M Lacroix

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

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Publications (18)69.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) plays a major role in breast cancer development. It acts as ligand-inducible transcription factor which determines growth, survival and differentiation of breast cancer cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential interference between radiotherapy and estrogen receptor responsiveness. Materials and methods. The effect of ionizing radiation was assessed on the estrogen receptor alpha status, growth (proliferation and apoptosis) and sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to estrogenic (17beta-estradiol (E2)), selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and anti-estrogenic compounds. Results. We have observed a ligand-independent decrease in ERalpha expression after radiation, resulting from a specific reduction in mRNA level and protein synthesis. This ERalpha disappearance occurred 72 h post-irradiation at 8 Gy and decreased the transcriptional activity in ERalpha of these cells. On the other hand, E2 impedes the growth inhibitory effects (essentially on proliferation) of ionizing radiation in MCF-7 cells, which potentially decreases radiosensitivity of these cells. This effect was totally blocked by SERM and anti-estrogenic treatments. Moreover, this growth effect of concurrent anti-estrogenic drugs and ionizing radiation appeared to be strongly synergistic. CONCLUSIONS: This study may increase general comprehension of ERalpha modulation by radiotherapy and improve adjuvant therapeutic approaches based on co-administration of radiation and endocrine therapy.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2005; 93(3):207-15. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have examined the effects of the protein kinase C (PKC)-activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on gene expression in two breast cancer cell (BCC) lines exhibiting highly different phenotypes. These are the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive, weakly invasive, luminal epithelial-like MCF-7 and the ERalpha-negative, highly invasive, fibroblast-like MDA-MB-231. They express constitutively low and high PKC activities, respectively. After a 24-h exposition to 100 nM PMA, the number of genes showing an altered expression at the 2-fold change level was much higher in MCF-7 (n=435) than in MDA-MB-231 (n=18) BCC. Four of these genes, namely CDC2, CENPA, NR4A1 and MMP10, were altered in the same way in both cell lines. Two genes were regulated in an opposite way: ID1 and EVA1. Many of the genes down-regulated in MCF-7 BCC appeared to be preferentially expressed in the G1, S, and/or G2 phases of the cell cycle. The ERalpha gene, ESR1, and other genes associated to the ERalpha-positive, luminal epithelial-like BCC phenotype were down-regulated, while a series of genes related to a more aggressive, fibroblast-like BCC phenotype were up-regulated. Other altered genes were notably linked to cell architecture, supporting profound effects of PMA on cell morphology and motility, as well as on the interactions between BCC and their neighboring proteins. Of note, all the modulated genes involved in proteolysis and its control were up-regulated. In summary, PMA effects suggest that PKC activation may induce, to some extent, a more fibroblast-like phenotype in the ERalpha-positive, luminal epithelial-like MCF-7 BCC, and significantly modulate the interactions of these cells with their environment.
    Oncology Reports 11/2004; 12(4):701-7. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    M Lacroix, R-A Toillon, G Leclercq
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely believed that ductal breast cancer dissemination involves a succession of clinical and pathological stages starting with carcinoma in situ, progressing into invasive lesion and culminating in metastatic disease. Such changes have frequently been attributed to the sequential acquisition of various alterations in a single cell followed by clonal selection and expansion, thus leading to intra-tumor diversity. According to this multi-step view, extensive genotype and phenotype (marker expression, grade) shift may occur in the same tumor during progression; this may lead to the co-existence of molecularly and/or pathologically different areas within the same lesion. An increasing amount of data of various natures now appear to challenge this concept: only a few distinct 'portraits', in relation to estrogen receptor (ER) status and grade, may be found among tumors. Moreover, although undergoing increasing genetic alteration, most individual lesions largely maintain their phenotype when they evolve from in situ to the metastatic state. While many of the data presented here are related to ductal tumors, lobular cancer is also discussed.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 10/2004; 11(3):497-522. · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • M Lacroix, G Leclercq
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    ABSTRACT: In breast tumours and breast cancer cell (BCC) lines, microarray analyses have revealed that a series of genes are expressed in close association with the oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) gene, ESR1. Three of them, GATA3, HNF3A (also known as FOXA1), and XBP1 encode transcription factors. Here, we present these factors and we discuss their potential involvement in the ER-alpha-mediated actions in BCC. We notably show the relations that exist, or that might exist, between these factors and the oestrogen-inducible trefoil factor TFF1.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 05/2004; 219(1-2):1-7. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer remains a major cause of death in women from Western countries. In the near future, advances in both nucleic acids technology and tumor biology should be widely exploited to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and outcome prediction of this disease. The DNA microarray, also called biochip, is a promising tool for performing massive, simultaneous, fast, and standardized analyses of multiple molecular markers in tumor samples. However, most currently available microarrays are expensive, which is mainly due to the amount (several thousands) of different DNA capture sequences that they carry. While these high-density microarrays are best suited for basic studies, their introduction into the clinical routine remains hypothetical. We describe here the principles of a low-density microarray, carrying only a few hundreds of capture sequences specific to markers whose importance in breast cancer is generally recognized or suggested by the current medical literature. We provide a list of about 250 of these markers. We also examine some potential difficulties (homologies between marker and/or variant sequences, size of sequences, etc.) associated with the production of such a low-cost microarray.
