[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB) was first identified in the L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway, where it catalyzes the conversion of dTDP-D-glucose into dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose. The structures of RmlB from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in complex with substrate deoxythymidine 5'-diphospho-D-glucose (dTDP-D-glucose) and deoxythymidine 5'-diphosphate (dTDP), and RmlB from Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in complex with dTDP-D-glucose, dTDP, and deoxythymidine 5'-diphospho-D-pyrano-xylose (dTDP-xylose) have all been solved at resolutions between 1.8 A and 2.4 A. The structures show that the active sites are highly conserved. Importantly, the structures show that the active site tyrosine functions directly as the active site base, and an aspartic and glutamic acid pairing accomplishes the dehydration step of the enzyme mechanism. We conclude that the substrate is required to move within the active site to complete the catalytic cycle and that this movement is driven by the elimination of water. The results provide insight into members of the SDR superfamily.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbohydrates are ideally suited for molecular recognition. By varying the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl substituents, the simple six-carbon, six-oxygen pyranose ring can exist as 10 different molecules. With the further addition of simple chemical changes, the potential for generating distinct molecular recognition surfaces far exceeds that of amino acids. This ability to control and change the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl substituents is very important in biology. Epimerases can be found in animals, plants and microorganisms where they participate in important metabolic pathways such as the Leloir pathway, which involves the conversion of galactose to glucose-1-phosphate. Bacterial epimerases are involved in the production of complex carbohydrate polymers that are used in their cell walls and envelopes and are recognised as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of bacterial infection. Several distinct strategies have evolved to invert or epimerise the hydroxyl substituents on carbohydrates. In this review we group epimerisation by mechanism and discuss in detail the molecular basis for each group. These groups include enzymes which epimerise by a transient keto intermediate, those that rely on a permanent keto group, those that eliminate then add a nucleotide, those that break then reform carbon-carbon bonds and those that linearize and cyclize the pyranose ring. This approach highlights the quite different biochemical processes that underlie what is seemingly a simple reaction. What this review shows is that each position on the carbohydrate can be epimerised and that epimerisation is found in all organisms.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 11/2001; 58(11):1650-65. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: l-Rhamnose is a 6-deoxyhexose that is found in a variety of different glycoconjugates in the cell walls of pathogenic bacteria. The precursor of l-rhamnose is dTDP-l-rhamnose, which is synthesised from glucose- 1-phosphate and deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) via a pathway requiring four enzymes. Significantly this pathway does not exist in humans and all four enzymes therefore represent potential therapeutic targets. dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB; EC 220.127.116.11) is the second enzyme in the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway. The structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium RmlB had been determined to 2.47 A resolution with its cofactor NAD(+) bound. The structure has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 20.4 % and an R-free value of 24.9 % with good stereochemistry.RmlB functions as a homodimer with monomer association occurring principally through hydrophobic interactions via a four-helix bundle. Each monomer exhibits an alpha/beta structure that can be divided into two domains. The larger N-terminal domain binds the nucleotide cofactor NAD(+) and consists of a seven-stranded beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices. The smaller C-terminal domain is responsible for binding the sugar substrate dTDP-d-glucose and contains four beta-strands and six alpha-helices. The two domains meet to form a cavity in the enzyme. The highly conserved active site Tyr(167)XXXLys(171) catalytic couple and the GlyXGlyXXGly motif at the N terminus characterise RmlB as a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase extended family. The quaternary structure of RmlB and its similarity to a number of other closely related short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzymes have enabled us to propose a mechanism of catalysis for this important enzyme.
Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2001; 307(1):283-95. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Rhamnose is a deoxy sugar found widely in bacteria and plants. Evidence continues to emerge about its essential role in many pathogenic bacteria. The crystal structures of two of the four enzymes involved in its biosynthetic pathway have been reported and the other two have been submitted for publication. This pathway does not exist in humans, making enzymes of this pathway very attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.
