M Iida

Osaka University, Suika, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (107)357.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, there is growing concern that employees' health condition has been worsening under the severe labor conditions of the continuing recent deep recession. To determine trends in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among employees, we analyzed 32 yr of systematic surveillance of urban Japanese employed men. The surveyed population included male employees aged 40 to 59 yr who worked for four companies, a trading company, two banks and a company maintaining expressways in Osaka. Surveillance of cardiovascular risk factors was conducted from 1977 to 2008. We examined the annual mean values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and total serum cholesterol, and the prevalence of hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, alcohol drinkers, and high risk individuals who had two or more risk factors: (high blood pressure, high glucose and dyslipidemia). The total number of employees aged 40-59 yr increased from 822 in 1977 to 2,651 in 1992, but then declined gradually to 1,455 in 2008. Among men aged 40-49 and 50-59, the prevalence of hypertension decreased from 25% and 39% in 1977 to 14% and 23% in 1992, respectively. However, the respective prevalence of hypertension started to rise thereafter to 29% and 47% in 2008, accompanied by an increase in blood pressure levels and the prevalence of antihypertensive medication use. Mean body mass index and the prevalence of obesity showed significant upward linear trends from the mid-1980's to 2008. Therefore, we speculate that the increase in blood pressure levels seen after the early 1990's associated with an increase in obesity. However the proportion of hypertension among non-overweight men also increased between the early 1990's and 2008, suggesting other factors are also involved in the increase of hypertension. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and high-risk individuals with obesity also increased in recent years. Mean total cholesterol level showed a linear increase from 195 mg/dl for men aged 40-49 and 196 mg/dl for men aged 50-59 in 1977 to 204 mg/dl and 207 mg/dl in 2008, respectively. The prevalence of high-risk individuals with obesity was 13% for men aged 40-49 and 15% for men aged 50-59 in 2008. Among men aged 50-59, the prevalence of non-overweight high-risk individuals became higher than that of high-risk individuals with obesity over time. Although these findings were limited to the study companies, our data support evidence that Japanese employees have become increasingly at risk of cardiovascular diseases under the severe working conditions experienced since the 1990's. It is important to improve working conditions as well as personally control risk factors from the point of public health.
    Sangyo eiseigaku zasshi Journal of occupational health 04/2010; 52(3):123-32. DOI:10.1539/sangyoeisei.B9019
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2008; 52(1):71-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.02.075 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Higher proportions of hemorrhagic stroke and lacunar infarction were reported in rural Japan compared with those in Western countries. We examined the relative proportions of stroke subtypes in an urban Japanese city where westernized lifestyles are more common than in rural areas. Stroke registration was performed in 1992, 1997, and 2002 for residents > or =40 years of age who were admitted with acute strokes to all of the 10 hospitals with > or =90 beds in Yao City, Osaka, Japan. Strokes were classified as intraparenchymal hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or ischemic strokes (embolic infarction, large-artery occlusive infarction, lacunar infarction, and unclassified thrombotic infarction) by criteria using computed tomography or MRI. A total of 650 first-ever strokes were registered. The age-adjusted proportion of each stroke subtype was not significantly different among the 3 study periods in both men and women. Throughout the 3 periods, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke accounted for 26%, 7%, and 65% in men, respectively. In women, the respective proportions were 29%, 21%, and 44%. The proportion of each subtype for total ischemic strokes was as follows: 51% to 61% lacunar infarction, 25% to 26% large-artery occlusive infarction, and 11% to 17% embolic infarction. Our study showed that hemorrhagic stroke represented a large proportion of all strokes, especially among women, and lacunar infarction was the most common subtype of ischemic stroke among both men and women in Yao City, which differed from findings in Western countries.