    The International journal of biological markers 01/2002; 17(1):5-23. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancers frequently metastasize to bone where they often cause extensive tumor-induced osteoclast-mediated osteolysis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-11 are two cytokines exhibiting osteolytic properties through their potent stimulation of osteoclast formation. We investigated the expression of IL-6 and IL-11 in 99 invasive primary breast tumors by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. We examined their potential as predictive factors for further development of bone metastases. 52/90 (57%) of tumor samples showed IL-6 cytoplasmic immunostaining. There was no significant association between IL-6 status and any of the classical prognostic factors. 15/89 (17%) of the tumor samples expressed IL-11 mRNA. A positive IL-11 mRNA status was associated with a low tumor grade (P=0.05). Tumors expressing IL-11 mRNA had a statistically significant (P=0.002) higher rate of bone metastases occurrence (12/15, 80%) than IL-11 negative tumors (27/74, 37%). Such association was not found for IL-6. Our findings demonstrate for the first time IL-11 gene expression in some primary invasive breast tumors and suggest the potential of this cytokine as possible biological predictive factor for the development of bone metastases.
    Cancer Letters 09/2001; 169(1):87-95. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    M Lacroix, P J Marie, J J Body
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer cells (BCC) frequently metastasize to bone where they may cause tumor-induced osteolysis (TIO). While the important eroding role of the osteoclasts in TIO is well admitted, the possibility that BCC and/or osteoblasts activated by tumoral factors could also directly degrade bone matrix in this pathology has been much less investigated. We show here that the net collagen amount produced in vitro by normal human osteoblasts and osteoblast-like cells was significantly reduced by culture medium conditioned by several BCC lines, including three newly isolated ones. There was no evidence for a decrease in collagen synthesis, as assessed by the production of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen. In contrast, the effect of BCC-derived medium on collagen amount was attenuated by inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as by tranexamic acid, an inhibitor of the plasminogen conversion to plasmin, while it was abolished in presence of the two kinds of proteinase inhibitors. This osteoblastic protein degradation activity appeared to be attributable to factors secreted by the osteoblasts as well as by BCC. These factors had molecular weights lower as well as higher than 10 kD. Our data suggest that besides the eroding action of osteoclasts, BCC- and osteoblast-derived MMPs and serine proteinases might play a direct role in bone collagen degradation in TIO.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2000; 61(1):59-67. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iodinated oestradiol-labeled oestrogen receptor (ER) isoforms devoid of amino-terminal ABC domains represent about two-thirds of the whole receptor population detected in cytosol samples from human breast cancers. This high frequency could not be ascribed to the expression of truncated mRNAs, or to the proteolysis of the native ER peptide at the time of homogenization or assay, suggesting an intracellular proteolysis. Free amino-terminal and ligand-binding domains maintained together within oligomeric structure(s); increase of ionic strength separated them. The amino-terminal region was consistently detected in the cell nucleus by specific immunohistochemistry leading to the concept of a potential intranuclear association between ER cleavage products and/or other regulatory proteins.
    Breast Cancer Research 02/2000; 2(6):444-54. · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    M Lacroix, B Siwek, P J Marie, J J Body
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the production of interleukin-11 (Il-11) in 13 breast cancer cell (BCC) lines. Two of these cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T) expressed the cytokine at both the protein and mRNA levels. Il-11 did not modulate the growth of five BCC lines examined, including the two cytokine-producing BCC lines. The production of Il-11 was increased by transforming growth factor-beta1 in a dose-dependent manner with a rapid (2 h) and transient (24 h) mRNA induction, but not by epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I and -II, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor or parathyroid hormone. The cyclic AMP inducer, forskolin, and the activator of protein kinase C, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, also stimulated the production of Il-11. Besides Il-11, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T were the only BCC lines to produce interleukin-6 (Il-6) protein and mRNA. Since Il-11 and Il-6 are potent stimulators of osteoclast development and bone is a major source of TGF-beta1, our data suggest that Il-11, together with Il-6, contributes to the high bone destructive capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells and could play a role in breast cancer-induced osteolysis.