Current Opinion in Structural Biology 01/2001; 10(6):687-96. · 8.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA; E.C. 18.104.22.168) is the first of four enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-L-rhamnose, the precursor of L-rhamnose, a key component of the cell wall of many pathogenic bacteria. RmlA catalyses the condensation of thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) and alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), yielding dTDP-D-glucose. RmlA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been overexpressed and purified. Crystals of the enzyme have been grown using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 6000 and lithium sulfate as precipitant. Several diffraction data sets of single frozen crystals were collected to a resolution of 1.66 A. Crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.5, b = 73.1, c = 134.7 A, alpha = 89.9, beta = 80.9, gamma = 81.1 degrees. The asymmetric unit contains eight monomers in the form of two RmlA tetramers with a solvent content of 51%. Selenomethionine-labelled protein has been obtained and crystallized.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deoxythymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-L-rhamnose is the precursor of L-rhamnose, a saccharide required for the virulence of some pathogenic bacteria. dTDP-L-rhamnose is synthesized from glucose-1-phosphate and deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) via a pathway involving four distinct enzymes. This pathway does not exist in humans and the enzymes involved in dTDP-L-rhamnose synthesis are potential targets for the design of new therapeutic agents. Here, the crystal structure of dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose 3,5 epimerase (RmlC, EC22.214.171.124) from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was determined. The third enzyme of the rhamnose biosynthetic pathway, RmlC epimerizes at two carbon centers, the 3 and 5 positions of the sugar ring. The structure was determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction to a resolution of 2.17 A. RmlC is a dimer and each monomer is formed mainly from two beta-sheets arranged in a beta-sandwich. The structure of a dTDP-phenol-RmlC complex shows the substrate-binding site to be located between the two beta-sheets; this site is formed from residues of both monomers. Sequence alignments of other RmlC enzymes confirm that this region is very highly conserved. The enzyme is distinct structurally from other epimerases known and thus, is the first example of a new class of carbohydrate epimerase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB) is the second of four enzymes involved in the dTDP-L-rhamnose pathway and catalyzes the dehydration of dTDP-D-glucose to dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose. The ultimate product of the pathway, dTDP-L-rhamnose, is the precursor of L-rhamnose, which is a key component of the cell wall of many pathogenic bacteria. RmlB from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has been overexpressed and purified, and crystals of the enzyme have been grown using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with lithium sulfate as precipitant. Diffraction data have been obtained to a resolution of 2.8 A on a single frozen RmlB crystal which belongs to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 111.85, b = 87.77, c = 145.66 A, beta = 131.53 degrees. The asymmetric unit contains four monomers in the form of two RmlB dimers with a solvent content of 62%. A molecular-replacement solution has been obtained and the model is currently being refined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Rhamnose is an essential component of the cell wall of many pathogenic bacteria. Its precursor, dTDP-L-rhamnose, is synthesized from alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP via a pathway requiring four distinct enzymes: RmlA, RmlB, RmlC and RmlD. RmlD catalyses the terminal step of this pathway by converting dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose to dTDP-L-rhamnose. RmlD from -Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified by a two--step protocol involving anion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. Dynamic light-scattering experiments indicated that the recombinant protein is monodisperse. Crystals of native and selenomethionine-enriched RmlD have been obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol as precipitant. Diffraction data have been collected from orthorhombic crystals of both native and selenomethionyl-derivatized protein, allowing tracing of the protein structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the paper by McMahon, Leonard, Buchanan, Giraud & Naismith [Acta Cryst. (1999). D55, 399-402] an author's error has resulted in the fifth sentence of the Abstract being incorrect. The sentence should read 'They are monoclinic, space group P21, with unit-cell dimensions a = 71.12, b = 58.42, c = 96.38 A, beta = 96.38 degrees. 92% (native) and 94% (selenomethionine) complete data sets have been recorded to 2.9 A (Rmerge = 5.0%) and 3.0 A (Rmerge = 6.9%), respectively.'
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Rhamnose is an essential component of the cell wall of many pathogenic bacteria. Its precusor, dTDP-L-rhamnose, is synthesized from alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP via a pathway requiring four distinct enzymes: RmlA, RmlB, RmlC and RmlD. RmlC was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified by a two-step protocol involving anion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. Dynamic light-scattering experiments indicated that the recombinant protein is monodisperse. Crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as precipitant. Diffraction data were collected on a frozen crystal to a resolution of 2.17 A. The crystal belongs to either space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.56, c = 183.53 A and alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UDP-galactopyranose mutase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose, has been crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. UDP-galactofuranose is a key component of mycobacterial cell walls. Crystals of both the native protein and a selenomethionine variant have been grown by the vapour-diffusion method in hanging drops, and diffract to beyond 3.0 A using synchrotron radiation. Equilibration was against a solution of 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol (4K), 12%(v/v) 2--propanol, 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.6 at 293.5 K. Crystals grow as thin plates of dimensions 0.4 x 0.2 x approximately 0.02 mm. They are monoclinic [corrected], space group P21, with unit-cell dimensions a = 71. 12, b = 58.42, c = 96.38 A, beta = 96.38 degrees. 92% (native) and 94% (selenomethionine) complete data sets have been recorded to 2.9 A (Rmerge = 5.0%) and 3.0 A (Rmerge = 6.9%), respectively. The Matthews coefficient is 2.35 A3 Da-1 for a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content being 47%. Diffraction data have also been recorded on a putative platinum derivative to 3.5 A.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional structure of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (Ubc9) has been obtained to a resolution of 2.8 A by molecular replacement followed by a combination of automated refinement and graphical intervention. Diffraction data were recorded on a single crystal in space group P43 with cell dimensions a = b = 73.9, c = 42. 9 A. The final model has an R factor of 21.3% for all data to 2.8 A. Only the N-terminal methionine, a two-residue N-terminal extension and a four-residue loop are not located by the final electron-density map. Ubc9 is now known to be the first sumo, a new ubiquitin-like protein, conjugating enzyme and does not conjugate ubiquitin. The structure of Ubc9 shows important differences compared with the structures of known ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. At the N-terminal helix, the structural and sequence alignments are out of register by one amino acid giving Ubc9 a different recognition surface compared to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. This is coupled to a profound change in the electrostatic surface of the molecular face remote from the catalytic site. These differences may be important in recognition of other proteins in the Sumo conjugation pathway. The catalytic cysteine in Ubc9 has a positively charged lip and a negatively charged ridge nearby. Both these features seem confined to sumo-conjugating enzymes, and a sequence alignment of sumo and ubiquitin suggests how these might play a role in sumo/ubiquitin discrimination.