolates of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. When SELDI-TOF MS spectra of cell lysates from E. histolytica strain HM-1:IMSS were compared with those from four other laboratory strains (200:NIH, HK-9, DKB, and SAW755CR) grown under the same culture conditions, different peak patterns of SELDI-TOF MS were observed among these strains, independent of their zymodeme types. Similarly, five Japanese isolates of E. histolytica grown under the same culture conditions revealed different peak patterns among themselves. The SELDI-TOF MS spectra of cell lysates from two isolates of E. dispar strain AS16IR and CYNO 09:TPC showed the presence of peaks specific for E. dispar isolates and the absence of peaks common to E. histolytica isolates. This is not only the first use of SELDI-TOF MS ProteinChip technology for protein profiling of different strains of Entamoeba but also the use for parasitic protozoa. The SELDI-TOF MS spectra show a realistic view of proteins with a biological status of E. histolytica and E. dispar isolates, contributing to show their phenotypic differences of proteins and provide a unique means of distinguishing them.
    Parasitology Research 01/2008; 102(1):103-10. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of artificial gastric fluid (AGF), containing 0.5% pepsin and 0.6% hydrochloric acid, pH 1.8, in distilled water, on the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens was examined. Excystation, which was assessed by counting the number of metacystic amoebae after inducing excystation, was enhanced by pretreatment of cysts with AGF for 30 to 60 min at 37 degrees C but not 26 degrees C. Longer exposure of cysts to AGF significantly reduced their viability. Significant enhancement of excystation was observed by pretreatment of cysts with distilled water only at 37 degrees C. In addition, 0.6% hydrochloric acid had a comparable enhancing effect on excystation to AGF. Metacystic development, when determined by the number of nuclei in amoeba, was slightly enhanced by pretreatment with AGF. An artificial intestinal fluid (AIF), containing 1% pancreatin, 1% sodium bicarbonate, and 5% ox bile, pH 8.0, in distilled water, had a significant toxic effect on cysts, where 1% pancreatin had neither an enhancing effect on excystation nor a toxic effect on cysts, whereas 5% ox bile had a toxic effect on cysts. Pretreatment of cysts with AGF followed by AIF had a similar toxic effect on cysts to that by AIF only. These results suggest that gastric fluid but not intestinal fluid at 37 degrees C contributes to enhancing excystation for Entamoeba infection.
    Parasitology Research 05/2006; 98(5):443-6. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica is a unique protozoan parasite possessing both protein farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltrasferase I (GGT-I) for isoprenylation of small GTPases. In this study, we demonstrated unique enzymological properties of the amebic GGT-I (EhGGT-I), including substrate specificity and insensitivity to known mammalian inhibitors. Some of important residues of the catalytic beta subunit implicated in the specificity for GTPase acceptors and prenyl donors are substituted in EhGGT-I. Recombinant alpha and beta subunits of EhGGT-I, co-expressed in Escherichia coli, showed activity to transfer geranylgeranyl to both human wild-type (CVLS) and mutant (CVLL) H-Ras, while the mammalian GGT-I geranylgeranylated, but not farnesylated, only mutant H-Ras. All the representative amebic Ras and Rho/Rac small GTPases with phenylalanine, leucine, methionine, or alanine terminus were preferentially geranylgeranylated by EhGGT-I. This indicates that the acceptor specificity of the amebic GGT-I is remarkably broader than that of its mammalian counterpart. In contrast to EhFT, which farnesylates but not geranylgeranlylates solely EhRas4-CVVA, EhGGT-I also showed significant farnesyltransferase activity against Ras GTPase acceptors. EhGGT-I showed remarkable resistance to peptidomimetics known to inhibit mammalian GGT-I. Together with our previous observation that this parasite does not appear to depend on farnesylation for a majority of Ras and Rho/Rac, these data indicate that biological and biochemical advantages leading to the evolutional selection of this isoprenyl modification must exist uniquely in this parasitic protist. Finally, remarkable biochemical differences in binding to substrates and inhibitors between amebic and mammalian GGT-I highlight this enzyme as an attractive target for the development of new chemotherapeutics against amebiasis.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 03/2006; 145(2):216-25. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of six cysteine protease inhibitors on the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens. Excystation, which was assessed by counting the number of metacystic amoebae after the induction of excystation, was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors Z-Phe-Ala-DMK and E-64d in a concentration-dependent manner during incubation compared to the controls. Neither inhibitor had a significant effect on cyst viability; thus, their inhibitory effects were not due to the toxic effect on cysts. Metacystic development, when determined by the number of nuclei in amoeba, was also inhibited by these protease inhibitors, because the percentage of 4-nucleate amoebae was higher than in the controls on Day 3 of incubation. Although other cysteine protease inhibitors, Z-Phe-Phe-DMK, E-64, ALLM, and cathepsin inhibitor III, had a weak or little effect on the excystation, they inhibited cysteine protease activity in the lysates of E. invadens cysts. Broad bands with gelatinase activity of metacystic amoebae, as well as cysts and trophozoites, were detected in the gelatin substrate gel electrophores and were inhibited by Z-Phe-Ala-DMK. There was a difference in the protease composition between cysts and trophozoites, and the protease composition of metacystic amoebae changed from cyst-type to trophozoite-type during development. These results strongly suggest that cysteine proteases contribute to the excystation and metacystic development of E. invadens, which leads to successful infection.