    Stroke 07/2006; 37(6):1374-8. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000221714.96986.5f · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between type 2 diabetes and risk of ischaemic stroke in Asian populations. We conducted a 17-year prospective cohort study in 10,582 Japanese individuals (4287 men and 6295 women) aged 40-69 years living in five communities in Japan. All subjects were free of stroke and CHD at baseline. Diabetes was defined as a fasting glucose level of >/=7.0 mmol/l, a non-fasting glucose of >/=11.1 mmol/l, or receiving medication for diabetes. The risk of non-embolic ischaemic stroke was approximately two-fold higher in diabetic subjects than in subjects with normal glucose levels. The multivariate relative risk after adjustment for age, community, hypertensive status, BMI, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness (TSF and SSF), and other known cardiovascular risk factors was 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) for men and 2.2 (1.2-4.0) for women. This excess risk was primarily observed among non-hypertensive subjects and individuals with higher values for measures of adiposity (BMI, TSF and SSF values above the median), particularly those with higher values for SSF. The association between non-embolic ischaemic stroke and glucose abnormality was particularly strong among non-hypertensive subjects with higher SSF values: the multivariate relative risk was 1.9 (1.0-3.7) for borderline diabetes and 4.9 (2.5-9.5) for diabetes. In this cohort, type 2 diabetes was a significant risk factor for non-embolic ischaemic stroke, particularly in non-hypertensive and non-lean individuals. Due to the nationwide decrease in blood pressure and increase in mean BMI among the Japanese population, with current levels approaching those observed in Western countries, the impact of glucose abnormalities on risk of ischaemic stroke represents a forthcoming public health issue in Japan.
    Diabetologia 01/2005; 47(12):2137-44. DOI:10.1007/s00125-004-1587-0 · 6.88 Impact Factor
  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 05/2004; 36. DOI:10.1249/00005768-200405001-00766 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the benefit of a long-term community-based stroke prevention program, we explored 35 years of surveillance data of stroke incidence for residents in a rural area in Japan. The surveyed community was Ikawa town (population in 2000 was 6,116) in Akita prefecture, where a community-based stroke prevention program has been conducted since 1963. Incidence rates and numbers of stroke episodes, proportions for loss of consciousness and motor paralysis at onset, proportions for each seriousness category (A: death within one day after onset, B: death during 2-7 days after onset, C: survival more than 8 days after onset with complete hemiparesis, D: survival more than 8 days after onset with incomplete or no hemiparesis), and one-year survival rates and activity of daily living were investigated for 1964-69, 1970-79, 1980-89 and 1990-98. Stroke incidence declined 66% and 64% among the 30-69 years age group and 70 years over age group, respectively between 1964-69 and 1990-98. Incident numbers of stroke episodes declined 41% among those aged 30-69 years and, while it increased 100% in the 70 years over age group, this was much less than the increase rate of 271% rated for the corresponding aged population growth over time. In the 30-69 years age group, the proportion of patients with no loss of consciousness at onset increased from 53-64% during the former three periods to 79% in 1990-98. The proportion of patients with no motor paralysis also increased progressively over the study periods and the proportions for A or B categories in the seriousness classification decreased between 1964-69 and 1990-98 while the proportion in the D category increased between 1980-89 and 1990-98. One-year survival rates increased from 71% and 36% in 1964 to 86% and 61% in 1990-98 among the 30-69 years age group and 70 years over age group, respectively. With both, the numbers of totally dependent patients at one-year after onset, did not change significantly over time, despite the marked increase in the population of risk. The present study showed that a long-term community-based stroke prevention program can not only decrease stroke incidence and number of episodes, but also reduce the likelihood of severe stroke attack and improve prognosis, thereby suppressing the increase of totally dependent patients expected from growth of the old population in the community.
    [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health 02/2004; 51(1):3-12.
