Masahiko Okudaira

Kitasato University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (76)88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The data on visceral mycoses reported in the " Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan " were analyzed epidemiologically every four years from 1989 to 2005, and in 2007. The frequency rates of visceral mycoses dropped sharply between 1989 (4.5%) and 1994 (3.2%), but by 2001 had risen again and have remained (4.4-4.6%) generally stable since then. The predominant causative agents were Candida and Aspergillus. Although the rate of candidosis showed a gradual decrease, the rate of aspergillosis showed an increase by degrees. Furthermore, the rate of aspergillosis exceeded that of candidosis in 1994, and the difference in the rates between the two conditions apparently further increased until 2001. After 2005, however no changes in this difference were observed. For complicated infections, the incidence of coinfection with Aspergillus and Candida showed a decreasing, and that with Aspergillus and Zygomycetes showed an increasing tendency. Severe infections with Zygomycetes showed a clear increase from 57.4% in 1989 to 88.9% in 2007. Comparing underlying diseases with mycoses in 1989 and 2007, leukemia (including myelodysplastic syndrome) decreased from 26.1% to 18.8% and bacterial infections (including interstitial pneumonia) increased from 11.1% to 22.1%. By age, the highest frequency rate of mycoses was observed in the range of 60-79 years, and the frequency rate of exogenous fungal infections such as aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, zygomycosis and trichosporonosis showed an increasing trend in the less than one-year old group.
    Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 01/2011; 52(2):117-27. DOI:10.3314/jjmm.52.117
  • Shoji Nishiyama, Masahiko Okudaira, Noboru Saito
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to elucidate the mechanisms behind an increase in the incidence of malignant or multiple mammary tumors as a result of oral administration of rolipram in a 104-week carcinogenicity study. The organs and tissues of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of both sexes, which had been subjected to a 104-week oral carcinogenicity study at doses of 0.2, 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg, were examined. No treatment-related effects were seen in males; however, in females, there was a significant increase in the number of malignant or multiple mammary tumor bearers at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg. No other target organs were identified and the incidence of other tumor types were within the female control range. To clarify the mechanisms behind a rolipram-induced increase in the incidence of mammary adenocarcinoma at time points earlier than 104 weeks, the hormonal changes associated with pituitary adenoma were identified, and estrous cycling in the ovary, uterus, and vagina were examined in female rats treated with rolipram for 52 weeks. The plasma prolactin (PRL) concentration in all female groups exceeded the control value at Week 52, and all these differences were statistically significant. There was also a dose-dependent relationship with PRL-producing pituitary adenomas. Changes in estrous cycling in the uterus and vagina and a decrease in the size and number of corpora lutea in the ovaries of female rats treated with rolipram at 2.0 mg/kg for 52 weeks indicated that an increase in the estrus phase of the cycle corresponded to a marked decrease in the diestrus phase, which might result from the increased plasma estrogen concentration. Together, all of the above mentioned data suggest that rolipram not only stimulates an increase in the number and size of PRL adenomas in the pituitary gland but also in the estrus phase of the estrous cycle. These events might cause progression of the mammary gland tissues from hyperplasia to carcinoma.
    Archive für Toxikologie 03/2006; 80(2):88-97. DOI:10.1007/s00204-005-0016-6 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the changes of visceral mycoses in autopsy cases, data on visceral mycosis cases with leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) reported in the Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan in 1989, 1993, 1997 and 2001 were analyzed. The frequency rate of visceral mycoses with leukemia and MDS was 27.9% (435/1,557) in 1989, 23.0% (319/1,388) in 1993, 22.3% (246/1,105) in 1997 and 25.1% (260/ 1,037) in 2001, which was clearly higher than the rate of cases without leukemia and MDS: 3.4%, 2.7%, 3.5% and 3.7%, respectively. Furthermore, in comparing the rate of mycoses in recipients of stem cell transplantation with that of non-recipients, that of recipients was about 10% higher. The predominant causative agents were Candida and Aspergillus, at approximately the same rate (Candida 33.6%, Aspergillus 33.3%) as in 1989. However, Aspergillus increased conspicuously in 1993 (Candida 22.3% Aspergillus 44.5%), and continued to increase (Candida 22.8%, Aspergillus 50.8% in 1997; Candida 16.9%, Aspergillus 54.2% in 2001). In aspergillosis and zygomycosis, the lung and bronchi comprised the most commonly infected organs: 74.7% and 75.6% of the total cases, respectively. Among a total of 1,260 cases with mycotic infections in the four years studied, acute lymphatic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia were the major diseases (35.5% and 33.5%, respectively) followed by MDS (29.0%). Given these facts, we emphasize that a greater interest in mycoses should be taken by clinicians, and immunocompromised patients should be protected from opportunistic invasive fungal infections, especially aspergillosis.
    Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 02/2006; 47(1):15-24. DOI:10.3314/jjmm.47.15
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    ABSTRACT: In an attempt to provide a quantitative basis for differentiation between well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinomalike lesions (focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerative nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma), histopathological and morphometrical analyses were performed on 208 cases of various liver diseases with the aid of an image analyzer. As practical indicators for hepatocellular carcinoma, the following six morphometrical features were established: (a) nuclear shape factor of less than 0.93, (b) coefficient of variance of nuclei of more than 5%, (c) average width of trabecular cords greater than three cells, (d) nucleocytoplasmic ratio increased to more than 0.3, (e) cellular density of more than 40 liver cells and (f) individual nuclear dimension larger than 50 μm2. The manifest categories increased with dedifferentiation of cells in hepatocellular carcinoma; the number and degree of cellular and structural atypia became more prominent. Data were analyzed statistically by two multivariate analyses. Logistic analysis was able to correctly separate hepatocellular carcinoma from conditions that were not hepatocellular carcinoma, including hepatocellular carcinomalike lesions. The incidence of 13 descriptive histopathological findings such as fibrous capsule, portal triads and clear-cell clusters were also compared in hepatocellular carcinomalike lesions and hepatocellular carcinomas graded according to Edmondson's classification. Presence of a fibrous capsule, portal triads, mosaiclike patterns and tumor vessels showed statistical differences between hepatocellular carcinomalike lesions and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma by the χ2 test (p < 0.005). (HEPATOLOGY 1992;16:118–126.)
    Hepatology 12/2005; 16(1):118 - 126. DOI:10.1002/hep.1840160120 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the relationship between the changes in visceral mycoses rates and recently advanced medical care in hematological settings, data on visceral mycosis cases with leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) that had been reported in the Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan in 1989, 1993 and 1997 were analyzed. The frequency rate of visceral mycoses with leukemia and MDS was 27.9% (435/1557) in 1989, 23.0% (319/1388) in 1993 and 22.3% (246/1105) in 1997. In comparing the rate of mycoses in recipients of organ or bone marrow transplantation with that of non-recipients, that of recipients was approximately 10% higher. The predominant causative agents were Candida and Aspergillus, at approximately the same rate as in 1989. The rate of candidosis decreased to one-half that of aspergillosis by 1993. Furthermore, severe mycotic infections clearly increased from 58.9% in 1989 to 75.6% in 1997. Among a total of 1000 cases with mycotic infection in those 3 years, acute lymphatic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia were the major diseases (40.6% and 34.8%, respectively), followed by MDS (26.1%). The reasons for increased rates of aspergillosis and of severe mycotic infection can be surmised to be: (i) candidosis had become controllable by prophylaxis and by empiric therapy for mycoses with effective antifungal drugs; (ii) the marketed antifungal drugs were not sufficiently effective against severe infections or Aspergillus infections; and (iii) the number of patients surviving in an immunocompromised state had increased due to developments in chemotherapy and progress in medical care.