    Experimental Parasitology 02/2005; 109(1):27-32. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of five different cytochalasins on the growth, encystation and excystation of Entamoeba invadens was examined. At 10 microM, cytochalasins B, D, E and dihydrocytochalasin B markedly inhibited growth. Encystation was inhibited by cytochalasin D at 1 microM but not by other cytochalasins at the same concentration, whereas it was inhibited by 10 microM of cytochalasins B, E and dihydrocytochalasin B as well as cytochalasin D. Excystation, which was assessed by counting the number of metacystic amoebae after inducing excystation, was markedly enhanced by cytochalasin D as previously demonstrated, whereas the enhancing effect of cytochalasins A, B and dihydrocytochalasin B was weak. In contrast, cytochalasin E at 10 microM inhibited excystation and metacystic development. These results indicate that there is a difference in the effect of different cytochalasins on the growth and differentiation of E. invadens, depending on differences in their chemical structure.
    Parasitology Research 06/2004; 93(1):68-71. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genes encoding alpha- and beta-subunits of a putative protein farnesyltransferase (FT) from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica were obtained and their biochemical properties were characterized. Deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha- and beta-subunit of E. histolytica FT (EhFT) were 298- and 375-residues long with a molecular mass of 35.6 and 42.6 kDa, and a pI of 5.43 and 5.65, respectively. They showed 24% to 36% identity to and shared common signature domains and repeats with those from other organisms. Recombinant alpha- and beta-subunits, co-expressed in Escherichia coli, formed a heterodimer and showed activity to transfer farnesyl using farnesylpyrophosphate as a donor to human H-Ras possessing a C-terminal CVLS, but not a mutant H-Ras possessing CVLL. Among a number of small GTPases that belong to the Ras superfamily from this parasite, we identified EhRas4, which possesses CVVA at the C terminus, as a sole farnesyl acceptor for EhFT. This is in contrast to mammalian FT, which utilizes a variety of small GTPases that possess a C-terminal CaaX motif, where X is serine, methionine, glutamine, cysteine, or alanine. EhFT also showed remarkable resistance against a variety of known inhibitors of mammalian FT. These results suggest that remarkable biochemical differences in binding to substrates and inhibitors exist between amebic and mammalian FTs, which highlights this enzyme as a novel target for the development of new chemotherapeutics against amebiasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2004; 279(3):2316-23. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using an axenic excystation system in vitro, we examined the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which are signaling molecules responsible for numerous cellular responses, on the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens. Excystation, which was assessed by counting the number of metacystic amoebae after the induction of excystation, was inhibited by the PKC inhibitors staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride and calphostin C in a concentration-dependent manner during incubation, compared with the controls. As cyst viability was not affected by these inhibitors, reduced excystation was not due to their direct toxic effects on cysts. Metacystic development, when determined by the number of nuclei in the amoebae, was delayed by these PKC inhibitors, because the percentage of 1-nucleate amoebae was lower than in controls at day 3 of incubation. Wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of PI3K, also inhibited excystation and metacystic development of E. invadens in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with the controls. These results indicate that signaling through PKC and PI3K contributes to the excystation and metacystic development of E. invadens.
    Parasitology Research 11/2003; 91(3):204-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of the replicative DNA polymerases, on the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens was examined. The protein profile of metacystic amoebae and their immunogenicity in the presence and absence of aphidicolin were also examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Excystation, which was assessed by counting the number of metacystic amoebae after the induction of excystation, was inhibited by aphidicolin in a concentration-dependent manner during incubation compared to the controls. Metacystic development, when determined by the number of nuclei in amoeba, was also inhibited by aphidicolin, because the percentage of 4-nucleate amoebae in cultures with aphidicolin during incubation was higher than that in cultures without the drug. The addition of aphidicolin to cultures at day 1 of incubation reduced the number of metacystic amoebae thereafter compared to cultures without the drug. The inhibitory effect of aphidicolin on excystation and metacystic development was reversed by removal of the drug. Pretreatment of cysts with aphidicolin before transfer to a growth medium containing the drug had no further effect on the excystation and metacystic development. Cellular proteins of metacystic amoebae with 4 nuclei, which were predominant even at day 3 in the cultures with aphidicolin, reacted strongly with rabbit anticyst serum absorbed with trophozoite proteins. In contrast, those of metacystic amoebae with 1 nucleus, which were predominant at day 3 in cultures without aphidicolin, no longer reacted with the absorbed anticyst serum, suggesting change in the expression of proteins during metacystic development.