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    ABSTRACT: We determined intima-media thickness (IMT) and diameter of carotid artery and estimated their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors in 1129 men aged 60-74 years, who participated in a cardiovascular risk survey in three Japanese communities. The multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the maximum IMT > or = 1.1 mm in the common carotid artery (CCA) were 1.3 (1.1-1.5) per 4 years of age, 1.8 (1.4-2.5) for hypertension, 1.4 (1.2-1.7) for a 34.4 mg/dl increase in serum total cholesterol, 0.7 (0.6-0.8) for a 14.7 mg/dl increase in serum HDL-cholesterol, and 2.4 (1.1-5.0) for history of stroke, while the maximum IMT > or = 1.5mm in the internal carotid artery (ICA) were 1.6 (1.4-1.8) per 4 years of age, 1.9 (1.5-2.4) for hypertension, 1.6 (1.2-2.1) for current smoking, and 3.5 (1.6-7.6) for history of stroke. Age, height, hypertension, current smoking, ethanol intake and history of coronary heart disease were independent determinants of both the outer and inner CCA diameter. Maximum IMT correlated positively with the outer diameter and inversely with the inner diameter in the CCA. Carotid atherosclerosis suggests to be a risk factor for stroke among Japanese elderly men, although future prospective studies are required to confirm this finding.
    Atherosclerosis 02/2004; 172(2):353-9. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.10.012 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between minor ST-T abnormalities and stroke incidence has not been well elucidated. We sought to examine the relationship between nonspecific minor or major ST-T abnormalities and the incidence of stroke among Japanese men and women. A 15.4-year prospective study was conducted with 10 741 men and women aged 40 to 69 years in 4 Japanese communities. Electrocardiograms were taken at baseline and were read according to the Minnesota Code. The incidence of stroke was ascertained using systematic surveillance. During the 15.4-year follow-up, 602 strokes (339 ischemic strokes, 129 intracerebral hemorrhages, 80 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 54 unclassified strokes) occurred. Both men and women with major ST-T abnormalities had approximately 3-fold higher age-adjusted relative risk and 2-fold higher multivariate-adjusted relative risk of total stroke than did those without such abnormalities. Men with minor ST-T abnormalities had a 2.3-fold higher age-adjusted relative risk of total stroke, both ischemic and hemorrhagic, than did those without such abnormalities. After we adjusted further for hypertension category, the relative risk for minor ST-T abnormalities was reduced substantially but remained statistically significant: 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4) for total stroke, 1.9 (95%CI, 1.3 to 2.8) for ischemic stroke, and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.0 to 3.0) for hemorrhagic stroke. For women, however, there was no relation between minor ST-T abnormalities and stroke incidence. Minor ST-T abnormalities have predictive value for the risk of total stroke, both ischemic and hemorrhagic, among middle-aged Japanese men, as do major ST-T abnormalities for both sexes.
    Stroke 01/2004; 34(12):e250-3. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000103742.83117.FB · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of lifestyle and constitutional variables with platelet aggregation, we examined the platelet aggregation, serum fatty acid composition, alcohol intake, smoking, and dietary intake of seafood and soybean estimated by a 1-week dietary record in 448 males aged 50-70 in three rural Japanese communities: Ikawa, Akita prefecture (northeast coast), Noichi, Kochi prefecture (southwest coast), and Kyowa, Ibaraki prefecture (central inland). Platelet aggregatory threshold index (PATI) was used to determine the minimum concentration of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) that caused a non-reversible aggregation of platelets. Intake of seafood and n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid and ingestion of ethanol were higher in the northeast coastal community than in the other two communities. Mean platelet and white blood cell counts were lower in northeast coastal community than in the other two communities. The geometric mean PATI was higher (i.e. platelet aggregation was lower) in the northeast coastal community than the other two communities. Within the entire sample, platelet aggregation correlated inversely with serum level of n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, an index of alcohol consumption, and positively with platelet and white blood cell counts. Platelet aggregation tended to correlate positively with serum arachidonic acid. There was no correlation between smoking and platelet aggregation. Our results suggest that seafood intake and moderate alcohol consumption reduce platelet aggregation.
