[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Western countries, breast cancer incidence and mortality are higher than in Mediterranean countries. These differences have been ascribed to environmental factors but also to late-stage diagnostic and biological specific characteristics.
Between September 2002 and September 2005, we collected clinical data by phone counselling 180 French and Mediterranean breast cancer patients and performed microarray experiments.
Characteristics of breast cancer in patients from Lebanon, Tunisia and Morocco were more aggressive (more SBR grade III and positive node invasion) and patients were 10 years younger at diagnosis. Sixteen differentially expressed genes such as MMP9, VEGF, PHB1, BRCA1, TFAP2C, GJA1 and TFF1 were also found. Additionally, an up-regulation of cytokeratins KRT8 and KRT18 may indicate a luminal B subtype in "South" (Lebanon, Tunisia and Morocco) tumors while "North" (France) tumors may more frequently be luminal A type.
This study allowed the identification of specific clinical and transcriptomic parameters in patients from South Mediterranean countries.
Cancer genomics & proteomics 09/2008; 5(5):253-61.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) plays a major role in breast cancer development. It acts as ligand-inducible transcription factor which determines growth, survival and differentiation of breast cancer cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential interference between radiotherapy and estrogen receptor responsiveness. Materials and methods. The effect of ionizing radiation was assessed on the estrogen receptor alpha status, growth (proliferation and apoptosis) and sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to estrogenic (17beta-estradiol (E2)), selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and anti-estrogenic compounds. Results. We have observed a ligand-independent decrease in ERalpha expression after radiation, resulting from a specific reduction in mRNA level and protein synthesis. This ERalpha disappearance occurred 72 h post-irradiation at 8 Gy and decreased the transcriptional activity in ERalpha of these cells. On the other hand, E2 impedes the growth inhibitory effects (essentially on proliferation) of ionizing radiation in MCF-7 cells, which potentially decreases radiosensitivity of these cells. This effect was totally blocked by SERM and anti-estrogenic treatments. Moreover, this growth effect of concurrent anti-estrogenic drugs and ionizing radiation appeared to be strongly synergistic. CONCLUSIONS: This study may increase general comprehension of ERalpha modulation by radiotherapy and improve adjuvant therapeutic approaches based on co-administration of radiation and endocrine therapy.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2005; 93(3):207-15. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the effects of the protein kinase C (PKC)-activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on gene expression in two breast cancer cell (BCC) lines exhibiting highly different phenotypes. These are the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive, weakly invasive, luminal epithelial-like MCF-7 and the ERalpha-negative, highly invasive, fibroblast-like MDA-MB-231. They express constitutively low and high PKC activities, respectively. After a 24-h exposition to 100 nM PMA, the number of genes showing an altered expression at the 2-fold change level was much higher in MCF-7 (n=435) than in MDA-MB-231 (n=18) BCC. Four of these genes, namely CDC2, CENPA, NR4A1 and MMP10, were altered in the same way in both cell lines. Two genes were regulated in an opposite way: ID1 and EVA1. Many of the genes down-regulated in MCF-7 BCC appeared to be preferentially expressed in the G1, S, and/or G2 phases of the cell cycle. The ERalpha gene, ESR1, and other genes associated to the ERalpha-positive, luminal epithelial-like BCC phenotype were down-regulated, while a series of genes related to a more aggressive, fibroblast-like BCC phenotype were up-regulated. Other altered genes were notably linked to cell architecture, supporting profound effects of PMA on cell morphology and motility, as well as on the interactions between BCC and their neighboring proteins. Of note, all the modulated genes involved in proteolysis and its control were up-regulated. In summary, PMA effects suggest that PKC activation may induce, to some extent, a more fibroblast-like phenotype in the ERalpha-positive, luminal epithelial-like MCF-7 BCC, and significantly modulate the interactions of these cells with their environment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is widely believed that ductal breast cancer dissemination involves a succession of clinical and pathological stages starting with carcinoma in situ, progressing into invasive lesion and culminating in metastatic disease. Such changes have frequently been attributed to the sequential acquisition of various alterations in a single cell followed by clonal selection and expansion, thus leading to intra-tumor diversity. According to this multi-step view, extensive genotype and phenotype (marker expression, grade) shift may occur in the same tumor during progression; this may lead to the co-existence of molecularly and/or pathologically different areas within the same lesion. An increasing amount of data of various natures now appear to challenge this concept: only a few distinct 'portraits', in relation to estrogen receptor (ER) status and grade, may be found among tumors. Moreover, although undergoing increasing genetic alteration, most individual lesions largely maintain their phenotype when they evolve from in situ to the metastatic state. While many of the data presented here are related to ductal tumors, lobular cancer is also discussed.
