Michel Robert

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (144)20.53 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scalability and programmability are important issues in large homogeneous MPSoCs. Such architectures often rely on explicit message-passing among processors, each of which possessing a local private memory. This paper presents a low-overhead hardware/software distributed shared memory approach that makes such architectures multithreading-capable. The proposed solution is implemented into an open-source message-passing MPSoC through developing a POSIX-like thread API, which shows excellent scalability using application kernels used for benchmarking in shared-memory systems. This approach efficiently draws strengths from the on-chip distributed private memory that opens the way to exposing the multithreading programmability/capabilities of that component as a general-purpose accelerator.
    Design Automation Conference (DAC), 2013 50th ACM / EDAC / IEEE; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Message-passing is an increasingly popular design style for MPSoCs that usually results in systems that perform better compared to external shared-memory designs performance and power-wise, this because of much decreased data transfers with external memory. This scheme relies on explicit communications between processing tasks that participate in the application. Contrarily to shared-memory multiprocessors, tasks usually get assigned to processors at design-time. In order to cope with transient performance losses originating from various phenomena such as increased processing workload or peak traffic in the communication subsystem, various adaptation mechanisms based on task migration have been proposed in the literature. As Message-passing systems usually use PE-private memory architecture, these mechanisms imply migrating application code from processor to processor, which incurs penalty in performance and power consumption. This paper proposes a local shared-memory strategy in which processors execute code hosted in a remote processor.
    Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM), 2012 IEEE 20th Annual International Symposium on; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitous computing is now the new computing trend, such systems that interact with their environment require self-adaptability. Bioinspiration is a natural candidate to provide the capability to handle complex and changing scenarios. This paper presents a programming framework dedicated to pervasive platforms programming. This bioinspired and agentoriented framework has been developed within the frame of the PERPLEXUS European project that is intended to provide support for bioinspiration-driven system adaptability. This framework enables the platform to adapt itself to application requirements at high-level while using hardware acceleration at node level. The resulting programming solution has been used to program three collaborative robotic applications in which robots learn tasks and evolve for achieving a better adaptation to their environment.
    International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 01/2012; 2012. · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst. 01/2012; 20:573-577.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates that magnitude squared incoherence (MSI) analysis is efficient to localize hot spots, i.e., points at which focused electromagnetic (EM) analyses can be applied with success. It is also demonstrated that MSI may be applied to enhance differential EM analyses (DEMA) based on difference of means (DoM).
    IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 01/2012; · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptive multiprocessor systems are appearing as a promising solution for dealing with complex and unpredictable scenarios. Given the large variety of possible use cases that these platforms must support and the resulting workload variability, offline approaches are no longer sufficient because they do not allow coping with time changing workloads. This letter presents a novel approach based on the utilization of PI and PID controllers, widely used in control automation, for optimizing resources utilization in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC). Several architecture characteristics such as response time during frequency changing, noise and perturbations are modeled and validated in a high-level model and results are compared to information obtained on a homogeneous MPSoC platform prototype. Power and energy consumption figures are discussed and two controllers are proposed: 1) PI-; and 2) PID-based controllers. Results show the system capability of adapting under disturbing conditions while ensuring application performance constraints and reducing energy consumption.
    IEEE embedded systems letters 10/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: As complexity of embedded system increases, configurable hardware is becoming more attractive because it provides a fast and efficient basis for design development. As a consequence, one of the most promising embedded architecture consists in the replication of Processing Elements (PEs) connected through a Network-on-Chip (NoC). Such architectures provide computation parallelism, scalability, and reduced design time thanks to reusability. This paper describes the development of a scalable, distributed memory, open source NoC-based platform called Open-Scale and its implementation into FPGA devices. The main objective of this platform is to provide a complete framework for research development on NoC-based distributed memory MPSoCs.