    Atherosclerosis 01/2003; 165(2):327-34. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9150(02)00248-4 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine a long-term effect of community-based education program for hypercholesterolemia and an effect modification by apolipoprotein E polymorphism, we conducted a 1-year randomized clinical trial with 8 year-follow-up. One hundred four persons aged 40-64 years who had serum total cholesterol levels between 6.21 and 7.73 mmol/l (240 and 299 mg/dl) in 1988-89 cardiovascular risk surveys were enrolled in the trial. The intervention group (n=51, 82% for women) attended eight education classes in 1 year, while the control group (n=53, 85% for women) attended only two classes. Both groups were invited to the subsequent annual surveys. The mean serum cholesterol was 0.24-0.26 mmol/l less in the intervention than in the control group at both 6 month and 1 year (P=0.03, each) while the proportion of subjects using hypolipidemic agents was 0 and 6% in both groups, respectively. During 8-year follow-up, the probability of using hypolipidemic agents and/or total cholesterol > or =7.76 mmol/l was 51% in the education group and 69% in the control group; the risk ratio in the intervention vs control groups was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.36-1.06). When stratified by the apolipoprotein E polymorphism examined for 78% of the subjects, the risk ratio was 0.61 (0.31-1.18) among subjects without e4 allele (n=59) and 0.55 (0.14-2.14) among those with e4 allele (n=22). The intervention group had reduced intake of egg, fish egg, butter, mayonnaise and fatty meat compared to the control group at 6-month, 1- and 8-year follow-up. In conclusion, our community-based program was effective in reducing serum total cholesterol levels non-pharmacologically during the first year, and also reduced the likelihood of progressive worsening of hypercholesterolemia during the subsequent 8 years, regardless of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism.
    Atherosclerosis 10/2002; 164(1):195-202. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9150(02)00064-3 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine trends in the incidence of cardiovascular disease in Japan, we examined observational data on coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors among urban Japanese working men. The surveyed population included all male employees aged 40 to 59 years who worked for eight industrial companies in Osaka, the second largest metropolitan city in Japan. Surveillance for cardiovascular disease and risk factors was conducted from 1963 to 1994. The age-adjusted incidence of coronary heart disease increased from 0.4 per 1000 person-years during 1963 to 1970, to 1.5 per 1000 person-years during 1979 to 1986, and then plateaued until 1987 to 1994 (P for trend = 0.002), whereas the incidence of stroke declined from 1.2 per 1,000 person-years during 1971 to 1978, to 0.6 per 1,000 person-years in 1987 to 1994 (P for trend = 0.02). The age-adjusted mean (+/- SD) total cholesterol level, which was 4.87 +/- 2.88 mmol/L during 1963 to 1966, increased to 5.11 +/- 0.62 mmol/L during 1982 to 1983 (P <0.001), and 5.09 +/- 0.75 mmol/L during 1990 to 1991. Both mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased by 1 mm Hg between the periods of 1966 to 1967 and 1982 to 1983, and declined below the 1966 to 1967 levels during 1990 to 1991. The prevalence of smoking declined from 72% during 1975 to 1976, to 58% during 1990 to 1991 (P for trend <0.001). Although these findings were limited to urban middle-aged men, the increase in serum cholesterol is likely to attenuate the reduction in future rates of coronary heart disease in Japan that would have been expected to result from the declining prevalence of smoking.
    The American Journal of Medicine 03/2002; 112(2):104-9. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9343(01)01053-1 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the relation of anger expression with blood pressure and hypertension among Japanese. A cross-sectional study. Subjects were 4374 men and women aged 30-74 years from rural and urban communities. Anger expression was estimated using the anger-out and anger-in scores of the Spielberger Anger Expression Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations of anger expression scores with blood pressure. Proportions of hypertensives among the tertiles of anger expression scores and the relative odds of hypertension for low versus high tertiles of anger expression scales were calculated using logistic regression models. The anger-out score was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels for men; a four-point (one standard deviation) lower anger-out score was associated with 1.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.6] greater systolic blood pressure and 0.6 mmHg (95% CI, -0.03 to 1.2) greater diastolic pressure after adjustment for age, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking category, and parental history of hypertension. The adjusted relative odds of hypertension for low versus high tertiles of anger-out was 1.60 (95% CI, 1.19-2.15). These inverse associations were more evident among men with low coping behavior than among those with high coping behavior. For women, the anger-out score was not associated with blood pressure. There was no relation between the anger-in score and either blood pressure or hypertension in either men or women. This study suggests that Japanese men who do not express their anger, especially when they have low coping behavior, may have an increased risk of high blood pressure.
