Mark McLean

Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Publications (3)18.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and neonatal vitamin D deficiency. We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of low-dose (LD) versus high-dose (HD) vitamin D supplementation to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism during pregnancy.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Women with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels <32 ng/mL before 20 weeks' gestation were randomized to oral vitamin D3 at 5,000 IU daily (HD) (n = 89) or the recommended pregnancy dose of 400 IU daily (LD) (n = 90) until delivery. The primary end point was maternal glucose levels on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 26-28 weeks' gestation. Secondary end points included neonatal 25OHD, obstetric and other neonatal outcomes, and maternal homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Analysis was by intention to treat.RESULTSThere was no difference in maternal glucose levels on OGTT. Twelve LD women (13%) developed GDM versus seven (8%) HD women (P = 0·25). Neonatal cord 25OHD was higher in HD offspring (46 ± 11 vs. 29 ± 12 ng/mL, P < 0.001), and deficiency was more common in LD offspring (24 vs. 10%, P = 0.06). Post hoc analysis in LD women showed an inverse relationship between pretreatment 25OHD and both fasting and 2-h blood glucose level on OGTT (both P < 0·001). Baseline 25OHD remained an independent predictor after multiple regression analysis.CONCLUSIONSHD vitamin D supplementation commencing at a mean of 14 weeks' gestation does not improve glucose levels in pregnancy. However, in women with baseline levels <32 ng/mL, 5,000 IU per day was well tolerated and highly effective at preventing neonatal vitamin D deficiency.
    Diabetes care 04/2014; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin secretion increases in normal pregnancy to meet increasing demands. Inability to increase beta-cell function results in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We have previously shown that the expression of the transcription factor ARNT (Aryl-hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) is reduced in the islets of humans with type 2 diabetes. Mice with a beta-cell specific deletion of ARNT (β-ARNT mice) have impaired glucose tolerance secondary to defective insulin secretion. We hypothesised that ARNT is required to increase beta-cell function during pregnancy, and that β-ARNT mice would be unable to compensate for the beta-cell stress of pregnancy. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms of ARNT regulation of beta-cell function and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. β-ARNT females were mated with floxed control (FC) males and FC females with β-ARNT males. During pregnancy, β-ARNT mice had a marked deterioration in glucose tolerance secondary to defective insulin secretion. There was impaired beta-cell proliferation in late pregnancy, associated with decreased protein and mRNA levels of the islet cell-cycle regulator cyclinD2. There was also reduced expression of Irs2 and G6PI. In contrast, in control mice, pregnancy was associated with a 2.1-fold increase in ARNT protein and a 1.6-fold increase in cyclinD2 protein, and with increased beta-cell proliferation. Islet ARNT increases in normal murine pregnancy and beta-cell ARNT is required for cyclinD2 induction and increased beta-cell proliferation in pregnancy.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77419. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes in pregnancy is linked to development of obesity in the offspring, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs when beta cells are unable to compensate for the normal insulin resistance of late pregnancy. In this study, we used a murine model of beta cell dysfunction to examine the effects of maternal GDM on phenotype in male offspring with and without an inherited predisposition for beta cell dysfunction. Beta cell-specific aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-null (βArnt) mice develop GDM from beta cell dysfunction. βArnt and control female mice were used to induce GDM and non-diabetic pregnancies, respectively. Offspring from GDM pregnancies became spontaneously obese on a normal-chow diet. They were heavier than offspring from non-diabetic pregnancies, with increased body fat. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was higher, indicating decreased capacity to switch to lipid oxidation. Metabolic rate in GDM offspring was decreased prior to onset of obesity. The phenotype was more pronounced in βArnt GDM offspring than in GDM offspring of control genotype, demonstrating an interaction between genotype and pregnancy exposure. βArnt GDM offspring had increased hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (Npy) and decreased pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression. Weight, body fat, insulin sensitivity and RER in all mice, and hypothalamic Npy in βArnt mice were significantly correlated with AUC of maternal late pregnancy glucose tolerance tests (p < 0.01), but not with litter size, maternal weight, triacylglycerol or pre-pregnancy glycaemia. In βArnt mice, exposure to GDM and inheritance of genetic beta cell dysfunction had additive effects on male offspring obesity; severity of the offspring phenotype correlated with maternal glycaemia.
    Diabetologia 12/2010; 54(4):910-21. · 6.88 Impact Factor