    Cancer Letters 06/1998; 127(1-2):29-35. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have established and characterized 3 new breast-cancer cell lines from pleural effusions of patients with advanced breast cancer. All 3 cell lines, designated IBEP-1, IBEP-2 and IBEP-3, showed typical ultrastructural characteristics of epithelial mammary tumor cells. Electron microscopy showed, among other characteristics, the presence of numerous microvilli, desmosomal junctions, intracytoplasmic duct-like vacuoles, well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and large nuclei. Immunohistochemical and biochemical studies revealed that the 3 cell lines expressed cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CEA and CA 15-3, but all showed negative immunoreaction for vimentin. On the other hand, other antigens (LEU-M1, GCDFP 15, c-erbB-2) were expressed by some of the cell lines, but in a variable manner. Ploidy studies confirmed the neoplastic origin of the cell lines. The doubling times were 68 hr for IBEP-1, 29 hr for IBEP-2 and 39 hr for IBEP-3. Only IBEP-2 cells expressed estrogen receptors (ER+), which were down-regulated after preincubation with E2, but they did not express progesterone receptors (PgR-). IBEP-1 and IBEP-3 cells were ER- but expressed PgR (PgR+). In these 2 cell lines, PgR were down-regulated after pre-incubation of the cells with progesterone (10(-8) M) for 24 hr. Estradiol (E2) increased the proliferation rate of IBEP-2 cells and progesterone increased the proliferation of IBEP-I and -3 cell lines. S.C. injection of the 3 IBEP cell lines into nude mice resulted in the growth of solid tumors between 11 and 16 weeks after inoculation. These cell lines could thus be new models for studying various aspects of the biology and the tumorigenicity of breast-cancer cells. A major interest of these new cell lines is that 2 of them were ER- and PgR+, which is an exceptional phenotypic feature. These 2 cell lines could be interesting models for studying the regulation of PgR and the effects of progestins and antiprogestins independently of the presence of ER.
    International Journal of Cancer 06/1998; 76(5):677-83. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    M Lacroix, B Siwek, J J Body
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    ABSTRACT: Calcitonin may induce cyclic AMP production by breast cancer cells and inhibit their growth. The molecular complex leading to cyclic AMP production in response to calcitonin is made of the calcitonin receptor coupled to the adenylate cyclase by at least one guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein, of the Gs type). Our aim was to determine whether and how the responses of cells to calcitonin were modulated by growth-regulating agents not directly acting through the cyclic AMP pathway. We found that the cyclic AMP response to calcitonin was reduced after preincubation of cells with the mitogens 17beta-estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF), while it was enhanced after preincubation with the growth inhibitors tamoxifen and 1,25(OH)2D3, as well as with an antisense oligonucleotide to the proto-oncogene c-myc. Scatchard-plots revealed no significant change in the calcitonin receptor number or affinity. On the other hand, the cyclic AMP production of cells in response to activators unrelated to calcitonin, such as forskolin, a direct adenylate cyclase effector, and isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, was modulated only weakly or not at all by the growth-regulating agents. This suggested that the effects observed were essentially calcitonin-specific and associated with events located between the calcitonin receptor and the adenylate cyclase. Since a Go- or Gi-protein has been previously implicated in the calcitonin signal transduction, we tested the action of pertussis toxin, a specific inhibitor of these G-proteins. Pertussis toxin produced a general increase in the cyclic AMP response of cells to calcitonin; moreover, the toxin almost abolished the effect of mitogens and antimitogens on that parameter. We conclude that in breast cancer cells, the calcitonin receptor and the adenylate cyclase are coupled by at least one Go/Gi-protein sensitive to growth-regulating agents; this results in a modulation of the cyclic AMP response to calcitonin by these agents. On the other hand, the growth-inhibitory effect of calcitonin on breast cancer cells was reduced by 17beta-estradiol and enhanced by tamoxifen. We suggest that this could be a consequence of changes in cyclic AMP levels and deserves further investigation.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 04/1998; 344(2-3):279-86. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 1986 we reported the appearance of a progestin binding protein in the human breast cancer cell line Evsa-T, originally described as lacking both estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR). In this report we show that PR of this cell line displays a binding affinity for [3H]ORG 2058 and a sucrose gradient sedimentation profile similar to those ascribed to PR from MCF-7 or T47D breast cancer cell lines. PR from Evsa-T cells is down-regulated by the progestin R-5020 as well as by the two antiprogestins, ZK 112.993 and ZK 98.299, but does not confer growth sensitivity to these compounds. ER remains undetectable by ligand binding assay, enzyme immunoassay and northern blotting. Our Evsa-T clone could be a valuable model for assessing the mechanisms leading the ER-/PR+ phenotype occurring occasionally in breast cancers and frequently in meningiomas.
