[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycoform of mucin 1 (MUC1) in cancerous cells changes markedly with cell differentiation, and thus qualitative detection and verification of the MUC1 glycosylation changes have potential diagnostic value. We have developed an ultrasensitive method to detect the changes in cholangiocarcinoma (CC), which produces MUC1, and applied it in the diagnostics development. The focused glycan analysis using 43-lectin-immobilized microarray could obtain the glycan profiles of sialylated MUC1 in 5 μL of sera. The high-throughput analysis detected disease-specific alterations of glycosylation, and the statistical analysis confirmed that use of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) alone produced a diagnostic score sufficient for discriminating 33 CC cases from 40 hepatolithiasis patients and 48 normal controls (p < 0.0001). The CC-related glycosylation change was verified by the lectin-antibody sandwich ELISA with WFA in two cohorts: (1) 78 Opisthorchis viverrini infected patients without CC and 78 with CC, (2) 33 CC patients and 40 hepatolithiasis patients (the same cohort used for the above lectin microarray). The WFA positivity distinguished patients with CC (opisthorchiasis: p < 0.0001, odds ratio = 1.047; hepatolithiasis: p = 0.0002, odds ratio = 1.018). Sensitive detection of qualitative alterations of sialylated MUC1 glycosylation is indispensable for the development of our glycodiagnostic test for CC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a difficult cancer to diagnose in the early stage and to treat by curative resection. The incidence of CCA in the northeast of Thailand is the highest in the world. To make progress in detecting a high risk group and in the prevention and detection of CCA, we have been analyzing the risk factors for CCA. Although liver fluke infection is known to be a risk factor, there are patients who are not infected with the liver fluke and not all people infected with the liver fluke will suffer from the disease. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to analyze the risk factors and the mechanism to prevent the disease and also to detect the disease in its early stage to save patients' lives. Through collaboration among Thai and Japanese researchers, we analyzed the genetic and environmental determinants of risks for CCA. Also, we have been trying to develop methods to detect the disease in a non-invasive way. Without repeating findings reported in various reviews on CCA, we will first discuss the environmental and genetic determinants of the risks for CCA. Second, we will discuss the properties of CCA, including the etiological agents and the mechanism of cholangiocarcinogenesis, and finally, we will discuss future approaches to prevent and cure CCA from the standpoint of evidence-based medicine. We will discuss these points by including the data from our laboratories. We would like to emphasize the importance of the genetic data, especially whole genome approaches, to understand the properties of CCA, to find a high risk population for CCA and to develop effective preventative methods to stop the carcinogenic steps toward CCA in the near future. In addition, it is of the upmost importance to develop a non-invasive, specific and sensitive method to detect CCA in its early stage for the application of modern medical approaches to help patients with CCA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most serious diseases in northeast Thailand, where its incidence is reported to be the highest in the world. We tried to develop a new method to detect cholangiocarcinoma in the early stages using serum proteins. We found that after fluorescent labeling of the sugar moiety of serum proteins, a new peak was identified, which might be a promising marker for cholangiocarcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Opisthorchis viverrini is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma, not all the infected individuals develop cholangiocarcinoma. We investigated whether the base excision repair enzyme gene polymorphisms with differentiated repair capacities of inflammation-related deoxyribonucleic acid damage may play a key role and such possible effects from those genes may be increased or diminished in co-existence of polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes, including glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 and glutathione-S-transferases θ1.
We genotyped five non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms of three genes, including the human homolog of the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 Ser326Cys, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln and poly (adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase 1 Val762Ala in 87-94 matched case-control pairs, and examined relations between those polymorphisms and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma.
Any single polymorphism did not have a measurable association with the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. However, when considering glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 polymorphism together, the human homolog of the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 codon 326 polymorphism was related to the decreased risk; odds ratios were 1.00 (reference), 0.06 (95% confidence interval 0.01-0.53), 0.06 (0.01-0.54) and 0.14 (0.02-1.08) for persons with human homolog of the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 Ser/Ser and glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 wild, ones with Ser/Ser and glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 null, ones with Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys and glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 wild and ones with Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys and glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 null, respectively (P for interaction <0.01). Further adjustment for the presence of anti-Opisthorchis viverrini antibody, smoking and alcohol drinking did not change the decreased risk. Other combinations of deoxyribonucleic acid-repair gene polymorphism and glutathione-S-transferases were not associated with the risk of cholangiocarcinoma.