    Pathology International 12/2003; 53(11):744-50. DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1827.2003.01548.x · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium is known to be a potent carcinogenic and mutagenic metal. However, we demonstrated that dietary supplementation with 50 ppm cadmium inhibits spontaneous carcinogenesis in C3H/HeN and spontaneous hepatitis in A/J mice. We found that the frequencies of spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis in C3H/HeN mice and of spontaneous hepatitis in A/J mice fed low-dose cadmium for 54 weeks were significantly lower than those in the respective control groups. A cadmium-induced increase in metallothionein production itself and/or metallothionein-associated increases in hepatic zinc concentrations may be involved in the observed preventive effects of cadmium. Our results suggest that low doses of cadmium in the diet or environment may play a beneficial role in the prevention of hepatic disease in humans and animals.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 02/2003; 186(1):1-6. DOI:10.1016/S0041-008X(02)00029-7 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    Masahiko Okudaira, Makoto Ohbu, Kunio Okuda
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) is a disorder of unknown etiology, clinically characterized by portal hypertension (varices and portosystemic collateral vessels), splenomegaly, and anemia (hypersplenism). A similar disorder is called noncirrhotic portal fibrosis in India, and hepatoportal sclerosis seems to be the counterpart in the United States. This disease is uncommon in developed countries. Middle-aged women are more prone to IPH in Japan. The liver has no cirrhosis or pseudonodule formation, and the principal pathologic changes are considerable portal fibrosis, devastation of intrahepatic terminal portal radicles, and parenchymal atrophy of the liver secondary to portal malperfusion. The characteristic portal hemodynamics include intrahepatic presinusoidal portal hypertension, increased splenic and portal vein blood flow, and increased intrahepatic portal resistance. The prognosis is generally good depending on the management of bleeding varices. Although the etiology is obscure, certain immunologic abnormalities seem to play an etiologic role in Japanese patients, and the incidence has markedly declined in recent years in Japan, indirectly suggesting a role of infection. The theory that IPH represents an undiagnosed intrahepatic portal vein thrombosis is refuted.
    Seminars in Liver Disease 03/2002; 22(1):59-72. DOI:10.1055/s-2002-23207 · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare Research Committee on Aberrant Portal Blood Flow carried out an epidemiological survey and clinical study on Budd-Chiari syndrome in 1990. In the primary survey for determining the prevalence of the disease, a questionnaire was sent to all major hospitals throughout Japan and 160 cases seen in 1989 were compiled. More epidemiological details were obtained in 87 of these 160 cases. The number of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome in this country was estimated to be about 300 (prevalence of 2.4/million) with about 20 new cases occurring every year. In the clinical study, 157 authentic cases of Budd-Chiari syndrome studied in 15 years (1975-89) were analyzed. There were 87 males (average age, 36.4 years) and 70 females (46.5 years), and the average period from the likely onset to the first medical consultation was 6.6 years, suggesting that these patients were mostly chronic cases. The main clinical features were hepatomegaly, leg edema, ascites and venous dilatation over the trunk. Abdominal pain was recorded in only four (2.5%). There were 16 (10.2%) with known identifiable etiologies. Of the patients 93% showed an obstructing lesion of various thickness in the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava. Only nine (5.7%) had hepatic vein obstruction without caval lesions. Thus, the majority of Budd-Chiari syndrome patients in Japan are idiopathic, having an obstructing lesion in the inferior vena cava. The main causes of 33 deaths (21%) were liver failure, variceal bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurred in 10 (6.4%) in the 15-year period. However, the incidence of Budd-Chiari syndrome among all cases of hepatocellular carcinoma was less than 1% in the survey made by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan.
