[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Considered an epicenter of pandemic influenza virus generation, southern China has recently seen an increasing number of human H7N9 infections. However, it is not the only threat. On 30 November 2013, a human H10N8 infection case was first described in China. The origin and genetic diversity of this novel virus is similar to that of H7N9 virus. As H10N8 avian influenza virus (AIV) was first identified from a duck in Guangdong Province during 2012 and there is also evidence of H10N8 infected dogs in this region, we sought to examine archived sera from animal workers to see if there was evidence of subclinical human infections before the first human H10N8 cases.Methods
We studied archived serum samples (cross-sectional study, convenience sample) collected between May and September 2013 from 710 animal workers and 107 non-animal exposed volunteers living in five cities of Guangdong Province. Study participants¿ sera were tested by horse red blood cells (RBCs) hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays according to World Health Organization guidelines. The A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346-1/2013(H10N8) virus was used. Sera which have an HI assay ¿1:20 were further tested with the MN assay. Questionnaire data were examined for risk factor associations with positive serological assays. Risk factor analyses failed to identify specific factors associated with probable H10N8 infections.ResultsAmong the 827 sera, only 21 animal workers had an HI titer ¿1:20 (18 had an HI titer of 1:20 and 3 had an HI titer of 1:40). None of these 21 subjects reported experiencing any influenza symptoms during the three months before enrollment. Among the three subjects with HI titers of 1:40, two had MN antibody titers of 1:40, and one had a MN antibody titer of 1:80 (probable H10N8 infections).Conclusions
Study data suggest that animal workers may have been infected with the H10N8 virus before the first recognized H10N8 human infection cases. It seems prudent to continue surveillance for H10N8 viruses among animal workers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retroviral integrase plays an essential role in the integration of reverse-transcribed retroviral cDNA into the host cell genome, and serves as an important target for anti-viral therapeutics. In this study, we identified the COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) as a novel avian leukosis virus (ALV) integrase binding protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays showed that CSN6 bound to ALV integrase likely through direct interaction of CSN6 to the catalytic core of the integrase. We further demonstrated CSN6 inhibited integrase activity in vitro; knockdown of CSN6 in DF-1 promoted ALV production. These results indicated that CSN6 may be a negative regulator of ALV replication by binding to and inhibiting integrase. Our findings provided the insight into the integrase-based host defense system and may have implications in the development of integrase-based anti-viral strategies.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The H9N2 avian influenza virus is a pandemic threat which has repeatedly caused infection in humans and shows enhanced replication and transmission in mice. Previous reports showed that host factors, the interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein, can block the replication of pathogens and affect their pathogenesis. BALB/c mice are routine laboratory animals used in influenza virus research, but the effects of H9N2 influenza virus on tissue distribution and expression pattern of IFITM in these mice are unknown. Here, we investigated the expression patterns and tissue distribution of IFITM1 and IFITM3 in BALB/c mice by infection with H9N2 AIV strains with only a PB2 residue 627 difference. The results showed that the expression patterns of ITITM1 and IFITM3 differ in various tissues of BALB/c mice at different time points after infection. IFITM1 and IFITM3 showed cell- and tissue-specific distribution in the lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Notably, the epithelial and neuronal cells all expressed the proteins of IFITM1 and IFITM3. Our results provide the first look at differences in IFITM1 and IFITM3 expression patterns in BALB/c mice infected by H9N2 influenza viruses. This will enhance research on the interaction between AIV and host and further will elucidate the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection based on the interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is an important intracellular receptor that recognizes long molecules of viral double-stranded RNA in innate immunity. To understand the mechanism of duck MDA5-mediated innate immunity, we cloned the MDA5 cDNA from the Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicates that duck MDA5 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all sampled tissues. A significant increase of MDA5 mRNA was detected in the brain, spleen and lungs of ducks after infection with an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). We investigated the role of the predicted functional domains of MDA5. The results indicate the caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) of duck MDA5 had a signal transmission function through IRF-7-dependent signaling pathway. Overexpression of the CARD strongly activated the chicken IFN-beta promoter and upregulated the mRNA expression of antiviral molecules (such as OAS, PKR and Mx), proinflammatory cytokines (such as IL-2, IL-6, IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma, but not IL-1beta and IL-8) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR) (RIG-I and LGP2) without exogenous stimulation. We also demonstrate the NS1 of the H5N1 HPAIV inhibited the duck MDA5-mediated signaling pathway in vitro. These results suggest that duck MDA5 is an important receptor for inducing antiviral activity in the host immune response of ducks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suspected cases of hemorrhagic enteritis associated with Hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) are becoming more frequent among yellow chickens in the Guangdong Province of China. In this study, we have developed a one-step, ecumenical, real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay for the rapid diagnosis of HEV. The RealAmp assay was performed at 63°C and reduced the assay time to 15min, using a simple and portable device, the ESE-Quant Tube Scanner. The detection limit of DNA was 1 fg/μl, and the detection was specific only to HEV. We also used nested PCR to evaluate the application of the RealAmp assay. The coincidence rate of the two methods was 100%. Our data indicated that the RealAmp assay provides a sensitive, specific, and user-friendly diagnostic tool for the identification and quantification of HEV for field diagnosis and in laboratory research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis infection is responsible for important economic losses to the pig industry. The increasing emergence of resistance to multiple antibiotics is of concern and to study the role of the acrRAB operon in H. parasuis drug resistance, acrB or acrR mutants were generated from H. parasuis serovar 4 clinical strains. The susceptibilities of the clinical strains and their acrB/acrR mutants to a number of antibiotics were determined. The acrB mutants were more susceptible to novobiocin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. In the acrR mutant of H. parasuis, acrB was up-regulated, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The results of this study indicated that the efflux pump AcrB may play a role in multidrug resistance of H. parasuis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biofilms are surface-associated microbial communities, which are encased in self-synthesized extracellular environment. Biofilm formation may trigger drug resistance and inflammation, resulting in persistent infections. Haemophilus parasuis is the aetiological agent of a systemic disease, Glässer's disease, characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis and meningitis in pigs. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between biofilm and antibiotic resistance among the clinical isolates of H. parasuis. In the present study, we tested biofilm-forming ability of 110 H. parasuis isolates from various farms using polystyrene microtiter plate assays. Seventy-three isolates of H. parasuis (66.4%) showed biofilm formation and most of them performed weak biofilm-forming ability (38/73). All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents by the broth microdilution method. H. parasuis isolates showed very high resistance (>90%) to sulfanilamide, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim. Resistance to eight antibiotics such as penicillin (41.1% vs. 8.1%), ampicillin (31.5% vs 8.1%), amoxicillin (28.8% vs 5.4%), gentamicin (46.6% vs 24.3%), cefazolin (19.2% vs 2.7%), doxycycline (19.2% vs 8.1%), cefotaxime (11% vs 2.7%), and cefaclor (13.7% vs 5.4%) was comparatively higher among biofilm producers than non-biofilm producers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses could distinguish various isolates. Our data indicated that H. parasuis field isolates were able to form biofilms in vitro. In addition, biofilm positive strains had positive correlation with resistance to β-lactams antibiotics. Thus, biofilm formation may play important roles during H. parasuis infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The integration of retroviruses into the host genome following nonrandom genome-wide patterns may lead to the deregulation of gene expression and oncogene activation near the integration sites. Slow-transforming retroviruses have been widely used to perform genetic screens for the identification of genes involved in cancer. To investigate the involvement of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) integration in myeloid leukosis (ML) in chickens, we utilized an ALV-J insertional identification platform based on hybrid-capture target enrichment and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Using high-definition mapping of the viral integration sites in the chicken genome, 241 unique insertion sites were obtained from six different ALV-J-induced ML samples. On the basis of previous statistical definitions, MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 genes were identified as common insertion sites (CIS) of provirus integration in tumor cells; these three genes have previously been shown to be involved in the malignant transformation of different human cell types. Compared to control samples, the expression levels of all three CIS genes were significantly up-regulated in chicken ML samples. Furthermore, they were frequently, but not in all field ML cases, deregulated at the mRNA level as a result of ALV-J infection. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the relationship between multi-pathotypes associated with ALV-J infection and the molecular background of tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is associated with production inefficiencies in domestic fowl, and causes massive economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Progress has been made in designing novel and efficient candidate vaccines to control IBV infection. BacMam virus, a modified baculovirus mediating transgene expression under the control of a mammalian promoter, has emerged as a versatile and safe vector during vaccine development. In previous work, we generated the BacMam virus Ac-CMV-S1, which expressed the S1 glycoprotein of IBV-M41. We showed that Ac-CMV-S1 induced excellent cellular immunity, but did not confer adequate protection in chickens compared with the conventional inactivated vaccine. In the current study, we generated an improved BacMam virus, BV-Dual-S1. This virus displayed the S1 glycoprotein on the baculovirus envelope, and was capable of expressing it in mammalian cells. BV-Dual-S1 elicited stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and showed greater capacity for induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, compared