The present findings suggested that decreased capacity of deoxyribonucleic acid-repair gene, human homolog of the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1, may be related to decreased risk if much damaged cells die before malignant transformation.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; 43(12). DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyt138 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) associated with Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) chronic infection is the most frequent primary liver cancer in Thailand, and current approaches to early diagnosis and curative treatments are largely disappointing. We hypothesize a role for protein kinase A (PKA) in Ov-induced CCA. First, we studied the PKA isozyme switching in the liver from the hamster CCA model using quantitative (q) PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. Second, the presence of extracellular PKA (ECPKA) in CCA cell lines and their conditioned media was demonstrated by western blot and PKA activity assay. Third, we determined the association between PRKAR1A expression and serum ECPKA autoantibody in patients with CCA by ELISA. We demonstrated that an increased PRKAR1A expression is restricted to the biliary cells starting from week 1, with remarkable up-regulation when CCA has completely developed by week 24. The switching of the PKA regulatory subunit isoforms from PRKAR2B/PKAII to PRKAR1A/PKAI is significantly associated with cholangiocyte proliferation. Further, we observed that human CCA cell lines express PRKAR1A but not PRKAR2B and excrete ECPKA. Finally, ECPKA autoantibodies are detected in serum of patients with CCA, adenocarcinoma, and Ov infection with periductal fibrosis, but not from Ov-infected subjects without periductal fibrosis lesion and healthy controls. We conclude that PKA isozyme switching and the PRKAR1A/PKAI pathway might contribute to the induction of cholangiocyte transformation and proliferation in Ov-induced CCA. Overexpression of PRKAR1A leads to secretion of ECPKA which is associated with serum autoantibody that may constitute a biomarker for human CCA genesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cell of origin of tumors and the factors determining the cell of origin remain unclear. In this study, a mouse model of precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (pre-B ALL/LBL) was established by retroviral transduction of Myc genes (N-Myc or c-Myc) into mouse bone marrow cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibited the highest susceptibility to N-Myc-induced pre-B ALL/LBL versus lymphoid progenitors, myeloid progenitors and committed progenitor B cells. N-Myc was able to induce pre-B ALL/LBL directly from progenitor B cells in the absence of Ink4a and Arf. Arf was expressed higher in progenitor B cells than Ink4a. In addition, N-Myc induced pre-B ALL/LBL from Arf(-/-) progenitor B cells suggesting that Arf has a predominant role in determining the cell of origin of pre-B ALL/LBL. Tumor cells derived from Ink4a/Arf(-/-) progenitor B cells exhibited a higher rate of proliferation and were more chemoresistant than those derived from wild-type HSCs. Furthermore, the Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 restored p53 and induced massive apoptosis in mouse pre-B ALL/LBL cells derived from Ink4a/Arf(-/-) cells and human B-ALL cell lines lacking Ink4a and Arf expression, suggesting that Mdm2 inhibition may be a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of Ink4a/Arf(-/-) B-ALL/LBL, such as is frequently found in Ph(+) ALL and relapsed ALL. Collectively, these findings indicate that Ink4a and Arf are critical determining factors of the cell of origin and the therapeutic sensitivity of Myc-induced lymphoid tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P5, one of the protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) family members, catalyses disulphide bond formation in proteins and exhibits molecular chaperone and calcium binding activities in vitro, whereas its physiological significance remains controversial. Recently, we have reported that P5 localizes not only in the ER but also in mitochondria, although it remains unclear so far about its physiological significance(s) of its dual localization. Here we report that H(2)O(2)- or rotenone-induced cell death is suppressed in MTS-P5 cells, which stably express P5 in mitochondria. H(2)O(2)-induced cell death in Saos-2 cells occurred, in large part, through caspase-independent and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent manner. In MTS-P5 cells challenged with H(2)O(2) treatment, PARP was still activated, whereas release of cytochrome c or apoptosis-inducing factor and intramitochondrial superoxide generation were suppressed. We also found that mitochondrial P5 was in close contact with citrate synthase and maintained large parts of its activity under H(2)O(2) exposure. These results suggest that mitochondrial P5 may upregulate tricarboxylic acid cycle and possibly, other intramitochondrial metabolism.