    Experimental Parasitology 01/2003; 103(1-2):61-7. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of oryzalin on excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens strain IP-1 was examined by transfer of cysts to a growth medium containing the drug. Excystation, which was assessed by counting the number of metacystic amoebae after induction of excystation, was inhibited by oryzalin in a concentration-dependent manner. Metacystic development, which was determined by the number of nuclei in metacystic amoebae, was also inhibited by oryzalin because the percentage of 4-nucleate amoebae at day 1 remained unchanged at day 3. The addition of oryzalin after the induction of excystation decreased the number of metacystic amoebae, compared with control cultures. When cysts were incubated for 1 day in growth medium plus oryzalin, little increase in the number of metacystic amoebae was observed after removal of the drug. Excystation and metacystic development were further inhibited when the cysts were incubated for 30 min in encystation medium containing oryzalin before transfer to growth medium with the drug. When cysts were incubated for 30 min in encystation medium before transfer to growth medium without the drug, metacystic amoebae decreased in number. Pretreatment of cysts with oryzalin for 30 min in phosphate-buffered saline markedly reduced viability and prevented excystation in growth medium with or without the drug. The results indicate that oryzalin inhibits excystation and metacystic development of E. invadens, suggesting that it may be an inhibitor of Entamoeba infection.
    Journal of Parasitology 11/2002; 88(5):994-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) and calmodulin (CaM) on the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens was examined by transfer of cysts to a growth medium containing calcium antagonists and CaM inhibitors. Excystation, which was assessed by counting the number of metacystic amoebae after induction of excystation, was inhibited by the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)- N,N'-tetraacetate (EGTA) and ethylene-diaminetetraacetate (EDTA), with EDTA being more potent than EGTA. The inhibitory effect of higher concentrations of these chelators on excystation was associated with reduced viability of cysts. Metacystic development, when determined by the number of nuclei in an amoeba, was delayed by EGTA, because the percentage of four-nucleate amoebae was higher than in controls at day 3 of incubation. EDTA made metacystic development unusual by producing a large number of metacystic amoebae with more than ten nuclei. The inhibition of excystation by these chelators was partially abrogated by their removal. A putative antagonist of intracellular calcium flux, 8-( N,N-diethylamino) octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8) also inhibited the excystation and metacystic development, but had little effect on cyst viability. The slow Na(+)-Ca(2+) channel blocker bepridil but not verapamil inhibited the excystation and metacystic development, associating with reduced cyst viability at higher concentrations. The inhibitory effect of bepridil on excystation was abrogated by removal of the drug. The CaM inhibitor trifIuoperazine (TFP) but not W-7 [ N-(6-aminohexyl)-chloro-1-naphtalene sulphonamide] inhibited the excystation and metacystic development. The inhibitory effect of TFP on excystation was also abrogated by removal of the drug. These results indicate that extracellular calcium ions, amoebic intracellular calcium flux, calcium channels, and a CaM-dependent process contribute to the excystation and metacystic development of E. invadens.
    Parasitology Research 10/2002; 88(9):837-43. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of three proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin, clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, and MG-132, on the growth, encystation, and excystation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba invadens was examined. All of these drugs blocked E. histolytica growth in a concentration-dependent manner; lactacystin was most potent for the inhibition and MG-132 showed the inhibitory effect only at higher concentrations. E. invadens was more resistant to these drugs than E. histolytica. Encystation of E. invadens was also inhibited and was more sensitive to the drugs than was growth. Beta-lactone was the most potent encystation inhibitor. The inhibitory effect of lactacystin and the beta-lactone on encystation was slightly and little abrogated by the removal of the drug, respectively. Multinucleation occurred in E. histolytica trophozoites treated with these drugs, being most marked with lactacystin. In contrast, no multinucleation was observed in E. invadens treated with the drugs. Electron microscopy revealed that the treatment of E. histolytica trophozoites with lactacystin led to an increase in the number of cells with many glycogen granules in the cytoplasm. Lactacystin, beta-lactone and MG-132 had no or little effect on the excystation and metacystic development of E. invadens. These results suggest that proteasome function plays an important role for Entamoeba growth and encystation, but has no obvious effect on excystation or metacystic development.