    Journal of Hepatology 02/1995; 22(1):1-9. DOI:10.1016/0168-8278(95)80252-5 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant vessels, which are defined as dilated blood vessels immediately adjacent to the peripheral portal tract, appear under conditions of extrahepatic portal obstruction and nodular regenerative hyperplasia as well as idiopathic portal hypertension. Our study was undertaken to compare their morphological aspects in these three disease cases. Aberrant vessels were found in 84% of cases of idiopathic portal hypertension, 67% of cases of extrahepatic portal obstruction infantile type, 78% of cases of extrahepatic portal obstruction adult type and 83% of cases of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. They were divided into three types: type I--no communication with the portal vein, the lumen of which is normally open; type II--communication with the portal vein; and type III--no communication with the portal vein, which is occluded. The most common types of aberrant vessel were type III in idiopathic portal hypertension (51%), type I in extrahepatic portal obstruction infantile type (46%), type II in extrahepatic portal obstruction adult type (43%) and type III in nodular regenerative hyperplasia (45%). Serial sections revealed transition between types I, II and III, at frequencies between types II and III, types I and II, and types I and III of 35.7%, 33.7% and 30.6%, respectively. Aberrant vessels demonstrated the same immunoreactivity as portal veins for collagen type IV, laminin, factor VIII and ulex europaeus agglutinin-I. They were concluded to arise from the vasa septalis or inlet venules, which would be used as intrahepatic shunts draining portal blood flow blocked by stenosed portal veins. Increased portal pressure would be expected to enhance development of aberrant vessels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Hepatology 08/1994; 20(2):302-8. DOI:10.1002/hep.1840200206 · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • M Okudaira, E Atari, M Oubu
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    ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis of the liver is a principally a morphological entity, and it has been assumed to be an end-stage condition of all chronic active liver diseases. Morphologically, liver cirrhosis can be defined briefly as "a pathological condition characterized by diffuse pseudonodule formation throughout the entire liver". Fundamental pathogenetic changes in the cirrhotic process are hepatic necrosis, increase of connective tissue and regeneration of hepatocytes. For the sake of convenience, liver cirrhosis is classified into two groups; common and specific types. The former included postnecrotic, posthepatitic, alcoholic and mixed types of cirrhosis, and congestive, biliary, parasitic cirrhosis and Wilson disease were grouped into the latter. It should be mentioned that morphological diagnostic criteria is much more rigid for the common types than those of the specific type. Special stress has been laid on the importance of structural changes not only in the parenchymal disorganizations, but also in the stromal vascular changes in the cirrhotic process.
    Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 02/1994; 52(1):5-10.
  • Makoto Saegusa, Yasuo Takano, Masahiko Okudaira
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty hepatic infarction cases selected from 5420 consecutive autopsy cases were investigated to clarify the pathogenetic aspects of this disease. Additional postmortem angiological studies of 24 normal human livers obtained at autopsy were also further performed to analyse the effects of blocking vascular structures on lesion development. Seventeen of the 20 cases (85%) were clinically associated with systemic circulatory insufficiency, especially hepato- and/or renal failure. Histopathologically, there was a significantly closer relationship between the location of infarcted regions and portal vein thrombosis than with either hepatic vein thrombosis or hepatic arterial damage. The borders between infarcted regions and surviving hepatic parenchyma were located around central veins, corresponding with the microcirculatory periphery of the portal venous system. Postmortem angiographic studies revealed that hepatic lobuli mainly consist of portal vein branches. Moreover, postmortem embolization studies of six normal livers using glass beads and barium-gelatin injection showed that physical occlusion of portal vein branches produced defects in broad areas of the hepatic parenchyma. Therefore, it is suggested that the development of hepatic infarction principally depends on disturbances of the portal venous system. In addition, systemic circulatory insufficiency, which reduces the intrahepatic blood flow, probably contributes greatly to the development of hepatic infarction.