Journal of Biochemistry 04/2012; 152(1):73-85. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvs034 · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Centrosome amplification (also known as centrosome overduplication) is common in cancer cells and can be induced by DNA damaging agents. However, the mechanism and significance of centrosome amplification during carcinogenesis or after DNA damage are not clear. Previously, we showed that centrosome amplification could be induced by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In this paper, we determined if the effect of 3-AB on centrosome amplification was dependent on DNA damage in CHO-K1 cells. We used the well-known mutagen/carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Ten micromolar MNNG and 10 mM 3-AB induced significant centrosome amplification in 18.1 ± 1.1% and 19.4 ± 1.8% of CHO-K1 cells, respectively, compared to 7.0 ± 0.5% of untreated CHO-K1 cells. AG14361, another potent inhibitor of PARPs, also induced centrosome amplification. We then used γ-H2AX analysis and alkaline comet assays to show that 10 μM MNNG induced a significant number of DNA lesions and cell cycle arrest at the G(2) /M phase. However, 10 mM 3-AB neither induced DNA lesions nor altered cell cycle progression. In the umu test, 10 μM MNNG was mutagenic, but 10 mM 3-AB was not. In addition, 10 μM MNNG induced significant accumulation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein in the nuclei, but 10 mM 3-AB did not. Thus, we found no association between apparent DNA lesions and centrosome amplification after 3-AB treatment. Therefore, we propose the presence of a novel pathway for centrosome amplification that does not necessarily require DNA lesions but involves regulation of epigenetic changes or post-translational modifications including polyADP-ribosylation.
Cancer Science 11/2011; 103(2):191-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2011.02152.x · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxysterols are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol generated by enzymatic reactions mediated by cytochrome P450 family enzymes or by inflammation-associated non-enzymatic reactions. Oxysterol binding proteins (OSBPs) are cytosolic high affinity receptors for oxysterols. We previously found that OSBPL-8 is upregulated in liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini)-induced hamster cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Our aims were to determine the expression patterns of OSBP isoforms in human CCA tissues and to evaluate whether OSBPs could be used as molecular markers for the identification of blood-borne CCA metastasis. Expression levels of OSBP1, OSBP2, OSBPL-7 and OSBPL-8 in CCA tissues were detected using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Expression of OSBPs at mRNA level in the blood of CCA patients was also investigated. We confirmed increased expression of OSBPL-8 in O. viverrini -induced hamster CCA tissues. Moreover, increased expression of OSBP1, OSBP2, OSBPL-7 and OSBPL-8 was seen in human CCA tissues. Notably, a significant increased level of OSBPL-7 mRNA was observed in tumor compared to non-tumor liver tissue. Immunohistochemistry supported the mRNA results, in that OSBPL-7 protein was over-expressed in cancer cells and hepatocytes but not in normal biliary cells and surrounding inflammatory cells. Interestingly, in our preliminary results, significantly higher levels of OSBP2 and OSBPL-7 mRNA were seen in blood samples from CCA patients than in healthy controls. These results suggest that OSBP2 and OSBPL-7 might serve as molecular markers for the identification of CCA metastasis in the bloodstream.