    Journal of Hypertension 02/2002; 20(1):21-7. DOI:10.1097/00004872-200201000-00005 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to collect basic data on exposure of mucous cells of the large intestine to mutagens by investigating the genotoxicity of fecal samples from the urban population. Simultaneously, relations with food intake (food groups and nutritive components), lifestyle factors and fecal metal content was investigated. A total of 199 self-collected fecal samples from middle aged healthy volunteer living in urban areas of Osaka city were freeze-dried and ground in a mill. The mutagenicity of aqueous extracts of the ground samples was measured by the umu-test. Metal content of the feces was analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometlly. On the day previous to the feces collection, the contents of meals were recorded and confirmed by interview with a dietitian. Quantification of nutritive components was carried out using the 4th edition of the Japan Food Standard Vomposition Table. Mutagenicity of feces was higher in males than in females, and in those aged 40-49 years than 50-69 years in males but not females. Large differences were found for content of 8 metals in the feces; concentrations were in the decreasing order of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, iron, manganese and copper, the highest being 20.4 mg for calcium and the lowest was 53.5 micrograms for copper. Between the metal contents and mutagenicity, values for zinc and iron showed positive correlations and for sodium a negative correlation under S9(+) conditions. A weak but significant correlation was observed between the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day and S9 (+) mutagenicity. However we could not find any relation with food groups or nutritive components. It is well known that human feces contain many mutagens and carcinogens and that these can act directly on the mucous membrane of large intestine. Therefore, it is very important to estimate exposure levels. From the present data we can conclude that relations between mutation-activity of the feces and diet are complex. Their elucidation will require a large number of volunteers who have similar living conditions to obtain appropriate data.
    [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health 01/2002; 48(12):929-37.
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    ABSTRACT: Westernization of lifestyles among Japanese, in particular among young generations, is a matter of concern for future increase in coronary heart disease. We surveyed a total of 349 male university students to examine changes in lifestyles and coronary risk factors in campus life. We compared dietary habits and serum fatty acid compositions as well as other coronary risk characteristics between freshmen (n=171) and fourth-year (senior) students (n=178). Serum fatty acid compositions and dietary intakes of selected foods as well as serum lipids, blood pressures and physical characteristics were examined at the 1996 and 1997 annual health examinations.Compared to freshmen, senior students had a lower frequency of fish, vegetable, milk and egg intake, and a higher frequency of oil and fat intake. The proportions of serum saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher among senior students than among freshmen, whereas the proportion of serum polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly lower among senior students than among freshmen. Senior students also had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, percent body fat, smoking rate and alcohol usage than freshmen. Mean body weight and mean body mass index were not different between the two groups.Senior students generally showed Westernized dietary habits and higher coronary risk profiles than freshmen as indicated by the change of serum fatty acid compositions. Modification of these dietary habits and lifestyles may be important for the prevention of future CHD among Japanese young adults.
