[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tookad is a novel intravascular photosensitizer. When activated by 763 nm light, it destroys tumors by damaging their blood supply. It then clears rapidly from the circulatory system. To our knowledge we report the first application of Tookad vascular targeted photodynamic therapy in humans. We assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary treatment response as a salvage procedure after external beam radiation therapy.
Patients received escalating drug doses of 0.1 to 2 mg/kg at a fixed light dose of 100 J/cm or escalated light doses of 230 and 360 J/cm at the 2 mg/kg dose. Four optical fibers were placed transperineally in the prostate, including 2 for light delivery and 2 for light dosimetry. Treatment response was assessed primarily by hypovascular lesion formation on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies targeting areas of lesion formation and secondarily by serum prostate specific antigen changes.
Tookad vascular targeted photodynamic therapy was technically feasible. The plasma drug concentration was negligible by 2 hours after infusion. In the drug escalation arm 3 of 6 patients responded, as seen on magnetic resonance imaging, including 1 at 1 mg/kg and 2 at 2 mg/kg. The light dose escalation demonstrated an increasing volume of effect with 2 of 3 patients in the first light escalation cohort responding and all 6 responding at the highest light dose with lesions encompassing up to 70% of the peripheral zone. There were no serious adverse events, and continence and potency were maintained.
Tookad vascular targeted photodynamic therapy salvage therapy is safe and well tolerated. Lesion formation is strongly drug and light dose dependent. Early histological and magnetic resonance imaging responses highlight the clinical potential of Tookad vascular targeted photodynamic therapy to manage post-external beam radiation therapy recurrence.
The Journal of Urology 12/2007; 178(5):1974-9; discussion 1979. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing, as is the number of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to manage this disease. We developed a Markov state-transition model--the Montreal Prostate Cancer Model--for improved forecasting of the health care requirements and outcomes associated with prostate cancer. We then validated the model by comparing its forecasted outcomes with published observations for various cohorts of men.
We combined aggregate data on the age-specific incidence of prostate cancer, the distribution of diagnosed tumours according to patient age, clinical stage and tumour grade, initial treatment, treatment complications, and progression rates to metastatic disease and death. Five treatments were considered: prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapies, combination therapies and watchful waiting. The resulting model was used to calculate age-, stage-, grade- and treatment-specific clinical outcomes such as expected age at prostate cancer diagnosis and death, and metastasis-free, disease-specific and overall survival.
We compared the model's forecasts with available cohort data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, based on over 59,000 cases of localized prostate cancer. Among the SEER cases, the 10-year disease-specific survival rates following prostatectomy for tumour grades 1, 2 and 3 were 98%, 91% and 76% respectively, as compared with the model's estimates of 96%, 92% and 84%. We also compared the model's forecasts with the grade-specific survival among patients from the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR). The 10-year disease-specific survival among the CTR cases for grades 1, 2 and 3 were 91%, 76% and 54%, as compared with the model's estimates of 91%, 73% and 37%.
The Montreal Prostate Cancer Model can be used to support health policy decision-making for the management of prostate cancer. The model can also be used to forecast clinical outcomes for individual men who have prostate cancer or are at risk of the disease.
Canadian Medical Association Journal 05/2000; 162(7):977-83. · 6.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed an economic model of prostate cancer management from diagnosis until death. We have used the Montreal Prostate Cancer Model to estimate the total economic burden of the disease in a cohort of Canadian men.
Using this Markov state-transition simulation model, we estimated the probability of prostate cancer, annual prostate cancer progression rates and associated direct medical costs according to patient age, tumour stage and grade, and treatment modalities in a 1997 cohort of Canadian men. The estimated lifetime costs of prostate cancer included the costs of clinical staging, initial treatments and complications, follow-up cancer therapies, routine outpatient care, and palliative care following metastatic disease.
The clinical burden of prostate cancer forecasted using the model was similar to the projections of the National Cancer Institute. In the 1997 cohort of 5.8 million Canadian men between 40 and 80 years old, prostate cancer would be diagnosed in an estimated 701,491 men (12.1%) over their lifetime. Direct medical costs would total $9.76 billion, or $3.89 billion when discounted 5% annually.
The Montreal Prostate Cancer Model indicates that the economic burden of prostate cancer to Canada's health care system will be substantial. Further analyses are needed to identify the most efficient means of treating this disease.
Canadian Medical Association Journal 05/2000; 162(7):987-92. · 6.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed the practice patterns of Canadian urologists in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer, and assessed the changes that occurred between 1995 and 1998.
In 1995 and 1998 questionnaires were mailed to all active members of the Canadian Urological Association who practiced adult urology in Canada. Many questions were similar, allowing for the assessment of changes in practice patterns.
A number of changes were observed between 1995 and 1998. Cystoscopy and imaging of the upper urinary tract were used less often to evaluate uncomplicated cases of BPH. However, 39% of respondents continued to perform cystoscopy routinely. Finasteride was no longer administered in men with a smaller prostate. In 1998 before radical prostatectomy 28% of respondents routinely performed a bone scan, 29% cystoscopy and 57% chest x-ray. The number believing that maximal androgen blockade is the most effective hormonal therapy decreased from 90% to 62%, while 24% reported in the 1998 survey that they frequently administered intermittent hormonal therapy. Comparison with an American study from 1995 indicated that American urologists used the American Urological Association symptom score and performed a prostate specific antigen test more frequently than Canadian urologists. However, Canadian urologists performed cystoscopy more frequently.
These surveys provide a useful insight into the variations in clinical practice of Canadian urologists and help to determine whether changes are occurring in regard to the development of practice guidelines. They also indicate the need to develop further guidelines, and ensure that these guidelines are widely promoted and accepted by the urological community.
The Journal of Urology 03/2000; 163(2):499-502. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine patient views about the Shared Decision-Making Program (SDP), an interactive videodisk program designed to inform patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) about their condition and treatment options and to determine its impact on perceived knowledge and treatment preference.
Six hundred seventy-eight patients with symptomatic BPH from eight Canadian centers viewed the SDP. Before and after viewing the video, patients answered questionnaires designed to assess treatment preference, knowledge gained, and satisfaction with this educational format. A 1-year follow-up survey was also conducted.
Most patients showed a high desire for information and high satisfaction with the SDP; this satisfaction persisted at 1 year. Patients' self-reported knowledge increased significantly (P <0.0001). However, the SDP did not alter initial treatment preferences among those with already formed preferences, although it aided almost half of those initially undecided in forming a preference. Viewing the SDP also appeared to enhance the physician-patient relationship.
Patients saw the SDP as an effective method for teaching patients about BPH and the risks and benefits of various treatments, clarifying particular areas about which many patients appear to have a desire for more information than is often provided. Patients were enthusiastic about the educational value of the program, and their active participation in the decision-making process may actually enhance the physician-patient relationship. Contrary to other studies, we found no significant alterations in treatment preferences. Problems relating to the cost and timely updating of the software need to be addressed for these kinds of programs to realize their full potential.