M. C. Payne

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (225)845.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We show that the transition origins of electronic excitations identified by quantified natural transition orbital (QNTO) analysis can be employed to connect potential energy surfaces according to their character across a wide range of molecular geometries. This is achieved by locating the switching of transition origins of adiabatic potential surfaces as the geometry changes. The transition vectors for analysing transition origins are provided by linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations under the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. We study the photochemical CO ring opening of oxirane as an example and show that the results corroborate the traditional Gomer-Noyes mechanism derived experimentally. The knowledge of specific states for the reaction also agrees well with that given by previous theoretical work using TDDFT surface-hopping dynamics that was validated by high-quality quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We also show that QNTO can be useful for considerably larger and more complex systems: by projecting the excitations to those of a reference oxirane molecule, the approach is able to identify and analyse specific excitations of a trans-2,3-Diphenyloxirane molecule.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 04/2015; 17(18). DOI:10.1039/C5CP01018G · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the transition origins of electronic excitations identified by quantified natural transition orbital (QNTO) analysis can be employed to locate crossings among potential energy surfaces across a wide range of molecular geometries. By tracing the switching of transition origins of adiabatic potential surfaces as the geometry changes, conical intersections can be located to a small geometrical region. The transition vectors for analysing transition origins are provided by linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations under the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. We study the photochemical CO ring opening of oxirane as an example and show that the results corroborate the traditional Gomer-Noyes mechanism derived experimentally. The state-specific information for the reaction also agrees well with that given by previous theoretical work using TDDFT surface-hopping dynamics that was validated by high-quality quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We also show that QNTO can be useful for considerably larger and more complex systems: by projecting the excitations to those of a reference oxirane molecule, the approach is able to identify and analyse specific excitations of a trans-2,3-Diphenyloxirane molecule.
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    ABSTRACT: The density derived electrostatic and chemical (DDEC/c3) method is implemented into the ONETEP program to compute net atomic charges (NACs), as well as higher-order atomic multipole moments, of molecules, dense solids, nanoclusters, liquids and biomolecules using linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) in a distributed memory parallel computing environment. For a >1000 atom model of the oxygenated myoglobin protein, the DDEC/c3 net charge of the adsorbed oxygen molecule is approximately -1 e (in agreement with the Weiss model) using a dynamical mean field theory treatment of the iron atom, but much smaller in magnitude when using the the generalized gradient approximation. For GaAs semiconducting nanorods, the system dipole moment using the DDEC/c3 NACs is about 5% higher in magnitude than the dipole computed directly from the quantum mechanical electron density distribution, and the DDEC/c3 NACs reproduce the electrostatic potential to within approximately 0.1 V on the nanorod's solvent-accessible surface. As examples of conducting materials, we study (i) a 55-atom Pt cluster with an adsorbed CO molecule and (ii) the dense solids Mo2C and Pd3V. Our results for solid Mo2C and Pd3V confirm the necessity of a constraint enforcing exponentially decaying electron density in the tails of buried atoms.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 11/2014; 10(12):5377. DOI:10.1021/ct500766v · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Linear-scaling quantum mechanical density functional theory calculations have been applied to study the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate in large-scale models of the Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase enzyme. By treating up to 2000 atoms at a consistent quantum mechanical level of theory, we obtain an unbiased, almost parameter-free description of the transition state geometry and energetics. The activation energy barrier is calculated to be lowered by 10.5 kcal mol–1 in the enzyme, compared with the equivalent reaction in water, which is in good agreement with experiment. Natural bond orbital analysis identifies a number of active site residues that are important for transition state stabilization in chorismate mutase. This benchmark study demonstrates that linear-scaling density functional theory techniques are capable of simulating entire enzymes at the ab initio quantum mechanical level of accuracy.
    Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 10/2014; 5(21):3614-3619. DOI:10.1021/jz5018703 · 6.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Constrained geometric simulations have been performed for the recently published closed-channel state of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These simulations support the theory that correlated motion in the flexible β-sheet structure of the extracellular domain helps to communicate a "conformational wave", spreading from the acetylcholine binding pocket. Furthermore, we have identified key residues that act at the interface between subunits and between domains that could potentially facilitate rapid communication between the binding site and the transmembrane gate.
    Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 06/2014; 52C:1-10. DOI:10.1016/j.jmgm.2014.05.001 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carry out a first-principles atomistic study of the electronic mechanisms of ligand binding and discrimination in the myoglobin protein. Electronic correlation effects are taken into account using one of the most advanced methods currently available, namely a linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) approach wherein the treatment of localized iron 3d electrons is further refined using dynamical mean-field theory. This combination of methods explicitly accounts for dynamical and multireference quantum physics, such as valence and spin fluctuations, of the 3d electrons, while treating a significant proportion of the protein (more than 1,000 atoms) with DFT. The computed electronic structure of the myoglobin complexes and the nature of the Fe-O2 bonding are validated against experimental spectroscopic observables. We elucidate and solve a long-standing problem related to the quantum-mechanical description of the respiration process, namely that DFT calculations predict a strong imbalance between O2 and CO binding, favoring the latter to an unphysically large extent. We show that the explicit inclusion of the many-body effects induced by the Hund's coupling mechanism results in the correct prediction of similar binding energies for oxy- and carbonmonoxymyoglobin.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; 111(16). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1322966111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present progress toward a first-principles parametrization of the Hamiltonian of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson pigment–protein complex, a molecule that has become key to understanding the role of quantum dynamics in photosynthetic exciton energy transfer. To this end, we have performed fully quantum mechanical calculations on each of the seven bacteriochlorophyll pigments that make up the complex, including a significant proportion of their protein environment (more than 2000 atoms), using linear-scaling density functional theory exploiting a recent development for the computation of excited states. Local pigment transition energies and interpigment coupling between optical transitions have been calculated and are in good agreement with the literature consensus. Comparisons between simulated and experimental optical spectra point toward future work that may help to elucidate important design principles in these nanoscale devices.
    Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 11/2013; 4(24):4206. DOI:10.1021/jz402000c · 6.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic partial charges for use in traditional force fields for biomolecular simulation are often fit to the electrostatic potentials of small molecules and, hence, neglect large-scale electronic polarization. On the other hand, recent advances in atoms-in-molecule charge derivation schemes show promise for use in flexible force fields but are limited in size by the underlying quantum mechanical calculation of the electron density. Here, we implement the density derived electrostatic and chemical charges method in the linear-scaling density functional theory code ONETEP. Our implementation allows the straightforward derivation of partial atomic charges for systems comprising thousands of atoms, including entire proteins. We demonstrate that the derived charges are chemically intuitive, reproduce ab initio electrostatic potentials of proteins and are transferable between closely related systems. Simulated NMR data derived from molecular dynamics of three proteins using force fields based on the ONETEP charges are in good agreement with experiment.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 07/2013; 9(7):2981-2991. DOI:10.1021/ct400279d · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    David John Huggins, Mike C Payne
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate prediction of hydration free energies is a key objective of any free energy method that is applied to modelling and understanding interactions in the aqueous phase. Inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IFST) is a statistical mechanical method for calculating solvation free energies by quantifying the effect of a solute acting as a perturbation to bulk water. IFST has found wide application in understanding hydration phenomena in biological systems, but quantitative applications have not been comprehensively assessed. In this study, we report the hydration free energies of six simple solutes calculated using IFST and independently using free energy perturbation (FEP). This facilitates a validation of IFST that is independent of the accuracy of the forcefield. The results demonstrate that IFST shows good agreement with the FEP, with a coefficient of determination of 0.98 and a mean unsigned difference of 0.8 kcal/mol. However, sampling is a major issue that plagues IFST calculations and the results suggest that a histogram method may require prohibitively long simulations to achieve convergence of the entropies, for bin sizes which effectively capture the underlying probability distributions. Results also highlight the sensitivity of IFST to the reference interaction energy of a water molecule in bulk, with a difference of 0.01 kcal/mol changing the predicted hydration free energies by approximately 2.4 kcal/mol for the systems studied here. One of the major advantages of IFST over perturbation methods such as FEP is that the systems are spatially decomposed to consider the contribution of specific regions to the total solvation free energies. Visualizing these contributions can yield detailed insights into solvation thermodynamics. An insight from this work is the identification and explanation of regions with unfavourable free energy density relative to bulk water. These regions contribute unfavourably to the hydration free energy. Further work is necessary before IFST can be extended to yield accurate predictions of binding free energies, but the work presented here demonstrates its potential.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 06/2013; 117(27). DOI:10.1021/jp4042233 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myoglobin modulates the binding of diatomic molecules to its heme group via hydrogen-bonding and steric interactions with neighboring residues, and is an important benchmark for computational studies of biomolecules. We have performed calculations on the heme binding site and a significant proportion of the protein environment (more than 1000 atoms) using linear-scaling density functional theory and the DFT+U method to correct for self-interaction errors associated with localized 3d states. We confirm both the hydrogen-bonding nature of the discrimination effect (3.6 kcal/mol) and assumptions that the relative strain energy stored in the protein is low (less than 1 kcal/mol). Our calculations significantly widen the scope for tackling problems in drug design and enzymology, especially in cases where electron localization, allostery or long-ranged polarization influence ligand binding and reaction.
    Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 05/2013; 3(11-11). DOI:10.1021/jz3004188 · 6.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A detailed study of energy differences between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO gaps) in protein systems and water clusters is presented. Recent work questioning the applicability of Kohn-Sham density-functional theory to proteins and large water clusters (Rudberg 2012 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24 072202) has demonstrated vanishing HOMO-LUMO gaps for these systems, which is generally attributed to the treatment of exchange in the functional used. The present work shows that the vanishing gap is, in fact, an electrostatic artefact of the method used to prepare the system. Practical solutions for ensuring the gap is maintained when the system size is increased are demonstrated. This work has important implications for the use of large-scale density-functional theory in biomolecular systems, particularly in the simulation of photoemission, optical absorption and electronic transport, all of which depend critically on differences between energies of molecular orbitals.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 03/2013; 25(15):152101. DOI:10.1088/0953-8984/25/15/152101 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: First principles electronic structure calculations are typically performed in terms of molecular orbitals (or bands), providing a straightforward theoretical avenue for approximations of increasing sophistication, but do not usually provide any qualitative chemical information about the system. We can derive such information via post-processing using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, which produces a chemical picture of bonding in terms of localized Lewis-type bond and lone pair orbitals that we can use to understand molecular structure and interactions. We present NBO analysis of large-scale calculations with the ONETEP linear-scaling density functional theory package, which we have interfaced with the NBO 5 analysis program. In ONETEP calculations involving thousands of atoms, one is typically interested in particular regions of a nanosystem whilst accounting for long-range electronic effects from the entire system. We show that by transforming the Non-orthogonal Generalized Wannier Functions of ONETEP to natural atomic orbitals, NBO analysis can be performed within a localized region in such a way that ensures the results are identical to an analysis on the full system. We demonstrate the capabilities of this approach by performing illustrative studies of large proteins-namely, investigating changes in charge transfer between the heme group of myoglobin and its ligands with increasing system size and between a protein and its explicit solvent, estimating the contribution of electronic delocalization to the stabilization of hydrogen bonds in the binding pocket of a drug-receptor complex, and observing, in situ, the n → π* hyperconjugative interactions between carbonyl groups that stabilize protein backbones. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 03/2013; 34(6). DOI:10.1002/jcc.23150 · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vanadium dioxide undergoes a first order metal-insulator transition at 340 K. In this work, we develop and carry out state of the art linear scaling DFT calculations refined with non-local dynamical mean-field theory. We identify a complex mechanism, a Peierls-assisted orbital selection Mott instability, which is responsible for the insulating M$_1$ phase, and furthermore survives a moderate degree of disorder.
    Physical Review Letters 06/2012; 108(25):256402. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.256402 · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a mechanism for binding of diatomic ligands to heme based on a dynamical orbital selection process. This scenario may be described as bonding determined by local valence fluctuations. We support this model using linear-scaling first-principles calculations, in combination with dynamical mean-field theory, applied to heme, the kernel of the hemoglobin metalloprotein central to human respiration. We find that variations in Hund's exchange coupling induce a reduction of the iron 3d density, with a concomitant increase of valence fluctuations. We discuss the comparison between our computed optical absorption spectra and experimental data, our picture accounting for the observation of optical transitions in the infrared regime, and how the Hund's coupling reduces, by a factor of five, the strong imbalance in the binding energies of heme with CO and O_2 ligands.
    Physical Review Letters 06/2012; 110(10):106402. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.106402 · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Localized Wannier functions provide an efficient and intuitive means by which to compute dielectric properties from first principles. They are most commonly constructed in a post-processing step, following total-energy minimization. Nonorthogonal generalized Wannier functions (NGWFs) [Skylaris et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 035119 11 (2002); Skylaris et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 084119 (2005)] may also be optimized in situ, in the process of solving for the ground-state density. We explore the relationship between NGWFs and orthonormal, maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) [Marzari and Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. B 56, 12847 (1997); Souza, Marzari, and Vanderbilt, ibid. 65, 035109 (2001)], demonstrating that NGWFs may be used to compute electric dipole polarizabilities efficiently, with no necessity for post-processing optimization, and with an accuracy comparable to MLWFs.