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 10/2001; 6(3):143-8. DOI:10.1007/BF02897961
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    ABSTRACT: To examine long-term trends in the incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, and their risk factors among Japanese populations, we explored 32 years of surveillance data for male residents in urban and rural areas in Japan. The surveyed populations were 40-79 year-old male residents in M community (population over 40 years old in 1995 was 11,121) of Y City in Osaka (urban area; Osaka) and I town (n = 3,571) in Akita prefecture (rural area; Akita). Incidence rates of coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris), sudden cardiac death, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stroke per 1,000 person-years were calculated for 1964-71, 1972-79, 1980-87 and 1988-95. Risk factors were evaluated by cross-sectional surveys conducted in the median years for each period. Dietary intake was examined by the 24-hour recall method in the latter three periods. Age-adjusted incidence of coronary heart disease per 1,000 men increased progressively from 0.27 in 1964-71 to 0.90 in 1988-95 (P = 0.222 for trend) among 40-59 year old residents in Osaka. Among their 60-79 year old counterparts, though the incidence was 2.62-3.11 and did not change over the periods studied, the combined rates for coronary heart disease and men who had a PTCA reached 3.79 in 1988-95. In contrast, the incidence of coronary heart disease among Akita residents did not change over time and stroke declined 70 percent between 1964-71 and 1988-95 (P < 0.001) in both 40-59 and 60-79 year age group: The decrease in cerebral infarction was less marked between 1980-87 and 1988-95 among 60-79 year old individuals. Significant increases in diastolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, body mass index, salt intake and total fat percent of total energy in Osaka, were associated with the elevation in the incidence of coronary heart disease. In Akita, blood pressure leveled off over the study period, but decreased less during the last decade whereas the prevalence of obesity increased. Trends in cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors differ among different geographical areas. The present long-term study, in particular, demonstrated an increase in the incidence of coronary heart disease among urban Japanese male residents in Osaka between the 1960s and the 1990s.
    [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health 05/2001; 48(5):378-94.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the relation of triglycerides with coronary heart disease among populations with low mean total cholesterol, the authors conducted a 15.5-year prospective study ending in 1997 of 11,068 Japanese aged 40-69 years (4,452 men and 6,616 women with mean total cholesterol = 4.73 mmol/liter and 5.03 mmol/liter, respectively), initially free of coronary heart disease or stroke. There were 236 coronary heart disease events comprising 133 myocardial infarctions, 68 angina pectoris events, and 44 sudden cardiac deaths. The coronary heart disease incidence was greater in a dose-response manner across increasing quartiles of nonfasting triglycerides for both sexes. The multivariate relative risk of coronary heart disease adjusting for coronary risk factors and time since last meal associated with a 1-mmol/liter increase in triglycerides was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.53; p = 0.004) for men and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.75; p = 0.001) for women. The trend was similar for myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and sudden cardiac death. The relation of triglycerides with coronary heart disease was not influenced materially by total cholesterol levels or, in a subsample analysis (51% of total sample), by high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Nonfasting serum triglycerides predict the incidence of coronary heart disease among Japanese men and women who possess low mean values of total cholesterol. Further adjustment for high density lipoprotein cholesterol suggests an independent role of triglycerides on the coronary heart disease risk.
    American Journal of Epidemiology 04/2001; 153(5):490-9. · 4.98 Impact Factor
  • [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health 02/2001; 48(1):38-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that lack of exercise and a high fat diet increase the risk of colorectal cancer. We planned a clinical trial to test these propositions, using subjects with multiple colorectal adenomas and/or carcinomas. Enrolment in this study was conducted in two stages. First, patients were invited to participate in the dietary modification part of the study. Those agreeing to participate were given dietary advice, and 3 months later all subjects to whom the exercise exclusion criteria do not apply were invited to participate in the exercise part of the study. The subjects were randomized to two groups. A total of two hundred and eleven patients meeting the entry criteria have been invited to join the trial, of whom 165 (78%) consented to participate in the dietary modification part of the study. After excluding those unsuitable according to the exclusion criteria for the exercise regimen, the remaining 124 subjects were further invited to participate in the exercise regimen part of the study. One hundred and three (83%) subjects have given their consent. Obtaining informed consent in two stages and the free provision of lifestyle modification measures were factors that contributed to this favorable participation rate.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 02/2001; 2(3):233-236. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Occupational Health 01/2001; 43(6):321-330. DOI:10.1539/joh.43.321 · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Epidemiology 01/2001; 11(6sup):81-86. DOI:10.2188/jea.11.6sup_81 · 2.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
357.70 Total Impact Points


  • 2006
    • Osaka University
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2004
    • University Hospital Medical Information Network
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002
    • Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1991–2002
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Institute of Community Medicine
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1980–2000
    • National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1979–2000
    • Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan