M Cadoz

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Reims, Rheims, Champagne-Ardenne, France

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Publications (12)70.01 Total impact

  • C. Meric, M. Cadoz
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    ABSTRACT: Development of a vaccine for prevention of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a priority. This study evaluated a "prime-boost" strategy by comparing the safety and immunogenicity of 3 doses of subunit CMV glycoprotein B (gB) vaccine plus MF59 (a squalene-in-water emulsion), 2 doses of a canarypox recombinant vaccine expressing CMVgB (ALVAC-CMVgB) followed by 2 doses of the subunit gB vaccine, 3 doses of both vaccines administered concomitantly, and placebo in 105 healthy, CMV-seronegative adults. Systemic adverse events were rare, but local reactions were common in all groups. After the first subunit vaccination, neutralizing antibody titers in the prime-boost group were comparable to those in subjects receiving 2 subunit vaccinations, indicating a priming effect of ALVAC-CMVgB. However, after the final dose, antibody and cell-mediated immune responses were not significantly different among the groups. All 3 vaccine regimens induced high-titer antibody and lymphoproliferative responses, but no benefit for priming or simultaneous vaccination was detected.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2002; 185(5):686-90. · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major matrix phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important target of HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTL) after natural infection. A canarypox-CMV pp65 recombinant was studied for its ability to induce CMV pp65-specific CTL, helper T lymphocytes, and antibodies in a phase I clinical trial. Twenty-one CMV-seronegative adult volunteers were randomized to receive immunizations at months 0, 1, 3, and 6 with either canarypox-CMV pp65 or placebo. In canarypox-CMV pp65-immunized subjects, pp65-specific CTL were elicited after only 2 vaccinations and were present at months 12 and 26 in all subjects tested. Cell-depletion studies indicated that the CTL were phenotype CD8(+). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferated in response to stimulation with purified pp65, and antibodies specific for pp65 also were detected. Canarypox-CMV pp65 is the first recombinant vaccine to elicit CMV-specific CTL responses, which suggests the potential usefulness of this approach in preventing disease caused by CMV.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2001; 183(8):1171-9. · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a vaccine against cytomegalovirus (CMV), a canarypox virus (ALVAC) expressing CMV glycoprotein (gB) was evaluated alone or in combination with a live, attenuated CMV vaccine (Towne). Three doses of 106.5 TCID50 of ALVAC-CMV(gB) induced very low neutralizing or ELISA antibodies in most seronegative adults. However, to determine whether ALVAC-CMV(gB) could prime for antibody responses, 20 seronegative adults randomly received either 106.8 TCID50 of ALVAC-CMV(gB) or 106.8 TCID50 of ALVAC-RG, expressing the rabies glycoprotein, administered at 0 and 1 month, with all subjects receiving a dose of 103.5 pfu of the Towne vaccine at 90 days. For subjects primed with ALVAC-CMV(gB), neutralizing titers and ELISA antibodies to CMV(gB) developed sooner, were much higher, and persisted longer than for subjects primed with ALVAC-RG. All vaccines were well tolerated. These results demonstrate that ALVAC-CMV(gB) primes the immune system and suggest a combined-vaccine strategy to induce potentially protective levels of neutralizing antibodies.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/1999; 180(3):843-6. · 5.78 Impact Factor
  • M Cadoz, C Méric
    Archives de Pédiatrie 02/1999; 6 Suppl 3:655s-658s. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • M. Cadoz, C. Méric
    Archives de Pédiatrie 01/1999; 6. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • Michel Cadoz
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    ABSTRACT: Of infections caused by encapsulated bacteria, those due to Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) are among the most restricted to infancy and require very early immunisation. Hib capsular polysaccharide (CPS) has the most typical T-cell independent profile. The absence of efficacy of this vaccine in infants triggered development of conjugate vaccines which are so effective that there is now no room for plain polysaccharide Hib vaccines. Pneumococcal infections pose similar problems to Hib, but are more complex. The immunogenicity of the different pneumococcal serotypes varies considerably in infancy. Although the current CPS vaccine provides limited protection in infancy, the burden of pneumococcal infection is so high that its use could be reconsidered should conjugate vaccines be available later than expected. Meningococcal infections are less a specific problem for infants. Again, serogroup immunogenicity varies widely. Group B meningococcal CPS is not immunogenic even in adults, Group C behaves as Hib CPS, whereas Group A is immunogenic as early as 6 months of age. Group A CPS may prove of interest for an infant vaccine, especially in epidemic situations. Typhoid fever is uncommon in infancy; Vi CPS is poorly immunogenic in infancy and is, therefore, of limited interest for use as an infant vaccine.
    Vaccine 08/1998; 16(14-15):1391-5. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A randomized, double-blind trial comparing a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (pertussis toxoid and filamentous hemagglutinin) with a whole-cell vaccine (DTwP) was conducted. A case-contact study was nested in the trial to estimate absolute efficacy. From 1990 through 1994, 4181 children were randomized to receive one of the vaccines at 2, 4, and 6 months. Severe adverse events were monitored weekly during two visits after vaccination. Fewer serious adverse events were observed after DTaP. Surveillance for cough illnesses persisting more than 7 days, in children under 15 years of age, was made by weekly home visits. Examining physicians, blind to vaccination status, took samples for culture and serologic testing. Pertussis was defined as 21 or more days of cough confirmed by culture, serology, or contact with a culture-confirmed person. Beginning 28 days after the third vaccine dose, the overall ratio of pertussis incidence in the DTaP group relative to the DTwP group (RRac/wc) was 1.54 (95% CI, 1.23-1.93). In children younger than 18 months of age, RRac/wc was 1.16 (95% CI, 0.77-1.73) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.33-2.33) in children older than 18 months, which suggests a shorter duration of protection with the acellular vaccine (P = 0.090). Absolute efficacy estimates derived from the case-contact study confirmed the lower protection afforded by the acellular vaccine compared with the whole-cell vaccine: 31% (95% CI, 7-49) versus 55% against the protocol case definition, and 85% (95% CI, 66-93) versus 96% for the more severe WHO case definition. Although vaccination with DTaP provided a lower degree of protection than the highly effective DTwP, this difference was less prominent before 18 months of age, the customary age for a fourth dose. The safer DTaP vaccine may prove a valuable substitute for whole-cell vaccines when used in a schedule that includes a booster-dose.
    Vaccine 11/1997; 15(15):1606-12. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Stanley A. Plotkin, Michel Cadoz
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/1997; 16(5):508-17; discussion 517-9. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A diphtheria and tetanus toxoid two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), consisting of 25 micrograms glutaraldehyde-detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) and 25 micrograms native filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), was compared with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) in a randomized, double-blind manner in 286 Senegalese infants inoculated at two, four, and six months of age. In infants receiving DTaP a significantly lower rate of local reactions, crying and fever was observed than in infants receiving DTwP. One month after the third dose, the geometric mean titres for FHA antibodies were higher in the DTaP group, whereas increases in PT antibody titres were higher in the DTwP group. More than 90% of the infants had a fourfold or more increase in antibodies to both PT and FHA with either vaccine. Diphtheria, tetanus, and polio antibody responses were also measured and found to be comparable between the two groups. The results of this pilot study support the implementation of a field trial to compare the protective efficacy of these vaccines against pertussis in the same setting.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/1997; 15(12):927-32. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ALVAC recombinants have been administered to humans and animals by parenteral and oral routes without giving signs of replication, systemic dissemination or severe reaction. In principle, it should be impossible for canarypox recombinants to disseminate in the environment as they would not be synthesised in mammalian cells as complete virus. Canarypox vectors have been safe for humans, in whom there has been no evidence of replication, but more work needs to be done to prove absence of replication. Recombinants are immunogenic by the intramuscular and subcutaneous routes. They are also immunogenic when given orally, but the dose required is still under study. Canarypox recombinants effectively prime the immune system for induction of antibodies and CD8 cell-mediated cytotoxicity by protein antigens. Antibody responses are not influenced by prior inoculation of canarypox, of subunit vaccine corresponding to the gene insert, or of vaccinia. Canarypox virus is attenuated for canaries, in which species it is already widely used. In principle, it is non-infectious for humans or other mammals. It may be infectious for other birds.
    Developments in biological standardization 02/1995; 84:165-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Poxviruses have many useful features as vectors for genes that carry immunising antigens from other viruses, such as ease of production and induction of cellular and humoral immunity, but there is concern about the safety of vaccinia virus. We turned to an avian poxvirus (canarypox); this virus undergoes abortive replication in mammalian cells that enables presentation of early gene products to the immune system. Canarypox virus was used as a vector for the rabies glycoprotein G gene. The safety and efficacy of the recombinant (ALVAC-RG; vCP65) were tested in several animal species, then it was subjected to a phase 1 clinical trial. Twenty-five volunteers were randomly assigned to subcutaneous injections of the recombinant (three groups [A, B, and C] received two doses each of 10(3.5), 10(4.5), and 10(5.5) tissue-culture infectious doses50, respectively) or of human diploid cell culture vaccine (HDC; 6.52 international potency units per dose). 28 days after the second dose, all nine ALVAC-RG group-C subjects and two of three group-B subjects had rabies neutralising antibody concentrations of at least 0.5 IU/ml, the level associated with protection in animals. Although the geometric mean titre of these antibodies at that time was lower in group C than in the ten HDC recipients (4.4 [range 0.9-12.5] vs 11.5 [4.7-25.3] IU/ml), a single booster dose at 6 months induced a recall response in volunteers primed with either vaccine. Side-effects associated with ALVAC-RG were mild and of short duration and occurred at similar frequency to those of HDC vaccine. This study has shown the potential of non-replicating poxviruses as vectors for vaccination in human beings. Trials of canarypox-virus recombinants at higher doses and by other routes of administration are needed.
    The Lancet 07/1992; 339(8807):1429-32. · 39.21 Impact Factor