    Liver International 11/1993; 13(5):239-45. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0676.1993.tb00638.x
  • Y Takano, M Okudaira, B V Harmon
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of the microtubule disrupting drugs (MDD) vinblastine, vincristine and colchicine on a human lymphoma cell line, BM 13674, were investigated. Twelve hours after administration of vinblastine (10(-3) mg/ml), vincristine (10(-2) mg/ml) or colchicine (10(-2) mg/ml), cell death with the characteristic morphology of apoptosis was observed in 71.6%, 82.2% and 76.9% of the cells respectively. The mode of death was confirmed as apoptotic by the occurrence of internucleosomal DNA cleavage, which was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis. For the purpose of casting light on the mechanism involved, inhibition tests were performed on apoptosis induced by one of these drugs, vinblastine, using a phorbol ester (PDBu), zinc sulphate and cycloheximide. PDBu, an activator of protein kinase C, and zinc sulphate, a putative inhibitor of the endonuclease were thought to be responsible for internucleosomal DNA cleavage; both markedly reduced the induction of apoptosis. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, on the other hand, had no inhibitory effect. Moreover, cycloheximide treatment per se enhanced apoptosis. This suggests that new protein synthesis is not required for the execution of vinblastine-induced apoptosis. Such a finding is in accord with recent reports suggesting that the "death program" within many cell types may be primed but unable to proceed due to concomitant production of specific "apoptotic inhibitors". It is suggested that phorbol esters prevent vinblastine-induced apoptosis in the BM 13674 cells by activating one or more of these specific "apoptotic inhibitors", possibly by means of PKC-mediated phosphorylation.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 04/1993; 189(2):197-203. DOI:10.1016/S0344-0338(11)80092-0 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • T Suzuki, Y Takano, A Kakita, M Okudaira
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-three cases of gallbladder cancer were investigated for c-erbB-2 gene amplification and c-erbB-2 protein over-expression using a combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical approach. Thirty out of 43 cases (69.6%) demonstrated c-erbB-2 gene amplification, the positive rates being 50% and 77.4% for twelve early cancers and thirty-one advanced cancers, respectively (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant correlation between c-erbB-2 gene amplification and histologic grade of differentiation or lymph node metastasis. Fourteen out of 43 cases (32.6%) showed positive immunoreactivity reflecting c-erbB-2 protein over-expression but again no statistically significant correlation was found with grade of differentiation, invasion or lymph node metastasis. Neither the c-erbB-2 gene nor the protein revealed any close relation to prognosis. In contrast, histopathologic findings for histologic grade of differentiation, invasion grade and lymph node metastasis showed good correlations to prognosis and between themselves. In conclusion, while c-erbB-2 gene and protein in gallbladder cancers might be related to invasiveness, they are not applicable as predictive factors for prognosis.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 04/1993; 189(3):283-92. DOI:10.1016/S0344-0338(11)80511-X · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of p53 and c-myc was investigated and compared with cell proliferative activity in a series of 40 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), by means of enhanced immunohistochemistry. p53 expression was demonstrated in 5 out of 40 HCC (12.5%) with the incidence increasing in 5 out of 40 HCC (12.5%) with the incidence increasing in proportion to the histological grading of malignancy: thus, 0% of well-differentiated, 6.9% of moderately differentiated and 33.3% of poorly differentiated lesions were positive. The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index also showed a statistically significant increase with this grading. Distribution patterns of PCNA-positive cell were divided into four types: scatter, marginal, mosaic and diffuse. Four HCC cases, predominantly of the poorly differentiated type, exhibited the diffuse pattern. Generally, p53 overexpression corresponded well with PCNA positivity. In contrast, there was no correlation between c-myc overexpression, found in 19 out of 40 HCC (47.5%), and histological grading of HCC or PCNA labeling index. The distribution pattern of c-myc-positive HCC cells was also different from that of PCNA and p53. Our results suggest that p53 overexpression closely relates to proliferation of HCC cells. Furthermore, there may be a consistent difference in regulatory mechanisms between p53 and c-myc expression in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 02/1993; 119(12):737-44. DOI:10.1007/BF01195346 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eight secondary malignancies developing after renal transplantation were investigated in terms of a possible role of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In five cases, four gastric cancers and one colonic cancer, the presence of EBV was proven by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), all four gastric lesions being confirmed to have a massive EBV infection by in situ hybridization. Two cases demonstrated monoclonal infection with EBV, as indicated by a single band of the lymphocyte-defined membrane antigen tandem-repeat gene using PCR, and were immunohistochemically positive for the latent membrane protein 1. Our series suggests that gastrointestinal cancer predominates as a secondary malignancy in states of induced severe immunosuppression, and that EBV may play an important role in tumorigenesis as an oncovirus.