Parasitology International 07/2011; 61(1):136-9. DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2011.07.003 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myristoylated alanine rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) has been implicated in PKC-mediated membrane-cytoskeleton alterations that underlie lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage responses. MARCKS is postulated to be involved in inflammation-associated CCA based on its overexpression in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were to investigate localization patterns of MARCKS in hamster and human tissue during cholangiocarcinogenesis and to examine the involvement of MARCKS in inflammation. MARCKS protein expression was found prominently in inflammatory cells of Opisthorchis viverrini-treated as well as O. viverrini plus N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-treated hamsters from week 2 to week 3 of treatment. The positive signal decreased during week 4 to week 12, then increased again at week 26 when CCA developed. At the last time point the expression of MARCKS was observed in both cancer and inflammatory cells. MARCKS protein expression was also found in inflammatory cells, including macrophages in human CCA tissues. O. viverrini excretory/secretory products or worm antigen induced MARCKS mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human U937 macrophage cell line. The relative mRNA expression of MARCKS in white blood cells of O. viverrini-infected patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P = 0.02). Thus, MARCKS is significantly expressed in macrophages and plays a role in inflammation-related CCA induced by O. viverrini.
Parasitology International 07/2011; 61(1):140-4. DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2011.07.004 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1 alpha (PRKAR1A/PKAI) pathway is overexpressed in varieties of tumors and cancer cell lines including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), although its role in CCA growth modulation is unclear. In our study, we evaluated the effect of PRKAR1A/PKAI targeting on CCA cell proliferation. Real-time PCR demonstrated an increased mRNA expression of PRKAR1A/PKAI, whereas protein kinase A regulatory subunit 2 beta (PRKAR2B/PKAII) was downregulated in human CCA tissues and CCA cell lines. Immunohistochemistry of human CCA tissues revealed increased PRKAR1A with decreased PRKAR2B protein expression. Moreover, CCA cell lines showed abundantly expressed PRKAR1A, while lacking PRKAR2B expression. Silencing PRKAR1A expression induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of CCA cells, with an associated decrease in mitogen-activated protein kinases, PI3K/Akt, JAK/STAT and Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling. The inhibition of PKA using a PKA inhibitor and cAMP analogs also led to a significant cell growth inhibition. In conclusion, our study reports the overexpression as well as molecular mechanisms by which PRKAR1A/PKA regulates human CCA cell growth. Importantly, abrogation of gene expression caused significant CCA cell growth inhibition, oncogenic signaling and coupled apoptosis induction, suggesting PRKAR1A's potential as a drug target for CCA therapy.
International Journal of Cancer 07/2011; 129(1):34-44. DOI:10.1002/ijc.25646 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelo-pathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV-1 is mainly transmitted through blood transfusion and breastfeeding, but viral proliferation in the body in vivo shortly after transmission is not well understood. To investigate whether the route of infection influences the early stages of viral proliferation, we inoculated BALB/c mice with MT-2 cells, an HTLV-1-producing human T-cell line, via different routes, and evaluated the proviral load and humoral immune responses. One month after infection, the provirus was detected in most organs of the mice infected intraperitoneally, and substantial proviral loads were detected in the peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid organs. In contrast, the mice infected intravenously and orally showed low proviral loads, and the provirus distribution was limited to the spinal cord among the intravenously inoculated mice and to the liver among the perorally inoculated mice. Mice infected intraperitoneally also exhibited higher interleukin-2 production than the mice infected intravenously or orally, or than the uninfected control mice, while anti-HTLV-1 antibody titers were comparable between the mice infected intraperitoneally and intravenously. These results demonstrate that the route of primary HTLV-1 infection influences the establishment of HTLV-1-infected cell proliferation and the cell reservoir in mice.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2011; 2(1):89-93. DOI:10.3892/etm.2010.179 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PolyADP-ribosylation plays an essential function in maintenance of genomic stability and cell survival. Although there are several proteins served as acceptor proteins in vitro, there are few proteins in vivo that are identified, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. We have been studying to analyze the mechanism of neuronal cell death observed in poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)-knockout Drosophila melanogaster that shows accumulation of polyADP-ribosylated proteins in the brain. As the first step, we have been trying to isolate the polyADP-ribosylated accepter proteins from the PARG-knockout fly. The strategy is to extract the polyADP-ribosylated proteins and isolate them with affinity chromatography using monoclonal antibody against poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) (10H). The bound fraction was eluted by buffer containing salt. Next, part of eluted fraction is treated with NaOH for separating the proteins from PAR chain. Nontreated fraction and treated fraction were separated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. After protein staining, the specific spots that were newly found after NaOH treatment were candidate acceptor proteins for polyADP-ribosylation in vivo and could be analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We present the procedure to this approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 658–665)
Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a substrate of protein kinase C (PKC) has been suggested to be implicated in cell adhesion, secretion, and motility through the regulation of the actin cytoskeletal structure. The quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that MARCKS is significantly overexpressed in Opisthorchis viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (P = 0.001) in a hamster model, which correlated with the results of mRNA in situ hybridization. An immunohistochemical analysis of 60 CCA patients revealed a significant increase of MARCKS expression. Moreover, the log–rank analysis indicated that CCA patients with a high MARCKS expression have significantly shorter survival times than those with a low MARCKS expression (P = 0.02). This study investigated whether MARCKS overexpression is associated with CCA metastasis. Using a confocal microscopic analysis of CCA cell lines that had been stimulated with the PKC activator, 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), MARCKS was found to be translocated from the plasma membrane to the perinuclear area. In addition, phosphorylated MARCKS (pMARCKS) became highly concentrated in the perinuclear area. Moreover, an adhesion assay demonstrated that the exogenous overexpression of MARCKS remarkably promoted cell attachment. Interestingly, after TPA stimulation, the CCA cell line-depleted MARCKS showed a decrease in migration and invasion activity. It can be concluded that in non-stimulation, MARCKS promotes cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. After TPA stimulation, PKC phosphorylates MARCKS leading to cell migration or invasion. Taken together, the results of this study reveal a prominent role for MARCKS as one of the key players in the migration of CCA cells and suggest that cycling between MARCKS and pMARCKS can regulate the metastasis of biliary cancer cells.
Cancer Science 05/2010; 101(3):658-665. DOI:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01427.x · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in cholangiocarcinoma using small interfering RNA (siRNA).
A human cholangiocarcinoma-derived cell line KKU-M139, which has a naturally high level of endogenous TP, had TP expression transiently knocked down using siRNA. Cell growth, migration, in vitro angiogenesis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity were assayed in TP knockdown and wild-type cell lines.
TP mRNA and protein expression were decreased by 87.1% + or - 0.49% and 72.5% + or - 3.2%, respectively, compared with control cells. Inhibition of TP significantly decreased migration of KKU-M139, and suppressed migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. siRNA also reduced the ability of TP to resist hypoxia-induced apoptosis, while suppression of TP reduced the sensitivity of KKU-M139 to 5-fluorouracil.
Inhibition of TP may be beneficial in decreasing angiogenesis-dependent growth and migration of cholangiocarcinoma but may diminish the response to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2010; 16(13):1631-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver cancer is the most common cancer in males in Thailand and the third in females. A high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is estimated in the northeast of Thailand. Chronic infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) is the major risk factor for development of CCA. It has been demonstrated that HCV infection is a risk factor for CCA in non - endemic area of OV infection. We examined the association of HBV and HCV and risk of CCA in the northeast Thailand. All cases of CCA were recruited between 1999 and 2001 from Nakhon Phanom provincial hospital and all community hospitals in the province. One control per case was selected, matched by sex, age (∓5 years) and residence. 106 case-control pairs were obtained. Anti-OV, HBsAg, and Anti HCV were determined by ELISA. Among 103 age-sex-place of residence matched case-control pairs, there were 7, 0, 0, 96 pairs for anti-HCV (+) case vs. (-) control, (+) case vs. (+) control, (-) case vs. (+) control and (-) case vs. (-) control combinations (OR=7/0). Among 106 matched pairs, there were 9, 2, 4, 91 pairs for the similar four combinations of HBsAg (OR=2.25 (95%CI: 0.63-10.0). If the subject had anti-HCV and/or HBsAg, the OR for CCA was 4.00 (95%CI: 1.29-16.4). Even after adjustment for anti-OV, risk for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV positive was still marginally increased with an OR of 4.69 although not reaching statistical significance (95%CI: 0.98-22.5). Hepatitis B and C virus infection may also play role in the development of CCA in northeast Thailand.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2010; 11(4):985-8. · 2.51 Impact Factor