    Cancer Letters 12/1997; 120(1):23-30. · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • M Lacroix, J J Body
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer cells (BCC) have calcitonin (CT) receptors, yet the action of the hormone on these cells is largely unknown. We found that CT produced a strong and transient time- and dose-dependent increase in c-fos mRNA in BCC lines. This event was prevented by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89. CT alone did not influence the expression of c-jun and of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (timp) -1 and -2 mRNAs; however, it reduced the induction of these mRNAs by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), without apparent changes in the half-life of the mRNA (measured for c-jun). Along the same line, CT reduced the c-jun induction and T-47D growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin. These effects were mimicked by forskolin and/or prevented by H89, suggesting that PKA activation was involved. These results indicate that CT modulates in BCC the mRNA levels of two important growth-related early response genes (c-fos and c-jun) and of two other genes (timp-1 and -2) involved in the control of metastatic events.
    Calcified Tissue International 07/1997; 60(6):513-9. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of tumor-induced osteolysis (TIO) following breast cancer metastases in bone remains unclear. We postulated that osteoblasts could be target cells for the secretory products of breast cancer cells. We previously showed that serum-free conditioned medium (CM) of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 inhibits DNA synthesis by 75% of control values in osteoblast-like cells SaOS-2 and that this effect is only in a minor part due to transforming growth factor beta secretion. To establish the specificity of our observations and to look for other biologically active factors, we have tested the effects of medium conditioned by several cancer and noncancer cell lines (breast, colon, placenta, or fibrosarcoma) on the proliferation of osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2, MG-63), normal human osteoblasts, human fibrosarcoma cells, and normal human fibroblasts. Culture medium (1:2) of the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T-47D, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3 inhibited by 25-50% the proliferation of osteoblast-like cells SaOS-2, MG-63, and normal osteoblasts as evaluated by the MTT survival test or [3H]thymidine incorporation. MCF-7 cells completely inhibited the proliferation of normal human osteoblasts in coculture. This inhibitory effect was reversible and not due to cytotoxicity. Moreover, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) of osteoblast-like cells SaOS-2 was also increased by 100-240% by the same CM. Such activities were, however, not detected in medium from the breast noncancer cell line HBL-100 or in the medium conditioned by non-breast cancer cell lines (COLO 320DM, HT-29, JAR, or HT-1080). Medium from the breast cancer cells had no effect on normal human fibroblasts or fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080), suggesting the specificity of their action on human osteoblasts. After partial purification by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography, we found that medium of T-47D cells contained at least three nonprostanoid factors of low molecular weights (apparent MW of 700, 1500, and 4000 D) which affected human osteoblast-like cells. These factors were heat stable and could be peptides without disulfide bonds. In summary, our data show that human breast cancer cells release soluble factors that inhibit osteoblast proliferation and increase their cAMP response to PTH, indicating that osteoblasts could be important target cells for breast cancer cells and could be involved in the process of TIO.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 05/1997; 12(4):552-60. · 6.13 Impact Factor
  • M Lacroix, B Siwek, J J Body
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of breast cancer-induced osteolysis remains largely unknown. To evaluate the potential role of osteoblasts as target cells during this process, we incubated SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells (OBL) with culture media conditioned by proliferative (PM, 'Proliferation Media') or confluent (CfM, 'Confluence Media') MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. CfM decreased the growth of OBL by 26% (P < 0.01) while PM was without significant effect on this parameter. In contrast, both PM and CfM obtained from MCF-7 cultures increased the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response of OBL to the osteolytic agents PTH (10(-8) M) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP, 10(-8) M) by a factor of about 3 (P < 0.001), and to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2),10(-6) M) by a factor of about 2 (P < 0.01). No significant modulation of OBL growth or sensitivity to PTH, PTHrP, or PGE2 was induced by media obtained from HBL-100 non-malignant immortalized breast epithelial cell cultures. 