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 02/1993; 119(10):627-9. DOI:10.1007/BF01372727 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of a visceral mycosis grows definitely higher with an immunocompromised host. Invasive fungal infection can be controlled by means of development of early diagnosis and antifungal therapy. In these types of cases, it is difficult to establish an antemortem diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and most of them were diagnosed postmortem. A patient was diagnosed as aspergillosis from the clinical and serological features. This patient underwent successful therapy during remission induction therapy of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). A 26-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of leukocytosis with a diagnosis of AML made by reviewing peripheral blood smears and bone marrow aspirate. After remission induction therapy, he was still febrile in spite of treatment with a broad spectrum antibiotics and empiric therapy of fluconazole. Unfortunately shadowing appeared on the chest radiograph and aspergillus antigen was detected from the serum and the sputum. Consequently, the patient who suffered from invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed and treated with intravenous amphotericin B and flucytosine. The radiological shadow improved but AML relapsed, therefore, remission induction therapy of AML was started again but he died of sepsis caused MRSA. In the postmortem histopathological examination the lung tissues, the hyphae could not be confirmed while, in immunohistochemical examinations of the lesion at the left S8, aspergillus antigens were detected around the small necrotic lesions and in the polymorphologic giant cells. We emphasize that invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is very difficult to diagnose whereas active examinations and clinical early diagnosis may lead to more effective therapy and the prognosis.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 02/1993; 67(1):85-91. DOI:10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.67.85
  • Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 01/1993; 34(3):265-273. DOI:10.3314/jjmm.34.265
  • Y Takano, Y Kato, Y Sato, M Okudaira
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    ABSTRACT: Clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain gene rearrangement in gastric reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) cases was investigated by means of the 'double' polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Rearranged DNA sequences, formed by combinations of variable (VH) and joining (JH) regions, were amplified with oligomeric primers. One microgram of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue was applied as the 'first PCR' template and one ten-thousandth of the first PCR product was used as the 'second PCR' template. As a control study for the double PCR method, DNA isolated from frank B cell gastric malignant lymphomas was assessed. Clear single bands between 100 and 150 base pair markers in length were evident on agarose gel electrophoresis in 10 out of 13 cases (76.9%) of malignant lymphomas while 2 out of 22 cases (9%) of RLHs revealed clear single bands of the same length, suggesting malignant lymphomas; however, no histologic features of malignant lymphomas were present. It is concluded that even gastric RLH cases satisfying histopathologic criteria for benign lymphoid hyperplasia may contain occult monoclonal B cell populations suggesting a continuous and progressive spectrum of lesions contributing to B cell neoplasia.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 01/1993; 188(8):973-80. DOI:10.1016/S0344-0338(11)81240-9 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silver-binding nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) were investigated and compared in 43 cases of gall-bladder cancers and 10 normal gall-bladder samples using an image analyzer. The mean numbers of AgNOR per nucleus (AgNOR number) were 3.28 ± 1.38 in the gall-bladder cancers and 1.86±0.20 in the normal gall-bladder cases. The respective mean areas of AgNOR per nucleus (AgNOR area) were 6.96±3.78 μm2 and 1.89±0.21 μm2. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.0001) for both parameters. In addition, increased frequency and enlargement were both apparently correlated with poor prognosis (P<0.011 and P < 0.046, respectively), with AgNOR number and AgNOR area showing tendencies for increase in cases of histologi-cally high grade malignancy, advanced cancer and regional lymph node involvement.In conclusion, AgNOR number and AgNOR area appear to be useful indicators for the grading of malignancies and for the prediction of gall-bladder cancer prognosis.
    Pathology International 12/1992; 43(1‐2):36 - 43. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1827.1993.tb02912.x · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology 12/1992; 89(11):2700-4.