    2011 International Conference on Reconfigurable Computing and FPGAs, ReConFig 2011, Cancun, Mexico, November 30 - December 2, 2011; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Side Channel Analysis (SCA) is a powerful class of attacks to extract cryptographic keys used in a wide va- riety of electronic devices that involves authentication, digital signatures or secure storage. Cryptographic systems are made up of cryptographic primitives implemented in Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor technology. But CMOS logic gates are designed to minimize their energy usage when their output does not change. Energy is consumed or dissipated mainly for the transitions '0 to 1' and '1 to 0'. Side channel information like power consumption, electromagnetic radiation or light emission, changes the conventional black box model of a cryptographic system into a gray one. By this way, its possible to extract a secret key in a couple of hours. Within this context, this paper introduces the basic concepts of some interesting CMOS logic families, from a security point-of-view, and a design of a cryptographic system based on Secure Triple Track Logic (STTL). This logic is efficient against Differential Power Analysis (DPA), and evaluated in this work against Differential Electro Magnetic Analysis (DEMA) based on Difference of Means (DoM) and Correlation Electro Magnetic Analysis (CEMA). Index Terms—Cryptographic System, Side-Channel Analysis, DEMA, CEMA, Differential Logic, Dynamic Logic, Secure Triple Track Logic
  • Embedded Systems Letters. 01/2011; 3:77-80.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a novel strategy for enabling dynamic task mapping on heterogeneous NoC-based MPSoC architectures. The solution considers three different platforms with different area constraints and applications with distinct efficient characteristics. We propose a solution that uses a unified model-based framework, which is calibrated according to area information obtained from FPGA synthesis. Besides, we present the performance of various applications running on different processors on FPGAs aiming to obtain application efficiency characteristics for calibrating the proposed high-level model. The paper also presents three different scenarios and discusses the reduction in terms of energy consumption as well as the end-to-end communication cost for different applications such as MPEG and ADPCM, among others multimedia benchmarks.
    Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Reconfigurable Communication-centric Systems-on-Chip, ReCoSoC 2011, Montpellier, France, 20-22 June, 2011; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: The power evaluation of NoC-based MPSoCs is an important and a time-consuming process. Mapping tasks onto processing elements (PEs) has a critical impact on system performance, as well as power dissipation. To cope with complex dynamic behavior of applications, it is common to perform task mapping at runtime so that the utilization of processors and interconnect can be taken into account when deciding the most appropriate PE to host tasks. On the other hand, the process of accurately comparing different mapping heuristics can be very costly once each adopted solution has to be evaluated using simulation that can take hours or even days in the case of large MPSoCs. In this context, this paper has two major contributions: (i) evaluation of dynamic mapping by employing a model-based framework that unifies abstract models of applications, NoC-based platforms and mapping heuristics, and (ii) power consumption evaluation of such heuristics by using a rate-based power model.
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    ABSTRACT: To compensate the variability effects in advanced technologies, Process, Voltage, Temperature (PVT) monitors are mandatory to use Adaptive Voltage Scaling (AVS) or Adaptive Body Biasing (ABB) techniques. This paper describes a new monitoring system, allowing failure anticipation in real-time, looking at the timing slack of a pre-defined set of observable flip–flops. This system is made of dedicated sensor structures located near monitored flip–flop, coupled with a specific timing detection window generator, embedded within the clock-tree. Validation and performances simulated in a 45 nm low power technology, demonstrate a scalable, low power and low area system, and its compatibility with a standard CAD flow. Gains between an AVFS scheme based on those structures and a standard DVFS are given for a 32 bits VLIW DSP.
    Microelectronics Journal 01/2011; 42:718-732. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electro-Magnetic Analysis has been identified as an efficient technique to retrieve the secret key of cryptographic algorithms. Although similar mathematically speaking, Power or Electro-Magnetic Analysis have different advantages in practice. Among the advantages of EM Analysis, the feasibility of attacking limited and bounded area of integrated systems is the key one. Within this context, the contribution of this paper is a countermeasure against local EM attack performed with tiny magnetic probes. The basic idea is to design circuits such that all datapaths and D-type Flip-Flops, involved in the computation of intermediate values of cryptographic elements, randomly change within a set of logically equivalent electrical paths that are spatially distributed within the Integrated Circuit (IC) die.
    18th IEEE/IFIP VLSI-SoC 2010, IEEE/IFIP WG 10.5 International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration of System-on-Chip, Madrid, Spain, 27-29 September 2010; 01/2010
  • IJES. 01/2010; 4:276-291.