17betaestradiol (E(2), 10(-8) M) and the antiestrogen tamoxifen (Tam, 10(-7) M) added for 48 h to MCF-7 cultures before collecting conditioned media attenuated and potentiated, respectively, the PM- but not the CfM-induced increase in the response of OBL to PTH or PTHrP Along the same line, the addition to MCF-7 conditioned media of a polyclonal anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) antibody attenuated by about 25% (P < 0.01) the PM-induced increase in OBL response to PTH and PTHrP while abrogating the modulatory effects of E(2) and Tam on that response. Together, our results indicate that MCF-7 breast cancer cells secrete factors which inhibit the growth of OBL and increase their sensitivity to various osteolytic agents. TGF-beta was only partly responsible for these effects, and accounts for their modulation by E(2) and Tam. The identification of other osteoblast-modulatory factor(s) should contribute to a better understanding and treatment of breast cancer-induced osteolysis.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/1996; 38(2):209-16. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two 11 beta-derivatives of estradiol (E2) were tested for their potential antiestrogenic activity in the MCF-7 breast cancer model: one contained a phenoxydimethylaminoethyl side-chain (RU 39,411), the other a pentafluoropentylsulfinyl side-chain (RU 58,668). The former compound displayed mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties, while the latter indicated only an antiestrogenic activity. Both the compounds produced a growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells at doses related to their binding affinity for the estrogen receptor (ER); E2 suppressed this inhibition. The compounds also down-regulated the estrogen binding capacity of the cells but failed to reduce ER mRNA levels, indicating that the grafting of their side-chains prevented this antagonistic effect usually observed with steroidal estrogens. Assessment of ER levels by enzyme immunoassay revealed a marked increase with RU 39,411 and a decrease with RU 58,668; different mechanisms of action should, therefore, be considered. Finally, the estrogenic activity of RU 39,411 was demonstrated by its strong ability to induce synthesis of the progesterone receptor; RU 58,668 failed to display this agonistic activity.
    Steroids 09/1995; 60(8):512-8. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported the existence of specific and high-affinity calcitonin (CT) receptors on normal human T-lymphocytes. Because of the increasingly recognized importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 in the control of bone metabolism, we have examined their influence on the binding parameters of labeled salmon calcitonin (sCT) on lymphocytes. After a 24-hour incubation, IL-1 at 100-5000 U/ml and IL-6, at 1-1000 U/ml, decreased the apparent number of CT binding sites (Bmax) on T-lymphocytes. The effects of IL-6 on purified T-lymphocytes were dose related and 100 U of IL-6/ml reduced sCT binding to 57 +/- 16% (mean +/- SD) of the control values (n = 6). There was no significant change in CT binding affinity (Kd, 0.71 +/- 0.54 x 10(-10) M for controls versus 0.90 +/- 0.55 x 10(-10) M after IL-6) and the decrease in Bmax was reversible after 48 hours. The effects of IL-1 appeared to be mediated through an increased production of IL-6 as they were neutralized by a polyclonal antiserum against IL-6. Added alone, the antiserum caused a slight increase in the apparent number of CT binding sites on T-lymphocytes to 115 +/- 5% of control values (n = 3). In summary, IL-1 and IL-6 can induce a marked apparent loss of CT binding sites on normal T-lymphocytes at concentrations known to be active on bone metabolism. The contributions of our observations to the osteolytic activity of these cytokines deserve further investigation.
    Calcified Tissue International 09/1994; 55(2):109-13. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some epidemiological studies have suggested that aspirin could be a chemopreventive agent against breast cancer. We tested the effects of the aspirin metabolite salicylate (SA) on four (Hs578T, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D) breast cancer cell (BCC) lines in vitro. Two features were studied: the proliferation of BCC and their production of the osteolytic cytokines interleukins-6 (IL-6) and -11 (IL-11) since BCC frequently metastasize to bone and induce tumor-induced osteolysis. SA, from 0.5 to 5 mM, caused BCC growth inhibition by up to 70% (IC50 range 2.54 to 4.28 mM). At high concentrations, the drug induced apoptosis only (MDA-MB-231), or both apoptosis and primary necrosis (MCF-7). SA, as well as indomethacin (INDO), reduced the synthesis of IL-6 and -11, at both the protein and mRNA levels, in the two cell lines producing these cytokines (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T). This latter effect seemed to be mediated by PGE2 since SA and INDO reduced PGE2 levels in MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells, PGE2 was not detected in MCF-7 and T-47D cells and exogenous PGE2 increased IL-6 and -11 expression by MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that SA could reduce the growth of breast tumors and inhibit to some extent the ability of BCC to induce osteoclast recruitment and osteolysis. These data indicate the need for further epidemiological and experimental studies.
    Anticancer research 19(4B):2997-3006. · 1.71 Impact Factor