[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of blade tenderization (BT), two aging methods (dry (D) and wet (W)), and aging time (2 and 23 d) on tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum muscles from 12 cull Holstein cows were evaluated. Dry-aged loins had higher combined trim and aging losses than control (C) for both D- and W-aging, mostly because of excess trim losses. BT steaks had WBSF of 33.13N while C steaks had WBSF of 41.46N (P=0.09). Aging decreased WBSF. Blade tenderized steaks had higher cook loss than C steaks. Aging, W-aging, and BT×W-aging improved myofibrillar (sensory) tenderness scores. Aging and/or BT improves sensory panel tenderness cull cow Longissimus lumborum steaks. Aging and blade tenderization combined can increase tenderness and value of Longissimus steaks from cull Holstein cows.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8°C and 71.1°C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (P<0.0001) weight loss than W or SB aged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (P<0.01) L* values than D or SB aged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P<0.0001) as end-point temperature increased. Sensory panel evaluation also showed no effect (P>0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8°C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1°C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (P<0.05) by visual panelists. Noni patties were found to have greater (P<0.05) a* values than controls, even though all patties became less red during display. After 3 and 5d of retail display, patties with higher concentrations of Noni puree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; P<0.05). In fresh taste panels, panelists perceived the patties to have less beef flavor and greater incidence of off-flavors (P<0.05) as Noni puree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty Bos taurus (Hereford x Angus crosses) and 20 F1 Bos indicus x Bos taurus heifers of the same age, management and feeding regimen, were harvested and evaluated at 2 days postmortem for carcass and meat traits. Ten muscles were obtained from the right sides and aged until 10 days postmortem. Bos indicus carcasses were lighter, had less fat cover, smaller ribeyes, and less intramuscular lipid (all p≤0.05). Bos taurus longissimus lumborum, gluteus medius, triceps brachii, and semimembranosus muscles cooked as steaks and roasts had a lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) (p≤0.05) than those from Bos indicus. Bos taurus deep pectoral and semitendinosus muscles cooked as roasts had a lower WBSF (p<0.05) than Bos indicus. Infraspinatus, longissimus lumborum, and semitendinosus muscles were more tender (p<0.05) as roasts than steaks, whereas the opposite was true for the deep pectoral and semimembranosus muscles. Seven of the 10 muscles had lower WBSF (p≤0.05) for Bos taurus when cooked as steaks, roasts or both.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT— The longissimus (modest degree of marbling) from forty beef ribs selected 48–56 hr post-mortem was used in two trials. Trial I involved A, C and E maturity ribs (10 each classification). Each rib was subjectively scored for texture (fresh) and adjacent longissimus samples were removed for the determination of protein solubility (fresh) and tenderness. Tenderness (cooked muscle) was measured with a Warner-Bratzler shear and taste panel. Protein solubilities were determined using 0.154M Krebs-Ringer-Bicarbonate buffer, 0.2M KCl + 0.01M K phosphate buffer, 1.1M Kl + 0.1M K phosphate buffer, and 0.03M K phosphate buffer. Trial II involved 10 A maturity ribs. The 0.2M KCl, 1.1M Kl and 0.03M K phosphate buffers as described for trial I were used for protein extraction. Additionally, sarcomere length was measured in formalin. Multiple regression equations were developed to predict tenderness in trial II. Protein solubilities were not significantly different between the carcass maturity groups although there were trends toward increased solubility as maturity increased. Tenderness tended to decrease from A to E maturity indicating a negative relationship between protein solubility and tenderness. Several significant negative correlations between protein solubility and tenderness were found in trial I (A maturity group) and trial II. Additionally, several significant negative correlations between texture and solubility were calculated. Correlations within the C and E maturity groups were variable and showed no definite trends. Multiple regression analyses showed that a combination of protein solubilities, texture score and sarcomere length accounted for 88% of the variation in shear force and 72% of the variation in taste panel tenderness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implanting boar pigs at 100 lb with 24 mg of Compudose 200® (estradiol 17β) had no significant effect on "boar odor" in meat, rate of gain, feed efficiency, carcass leanness or meat quality traits. The presence of a 7 to 8 mo old gilt in the pen decreased rate of growth in both control and implanted boars, but contrary to our expectations did not increase the incidence of “boar odor". Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 15, 1984