Endocrine Related Cancer 10/2004; 11(3):497-522. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In breast tumours and breast cancer cell (BCC) lines, microarray analyses have revealed that a series of genes are expressed in close association with the oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) gene, ESR1. Three of them, GATA3, HNF3A (also known as FOXA1), and XBP1 encode transcription factors. Here, we present these factors and we discuss their potential involvement in the ER-alpha-mediated actions in BCC. We notably show the relations that exist, or that might exist, between these factors and the oestrogen-inducible trefoil factor TFF1.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 05/2004; 219(1-2):1-7. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer remains a major cause of death in women from Western countries. In the near future, advances in both nucleic acids technology and tumor biology should be widely exploited to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and outcome prediction of this disease. The DNA microarray, also called biochip, is a promising tool for performing massive, simultaneous, fast, and standardized analyses of multiple molecular markers in tumor samples. However, most currently available microarrays are expensive, which is mainly due to the amount (several thousands) of different DNA capture sequences that they carry. While these high-density microarrays are best suited for basic studies, their introduction into the clinical routine remains hypothetical. We describe here the principles of a low-density microarray, carrying only a few hundreds of capture sequences specific to markers whose importance in breast cancer is generally recognized or suggested by the current medical literature. We provide a list of about 250 of these markers. We also examine some potential difficulties (homologies between marker and/or variant sequences, size of sequences, etc.) associated with the production of such a low-cost microarray.
The International journal of biological markers 01/2002; 17(1):5-23. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iodinated oestradiol-labeled oestrogen receptor (ER) isoforms devoid of amino-terminal ABC domains represent about two-thirds of the whole receptor population detected in cytosol samples from human breast cancers. This high frequency could not be ascribed to the expression of truncated mRNAs, or to the proteolysis of the native ER peptide at the time of homogenization or assay, suggesting an intracellular proteolysis. Free amino-terminal and ligand-binding domains maintained together within oligomeric structure(s); increase of ionic strength separated them. The amino-terminal region was consistently detected in the cell nucleus by specific immunohistochemistry leading to the concept of a potential intranuclear association between ER cleavage products and/or other regulatory proteins.
Breast Cancer Research 02/2000; 2(6):444-54. · 5.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have established and characterized 3 new breast-cancer cell lines from pleural effusions of patients with advanced breast cancer. All 3 cell lines, designated IBEP-1, IBEP-2 and IBEP-3, showed typical ultrastructural characteristics of epithelial mammary tumor cells. Electron microscopy showed, among other characteristics, the presence of numerous microvilli, desmosomal junctions, intracytoplasmic duct-like vacuoles, well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and large nuclei. Immunohistochemical and biochemical studies revealed that the 3 cell lines expressed cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CEA and CA 15-3, but all showed negative immunoreaction for vimentin. On the other hand, other antigens (LEU-M1, GCDFP 15, c-erbB-2) were expressed by some of the cell lines, but in a variable manner. Ploidy studies confirmed the neoplastic origin of the cell lines. The doubling times were 68 hr for IBEP-1, 29 hr for IBEP-2 and 39 hr for IBEP-3. Only IBEP-2 cells expressed estrogen receptors (ER+), which were down-regulated after preincubation with E2, but they did not express progesterone receptors (PgR-). IBEP-1 and IBEP-3 cells were ER- but expressed PgR (PgR+). In these 2 cell lines, PgR were down-regulated after pre-incubation of the cells with progesterone (10(-8) M) for 24 hr. Estradiol (E2) increased the proliferation rate of IBEP-2 cells and progesterone increased the proliferation of IBEP-I and -3 cell lines. S.C. injection of the 3 IBEP cell lines into nude mice resulted in the growth of solid tumors between 11 and 16 weeks after inoculation. These cell lines could thus be new models for studying various aspects of the biology and the tumorigenicity of breast-cancer cells. A major interest of these new cell lines is that 2 of them were ER- and PgR+, which is an exceptional phenotypic feature. These 2 cell lines could be interesting models for studying the regulation of PgR and the effects of progestins and antiprogestins independently of the presence of ER.
International Journal of Cancer 06/1998; 76(5):677-83. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have studied the production of interleukin-11 (Il-11) in 13 breast cancer cell (BCC) lines. Two of these cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T) expressed the cytokine at both the protein and mRNA levels. Il-11 did not modulate the growth of five BCC lines examined, including the two cytokine-producing BCC lines. The production of Il-11 was increased by transforming growth factor-beta1 in a dose-dependent manner with a rapid (2 h) and transient (24 h) mRNA induction, but not by epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I and -II, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor or parathyroid hormone. The cyclic AMP inducer, forskolin, and the activator of protein kinase C, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, also stimulated the production of Il-11. Besides Il-11, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T were the only BCC lines to produce interleukin-6 (Il-6) protein and mRNA. Since Il-11 and Il-6 are potent stimulators of osteoclast development and bone is a major source of TGF-beta1, our data suggest that Il-11, together with Il-6, contributes to the high bone destructive capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells and could play a role in breast cancer-induced osteolysis.
Cancer Letters 06/1998; 127(1-2):29-35. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1986 we reported the appearance of a progestin binding protein in the human breast cancer cell line Evsa-T, originally described as lacking both estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR). In this report we show that PR of this cell line displays a binding affinity for [3H]ORG 2058 and a sucrose gradient sedimentation profile similar to those ascribed to PR from MCF-7 or T47D breast cancer cell lines. PR from Evsa-T cells is down-regulated by the progestin R-5020 as well as by the two antiprogestins, ZK 112.993 and ZK 98.299, but does not confer growth sensitivity to these compounds. ER remains undetectable by ligand binding assay, enzyme immunoassay and northern blotting. Our Evsa-T clone could be a valuable model for assessing the mechanisms leading the ER-/PR+ phenotype occurring occasionally in breast cancers and frequently in meningiomas.
Cancer Letters 12/1997; 120(1):23-30. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer cells (BCC) have calcitonin (CT) receptors, yet the action of the hormone on these cells is largely unknown. We found that CT produced a strong and transient time- and dose-dependent increase in c-fos mRNA in BCC lines. This event was prevented by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89. CT alone did not influence the expression of c-jun and of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (timp) -1 and -2 mRNAs; however, it reduced the induction of these mRNAs by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), without apparent changes in the half-life of the mRNA (measured for c-jun). Along the same line, CT reduced the c-jun induction and T-47D growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin. These effects were mimicked by forskolin and/or prevented by H89, suggesting that PKA activation was involved. These results indicate that CT modulates in BCC the mRNA levels of two important growth-related early response genes (c-fos and c-jun) and of two other genes (timp-1 and -2) involved in the control of metastatic events.