    Parasitology Research 06/2002; 88(5):454-9. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of calcium antagonists, calcium channel blockers, and calmodulin inhibitors on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica and the growth and encystation of Entamoeba invadens were examined. Calcium chelators ethyleneglycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetate (EGTA) and ethylene-diaminetetraacetate (EDTA) inhibited the growth of both Entamoeba and also the encystation of E. invadens in a dose-dependent manner, with EDTA being more effective than EGTA. A putative antagonist of intracellular calcium flux, 8-(N,N-diethylamino) octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8) also inhibited both growth and encystation, with the E. histolytica being more sensitive than E. invadens, and with the growth of E. invadens being more sensitive than encystation. The slow Na+-Ca2+ channel blockers bepridil and verapamil inhibited both growth and encystation. Bepridil was more effective than verapamil. The calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors, W-7 (N-(6-aminohexyl)-chloro-1-naphtalene sulphonamide) and trifluoperazine (TFP), were also inhibitory for both the growth and encystation; TFP was more effective than W-7, and encystation was more sensitive than growth in E. invadens. These results indicate that extracellular calcium ions, amebic intracellular calcium flux, calcium channels, and a CaM-dependent process contribute to the growth and encystation of Entamoeba.
    Parasitology Research 11/2001; 87(10):833-7. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Makioka, A., Kumagai, M., Ohtomo, H., Kobayashi, S., and Takeuchi, T. 2001. Entamoeba invadens: Enhancement of excystation and metacystic development by cytochalasin D. Experimental Parasitology98, 145–151. Effects of three actin-modifying drugs, cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, and jasplakinolide, on the excystation and metacystic development in vitro of Entamoeba invadens were examined by transfer of the cysts to growth medium with the drugs. Cytochalasin D unexpectedly increased the number of metacystic amoebae of E. invadens strain IP-1 during incubation. Metacystic development, which was determined by the number of nuclei of metacystic amoebae, was faster in the culture with cytochalasin D than in the culture without the drug. These results suggest that cytochalasin D enhances the excystation and metacystic development. In contrast, latrunculin A and jasplakinolide inhibited these process. No excystation occurred in encystation medium even in the presence of cytochalasin D, suggesting that growth medium is essential for excystation. Excystation was further enhanced when the cysts were incubated with cytochalasin D before culture in growth medium with the drug. The enhancing effect of cytochalasin D on the excystation and metacystic development was abrogated by jasplakinolide. Thus, the results indicate that cytochalasin D, unlike latrunculin A and jasplakinolide, caused enhancement of the excystation and metacystic development of this parasite.
    Experimental Parasitology 08/2001; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preparation of stained smears of Entamoeba histolytica has several drawbacks. We therefore tried to simplify the staining procedures by modifing Kohn's chlorazol black E staining and Wheatley's trichrome staining techniques. Trophozoites and cysts of axenically cultured E. histolytica and Entamoeba invadens, respectively, and trophozoites and cysts of E. histolytica in stools of patients were used. Karyosomes and peripheral chromatin of nuclei and chromatoid bodies became distinctly visible after amoebae were suspended in the basic solution of Kohn's stain. Amoebae fixed in suspension with either basic solution or Bouin's fixative were clearly stained with Kohn's and trichrome preparations, both as wet mounts directly and as permanent slides after processing for mounting. These procedures were easier when the basic solution was used as a fixative and trichrome stain was employed. Erythrocytes ingested by trophozoites, however, were not stained with either of these preparations after fixation in the basic solution but were clearly stained when Bouin's fixative was used. Cysts of E. histolytica in stools concentrated using basic solution (instead of formalin) and ether were also stained with these stains. Consequently, without employing highly toxic mercuric chloride, wet mounts and permanent smears can be prepared with permanent stains, and preserved cysts can be stained after concentration.
    Journal of Parasitology 07/2001; 87(3):701-4. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using an axenic encystation system in vitro, we examined the effect of wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), which is a signaling molecule responsible for numerous cellular responses, on the encystation of Entamoeba invadens. Wortmannin inhibited both encystation and growth of E. invadens strain IP-1 in a dose-dependent manner, the former being more resistant to the drug than the latter. There was little decrease in the number of trophozoites after 3 days of culture in encystation medium containing wortmannin; and the cells remained motile, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of the drug on encystation was not due to its toxic effect on trophozoites. The addition of wortmannin after the induction of encystation was also inhibitory for encystation. Trophozoites incubated for 1 day in encystation medium with wortmannin did not encyst after removal of the drug, suggesting that the drug effect was not reversible in encystation medium. In contrast, trophozoites cultured in growth medium with wortmannin did encyst after their transfer to encystation medium without the drug. Encystation with wortmannin was more strongly inhibited among trophozoites grown in the presence of the drug than among those grown in the absence of the drug. The process of cyst maturation was slightly affected by wortmannin. These results suggest a possible role for PI 3-kinase in the signaling involved in the encystation of E. invadens.
    Parasitology Research 06/2001; 87(5):371-5. · 2.85 Impact Factor