with Ac-CMV-S1 in specific pathogen-free chickens. A significant difference was not observed for protection rates between chickens immunized with BV-Dual-S1 (83%) or inactivated vaccine (89%) following challenge with virulent IBV-M41. Our findings show that the protective efficacy of BV-Dual-S1 could be significantly enhanced by baculovirus display technology. BacMam virus-based surface display strategies could serve as effective tools in designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy plays an important role in cellular responses to pathogens. However, the impact of the autophagy machinery on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection is not yet confirmed. In this study, we showed that CSFV infection significantly increases the number of autophagy-like vesicles in the cytoplasm of host cells at the ultrastructural level. We also found the formation of two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems upon virus infection, including LC3-I/LC3-II conversion and ATG12-ATG5 conjugation, which are considered important indicators of autophagy. Meanwhile, high expression of ATG5 and BECN1 was detected in CSFV-infected cells; conversely, degradation of SQSTM1 was observed by immunoblotting, suggesting that CSFV infection triggered a complete autophagic response, most likely by the NS5A protein. Furthermore, by confocal immunofluorescence analysis, we discovered that both envelope protein E2 and nonstructural protein NS5A colocalized with LC3 and CD63 during CSFV infection. Examination by immunoelectron microscopy further confirmed the colocalization of both E2 and NS5A proteins with autophagosome-like vesicles, indicating that CSFV utilizes the membranes of these vesicles for replication. Finally, we demonstrated that alteration of cellular autophagy by autophagy regulators and shRNAs affects progeny virus production. Collectively, these findings provide strong evidence that CSFV infection needs an autophagy pathway to enhance viral replication and maturity in host cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an emerging swine disease that causes progressive weight loss, dyspnea, tachypnea, anemia, jaundice, and diarrhea in piglets. Although baculovirus is an enveloped virus that infects insects in nature, it has emerged as a vaccine vector, and we used it to develop a novel candidate vaccine for a preventive or therapeutic strategy to control PCV2 infections.
Immunoblotting analysis of recombinant baculovirus and immunofluorescent staining of baculovirus-infected cells were followed using anti-ORF2 monoclonal antibodies. The BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with this baculovirus. The titers of antibodies were mensurated with a Cap-protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a serum neutralization assay. The IFN-[unknown] response in splenocytes harvested from immunized mice was measured by ELISA. Student's t-test was used to compare immune responses of different groups.
In this study, we successfully constructed a dual-expression-system-based recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2, which can display the PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein and VSV-G protein on the viral envelope and also expressing Cap protein on transduced mammalian cells, thereby functioning as both a subunit and a DNA vaccine. After infection, the Cap protein was expressed and displayed on the viral surface, as demonstrated with an indirect fluorescence assay and immunoblotting. The vaccination of mice with recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2 successfully induced robust Cap-protein-specific humoral and cellular immune responses.
Our findings collectively demonstrate that the recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2 is a potential vaccine against PCV2 infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we selected three H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (clades 0), A/Duck/Guangdong/E35/2012 (clade 188.8.131.52) and A/Chicken/Henan/B30/2012 (clade 7.2) isolated from different birds in China, to investigate the pathogenicity and transmission of the viruses in terrestrial birds and waterfowl. To observe the replication and shedding of the H5N1 HPAIVs in birds, the chickens were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) EID50 of GSGD/1/96, 10(3) EID50 of DkE35 and CkB30, and the ducks and geese were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) EID50 of each virus. Meanwhile, the naive contact groups were set up to detect the transmission of the viruses in tested birds. Our results showed that DkE35 was highly pathogenic to chickens and geese, but not fatal to ducks. It could be detected from all the tested organs, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. GSGD/1/96 could infect chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused death in chickens. It could transmit to the chickens and ducks, but was not transmittable to geese. CkB30 was highly pathogenic to chickens, low pathogenic to ducks and not pathogenic to geese. It could be transmitted to the naive contact chickens, but not to the ducks or geese. Our findings suggested that H5N1 HPAIVs from different birds show different host ranges and tissue tropisms. Therefore, we should enhance serological and virological surveillance of H5N1 HPAIVs, and pay more attention to the pathogenic and antigenic evolution of these viruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathological damage inflicted by virulent AIV strains is often caused by inducing a positive feedback loop of cytokines in immune cells that cause excessive inflammation. Previous research has shown that a G protein-coupled receptor, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), plays a crucial role in the development of excessive inflammation in influenza virus infection (Cell 146:861--862, 2011; Cell 146:980--991, 2011). BALB/c mice are common laboratory animals used in research of influenza virus; however the effects of influenza infections on expression patterns of S1PR1 in mice are unknown.