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    Multiprocessor System-on-Chip - Hardware Design and Tool Integration. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we propose a strategy for better exploiting Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip resources utilization by means of using a control-loop feedback mechanism. We apply the proposed techniques in a purely distributed memory MPSoC architecture that is composed of a frequency scaling module responsible for tuning the frequency of processors at run-time. Results show very promising in terms of adaptation capabilities for system with dynamic workload. Performance results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach when workload requirements for applications may vary, affecting the overall performance of the system. For validating the proposed approach we have implemented a multi-thread MJPEG decoder application and created an architecture model with/without perturbations in the system.
    ReConFig'10: 2010 International Conference on Reconfigurable Computing and FPGAs, Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico, 13-15 December 2010, Proceedings; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Differential Power Analysis (DPA) is a powerful Side-Channel Attack (SCA) targeting as well symmetric as asymmetric ciphers. Its principle is based on a statistical treatment of power consumption measurements monitored on an Integrated Circuit (IC) computing cryptographic operations. A lot of works have proposed improvements of the attack, but no one focuses on ordering measurements. Our proposal consists in a statistical preprocessing which ranks measurements in a statistically optimized order to accelerate DPA and reduce the number of required measurements to disclose the key.
    Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE 2010, Dresden, Germany, March 8-12, 2010; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Since several years, Electromagnetic (EM) radiations of ICs are considered as source of noise and interferences from an EM Compatibility (EMC) point-of-view. Electromagnetic interferences (EMI) are unwanted disturbances that affect digital circuits due to electromagnetic conduction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an internal or external source. Today electromagnetic radiations of ICs also represent vulnerabilities for hardware security modules like smartcards. Recently, from a hardware security point of view, researchers, industrials and governmental agencies are focusing with strong interest on these radiations. This paper aims at introducing a pragmatic technique WGMSI (Weighted Global Magnitude Squared Incoherence) allowing localizing hardware security modules within the whole EM noise generated by the environment or other modules of the circuits.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes an agent oriented framework supporting bio-inspired mechanisms which takes profit of the intrinsic hardware parallelism of the pervasive platform developed within the Perplexus IST European project. The proposed framework is a flexible and modular means to describe and simulate complex phenomena such as biologically plausible neural networks or culture dissemination. Associated to this framework and based on the multiprocessor architecture of the Perplexus platform nodes, a tool suite capable of accelerating parallelizable agents is described. Therefore, this contribution combines the software flexibility of agent-based programming with the efficiency of multiprocessor hardware execution. This framework has been successfully tested with two experiments: a proof of concept application made of robots that autonomously improve their behaviours according to their environment and a spiking neural network simulation. These results prove that the framework and its associated methodology are relevant in the context of the simulation of complex phenomena.
    Adaptive Hardware and Systems, 2009. AHS 2009. NASA/ESA Conference on; 09/2009
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new unified design flow developed within the Perplexus project that aims to accelerate parallelizable data-intensive applications in the context of ubiquitous computing. This contribution relies on the JubiTool: a set of integrated tools (JubiSplitter, JubiCompiler, UbiAssembler), allowing respectively to extract, compile and assemble parallelizable parts of applications described in Jubi language. Jubi is a modified Java agent based language (JADE) dedicated to the Ubichip (the bio-inspired chip developed within the confines of the Perplexus project). By appending hardware directives to a software agent description, the inherent flexibility of software is combined with the runtime performance of a hardware execution. In the case of typical Perplexus applications such as the spiking neural network simulator, this contribution takes profit of the intrinsic property of the Ubichip in terms of parallelism resulting in an expected speedup of at least one order of magnitude. Finally, this hybrid (SW/HW) flow could be easily modified and adapted to support other kind of distributed platforms.
    Evolutionary Computation, 2009. CEC '09. IEEE Congress on; 06/2009

Publication Stats

510 Citations
20.53 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2012
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Zaragoza
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 1987–2009
    • Laboratoire d'Informatique, de Robotique et de Microélectronique de Montpellier (LIRMM)
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2008
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1990–2008
    • Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
    • Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Sfax
      Şafāqis, Şafāqis, Tunisia
  • 2007
    • Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering of Porto (INESC Porto)
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
  • 1991–2005
    • Université de Montpellier 1
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 1996
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 1994
    • University of Burgundy
      Dijon, Bourgogne, France