    Physical Review B 05/2012; 85(19):193101. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.85.193101 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an approach to the DFT+U method (Density Functional Theory + Hubbard model) within which the computational effort for calculation of ground state energies and forces scales linearly with system size. We employ a formulation of the Hubbard model using nonorthogonal projector functions to define the localized subspaces, and apply it to a local-orbital DFT method including in situ orbital optimization. The resulting approach thus combines linear-scaling and systematic variational convergence. We demonstrate the scaling of the method by applying it to nickel oxide nano-clusters with sizes exceeding 7,000 atoms.
    Physical Review B 02/2012; 85(8):085107. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.85.085107 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an implicit solvent model for ab initio electronic structure calculations which is fully self-consistent and is based on direct solution of the nonhomogeneous Poisson equation. The solute cavity is naturally defined in terms of an isosurface of the electronic density according to the formula of Fattebert and Gygi (J. Comp. Chem. 23, 6 (2002)). While this model depends on only two parameters, we demonstrate that by using appropriate boundary conditions and dispersion-repulsion contributions, solvation energies obtained for an extensive test set including neutral and charged molecules show dramatic improvement compared to existing models. Our approach is implemented in, but not restricted to, a linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) framework, opening the path for self-consistent implicit solvent DFT calculations on systems of unprecedented size, which we demonstrate with calculations on a 2615-atom protein-ligand complex.
    EPL (Europhysics Letters) 12/2011; 95(4). DOI:10.1209/0295-5075/95/43001 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The simulation of complex chemical systems often requires a multi-level description, in which a region of special interest is treated using a computationally expensive quantum mechanical (QM) model while its environment is described by a faster, simpler molecular mechanical (MM) model. Furthermore, studying dynamic effects in solvated systems or bio-molecules requires a variable definition of the two regions, so that atoms or molecules can be dynamically re-assigned between the QM and MM descriptions during the course of the simulation. Such reassignments pose a problem for traditional QM/MM schemes by exacerbating the errors that stem from switching the model at the boundary. Here we show that stable, long adaptive simulations can be carried out using density functional theory with the BLYP exchange-correlation functional for the QM model and a flexible TIP3P force field for the MM model without requiring adjustments of either. Using a primary benchmark system of pure water, we investigate the convergence of the liquid structure with the size of the QM region, and demonstrate that by using a sufficiently large QM region (with radius 6 Å) it is possible to obtain radial and angular distributions that, in the QM region, match the results of fully quantum mechanical calculations with periodic boundary conditions, and, after a smooth transition, also agree with fully MM calculations in the MM region. The key ingredient is the accurate evaluation of forces in the QM subsystem which we achieve by including an extended buffer region in the QM calculations. We also show that our buffered-force QM/MM scheme is transferable by simulating the solvated Cl(-) ion.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 11/2011; 14(2):646-56. DOI:10.1039/c1cp22600b · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    David J Huggins, May Marsh, Mike C Payne
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been identified as a vital regulator of cellular pathways and networks. However, the determinants that control binding affinity and specificity at protein surfaces are incompletely characterized and thus unable to be exploited for the purpose of developing PPI inhibitors to control cellular pathways in disease states. One of the key factors in intermolecular interactions that remains poorly understood is the role of water molecules and in particular the importance of solvent entropy. This factor is expected to be particularly important at protein surfaces, and the release of water molecules from hydrophobic regions is one of the most important drivers of PPIs. In this work, we have studied the protein surface of a mutant of the protein RadA to quantify the thermodynamics of surface water molecules. RadA and its human homologue RAD51 function as recombinases in the process of homologous recombination. RadA binds to itself to form oligomeric structures and thus contains a well-characterized protein-protein binding surface. Similarly, RAD51 binds either to itself to form oligomers or to the protein BRCA2 to form filaments. X-ray crystallography has determined that the same interface functions in both interactions. Work in our group has generated a partially humanized mutant of RadA, termed MAYM, which has been crystallized in the apo form. We studied this apo form of MAYM using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IFST). The method locates a number of the hydration sites observed in the crystal structure and locates hydrophobic sites where hydrophobic species are known to bind experimentally. The simulations also highlight the importance of the restraints placed on the protein in determining the results. Finally, the results identify a correlation between the predicted entropy of water molecules at a given site and the solvent-accessible surface area and suggest that correlations between water molecules only need to be considered for water molecules separated by less than 3.2 Å. The combination of MD and IFST has been used previously to study PPIs and represents one of the few existing methods to quantify solvent thermodynamics. This is a vital aspect of molecular recognition and one which we believe must be developed.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 11/2011; 7(11):3514-3522. DOI:10.1021/ct200465z · 5.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
845.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Physics: Cavendish Laboratory
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • Technical University of Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1985–1998
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • Birkbeck, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993–1994
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
      • Solid State Division
      Oak Ridge, Florida, United States