We investigated the expression patterns of S1PR1 in normal BALB/c mice and those infected by two distinct H9N2 AIV strains, one (A/chicken/Guangdong/V/2008,V) highly pathogenic, and the other (A/chicken/Guangdong/Ts/2004,Ts), non-pathogenic in mice, using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect S1PR1 mRNA and protein, respectively.
S1PR1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues examined, and significant differences were seen in mRNA expression between infected Ts, V and control mice in detected tissues, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. S1PR1 protein was expressed in the cytoplasm and also demonstrated quantitative changes in expression in the various tissues between mice infected with the two strains of AIV.
Our results provided the first look at differences in S1PR1 expression patterns in BALB/c mice infected by non-pathogenic and highly pathogenic H9N2 influenza viruses. This information will not only be helpful in designing experiments to better understand the role of S1PR1 in virus-host interactions but also in developing novel anti-influenza agents to minimize the mortality and morbidity associated with highly virulent strains in avian and human populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An avian-like H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) has recently caused sporadic canine influenza outbreaks in China and Korea, but the molecular mechanisms involved in the interspecies transmission of H3N2 IAV from avian to canine species are not well understood. Sequence analysis showed that residue 222 in the hemagglutinin is predominantly tryptophan (W) in closely related avian H3N2 IAV but was leucine (L) in canine H3N2 IAV. In this study, reassortant viruses rH3N2-222L (canine-like) and rH3N2-222W (avian-like) with hemagglutinin mutation L222W were generated using reverse genetics to evaluate the significance of the L222W mutation on receptor binding and host tropism of H3N2 IAV. Compared to rH3N2-222W, rH3N2-222L grew more rapidly in MDCK cells and had significantly higher infectivity in primary canine tracheal epithelial cells. Tissue binding assays demonstrated that rH3N2-222L had a preference for canine tracheal tissues rather avian tracheal tissues, whereas rH3N2-222W favored slightly avian rather canine tracheal tissues. Glycan microarray analysis suggested both rH3N2-222L and rH3N2-222W bound preferentially to alpha-2, 3 linked sialic acids. However, the rH3N2-222W had more than 2-fold less binding affinity than rH3N2-222L to a set of glycans with Neu5Aca2-3Galb1-4(Fuca-)-like or Neu5Aca2-3Galb1-3 (Fuca-)-like structures. These data suggest the W to L mutation at position 222 of the hemagglutinin could facilitate infection of H3N2 IAV in dogs, possibly by increasing the binding affinities of the hemagglutinin to specific receptors with Neu5Aca2-3Galb1-4(Fuca-) or Neu5Aca2-3Galb1-3(Fuca-)-like structures that are present in dogs.
Journal of General Virology 09/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease in pigs, a severe systemic disease that has led to increasing economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. The H. parasuis genome sequence has been completed, but the function and essentiality of the annotated genes remain largely unknown, especially virulence factors. The recent developments in the efficient genetic manipulation of H. parasuis have greatly facilitated the study of gene function, pathogenesis mechanisms and virulence factors. In this review, we provided update information regarding that (i) how the pathogen overcome host immune responses and cell barriers which were tightly associated with the pathogenesis, and (ii) the several recent identification of virulence factors were involved in evading the immune responses and cell barriers in H. parasuis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have illustrated three strains of duck-origin H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) had varying levels of pathogenicity in ducks (Sun et al., 2011). However, the host immune response of ducks infected with those of H5N1 HPAIVs was unclear. Here, we compared viral distribution and mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ducks following infection with the two HPAIV (A/Duck/Guangdong/212/2004, DK212 and A/Duck/Guangdong/383/2008, DK383). DK383 could replicate in the tested tissue of ducks (brain, spleen, lungs, cloacal bursa, kidney, and pancreas) more rapid and efficiently than DK212 at 1 and 2 days post-inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of TLR3, IL-6, IL-8, and MHC class II in brains were higher than those of respective genes in lungs during the early stage of post infection. Furthermore, the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the brain of ducks following infection with DK383 were remarkably higher than those of ducks infected with DK212, respectively. Our results suggest that the shift in the H5N1 HPAIVs to increased virulence in ducks may be associated with efﬁcient and rapid replication of the virus, accompanied by early destruction of host immune responses. These data are helpful to understand the underlying mechanism of the different outcome of H5N1 HPAIVs infection in ducks.