Calcified Tissue International 07/1997; 60(6):513-9. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of breast cancer-induced osteolysis remains largely unknown. To evaluate the potential role of osteoblasts as target cells during this process, we incubated SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells (OBL) with culture media conditioned by proliferative (PM, 'Proliferation Media') or confluent (CfM, 'Confluence Media') MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. CfM decreased the growth of OBL by 26% (P < 0.01) while PM was without significant effect on this parameter. In contrast, both PM and CfM obtained from MCF-7 cultures increased the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response of OBL to the osteolytic agents PTH (10(-8) M) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP, 10(-8) M) by a factor of about 3 (P < 0.001), and to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2),10(-6) M) by a factor of about 2 (P < 0.01). No significant modulation of OBL growth or sensitivity to PTH, PTHrP, or PGE2 was induced by media obtained from HBL-100 non-malignant immortalized breast epithelial cell cultures. 17betaestradiol (E(2), 10(-8) M) and the antiestrogen tamoxifen (Tam, 10(-7) M) added for 48 h to MCF-7 cultures before collecting conditioned media attenuated and potentiated, respectively, the PM- but not the CfM-induced increase in the response of OBL to PTH or PTHrP Along the same line, the addition to MCF-7 conditioned media of a polyclonal anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) antibody attenuated by about 25% (P < 0.01) the PM-induced increase in OBL response to PTH and PTHrP while abrogating the modulatory effects of E(2) and Tam on that response. Together, our results indicate that MCF-7 breast cancer cells secrete factors which inhibit the growth of OBL and increase their sensitivity to various osteolytic agents. TGF-beta was only partly responsible for these effects, and accounts for their modulation by E(2) and Tam. The identification of other osteoblast-modulatory factor(s) should contribute to a better understanding and treatment of breast cancer-induced osteolysis.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/1996; 38(2):209-16. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported the existence of specific and high-affinity calcitonin (CT) receptors on normal human T-lymphocytes. Because of the increasingly recognized importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 in the control of bone metabolism, we have examined their influence on the binding parameters of labeled salmon calcitonin (sCT) on lymphocytes. After a 24-hour incubation, IL-1 at 100-5000 U/ml and IL-6, at 1-1000 U/ml, decreased the apparent number of CT binding sites (Bmax) on T-lymphocytes. The effects of IL-6 on purified T-lymphocytes were dose related and 100 U of IL-6/ml reduced sCT binding to 57 +/- 16% (mean +/- SD) of the control values (n = 6). There was no significant change in CT binding affinity (Kd, 0.71 +/- 0.54 x 10(-10) M for controls versus 0.90 +/- 0.55 x 10(-10) M after IL-6) and the decrease in Bmax was reversible after 48 hours. The effects of IL-1 appeared to be mediated through an increased production of IL-6 as they were neutralized by a polyclonal antiserum against IL-6. Added alone, the antiserum caused a slight increase in the apparent number of CT binding sites on T-lymphocytes to 115 +/- 5% of control values (n = 3). In summary, IL-1 and IL-6 can induce a marked apparent loss of CT binding sites on normal T-lymphocytes at concentrations known to be active on bone metabolism. The contributions of our observations to the osteolytic activity of these cytokines deserve further investigation.
Calcified Tissue International 09/1994; 55(2):109-13. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some epidemiological studies have suggested that aspirin could be a chemopreventive agent against breast cancer. We tested the effects of the aspirin metabolite salicylate (SA) on four (Hs578T, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D) breast cancer cell (BCC) lines in vitro. Two features were studied: the proliferation of BCC and their production of the osteolytic cytokines interleukins-6 (IL-6) and -11 (IL-11) since BCC frequently metastasize to bone and induce tumor-induced osteolysis. SA, from 0.5 to 5 mM, caused BCC growth inhibition by up to 70% (IC50 range 2.54 to 4.28 mM). At high concentrations, the drug induced apoptosis only (MDA-MB-231), or both apoptosis and primary necrosis (MCF-7). SA, as well as indomethacin (INDO), reduced the synthesis of IL-6 and -11, at both the protein and mRNA levels, in the two cell lines producing these cytokines (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T). This latter effect seemed to be mediated by PGE2 since SA and INDO reduced PGE2 levels in MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells, PGE2 was not detected in MCF-7 and T-47D cells and exogenous PGE2 increased IL-6 and -11 expression by MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that SA could reduce the growth of breast tumors and inhibit to some extent the ability of BCC to induce osteoclast recruitment and osteolysis. These data indicate the need for further epidemiological and experimental studies.
Anticancer research 19(4B):2997-3006. · 1.71 Impact Factor