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What's Ahead for Cattlemen? is known as Cattlemen’s Day, 1977 Different cattle types were evaluated for growth, feed efficiency, and carcass and meat traits. Hereford (H), Angus (A), Red Poll (RP), Brown Swiss (BS), Gelbvieh (G), Maine Anjou (MA) and Chianina sires were mated artificially to Angus and Hereford cows to obtain different crossbred (X) cattle types. Two calf crops were born in March, April, and May of 1973, and 1974, and weaned when 200 days old. All male calves (787) were castrated, fed out and slaughtered in a commercial plant. Carcasses were graded in the cooler and the right side was transported to KSU for detailed cutout and meat quality evaluations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found steaks cut from inside rounds (chilled fast or slow) of electrically stimulated and hot boned bull carcasses, to be similar to conventionally processed steaks in taste panel, shear force and cooking loss characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report contains results from the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center Cattle Germ Plasm Evaluation Program. Dr. Keith Gregory and Dr. Hudson Glimp, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska, initiated and designed the cattle germ plasm evaluation program. Dr. Dan Laster and Dr. John Crouse are currently working on the project from the Research Center. Kansas State University and the Livestock Division, C&MS, U.S.D.A. are cooperating on the project.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because tenderness is considered the most desired eating characteristic in meat, more emphasis should be placed on this trait in evaluating beef quality in breeding and selection programs. Both tenderness and marbling are highly heritable traits (Heritability = approximately 0.6), therefore much improvement could be made through progeny testing of sires; however, this requires considerable time and expense. This consideration, plus an increasing interest in feeding young beef bulls for market, led to an interest in applying a biopsy technique to evaluate and predict meat quality in the live animal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine Hereford X Angus (HxA), nine Simmental X Angus (SxA), and nine Lim-ousin X Angus (LxA) crossbred steers were slaughtered in three equal groups (three from each breed) after 200, 242 and 284 days on feed to evaluate carcass chemical composition differences and their relation to growth and meat palatability. LxA carcasses were significantly (P< .05) higher in protein and retail product percent-ages and significantly lower in chemical fat and fat trim percentages than either SxA or HxA carcasses. SxA carcasses were signifi-cantly (P< .05) superior to HxA carcasses only in having a lower percentage of fat trim. SxA steers gained slightly faster (P > .05) in the feedlot than HxA and LxA steers. SxA and LxA steers were equal in kilograms of retail product produced per day of age, and superior (P<.05) to HxA steers. HxA and SxA carcasses were similar in longissimus fat percentages and final quality grades, and they had higher values (P < .05) than LxA carcasses for these characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Sixteen Maine-Anjou (MA) and 14 Gelbvieh (Gelb) steers from Angus or Hereford crossbred dams, and 16 Hereford x Angus (HxA-Ax H) reciprocal crossbred steers were fed the same ration in individual pens until they reached an energy coefficiency endpoint of 8.0 Mcal of NEp per kilogram gain. Gelb and MA crosses were fed an average of 70 days longer, averaged more than 94 kg heavier at slaughter, and gained an average of .21 kg more per day than HX A-Ax H. On a gross basis, HX A-AX H were more than 1.4 kg DM per kilogram gain less efficient than MA and Gelb. ADG and gross efficiency were significantly related by both pooled and within-breed analyses. Faster gain- ing cattle were more efficient when fed to the same NEp efficiency endpoint, t-Ix A-Ax H car- casses showed no advantage in quality grade over MA and Gelb, although Hx A-Ax H aver- aged .48 cm more external fat at the 12th rib and .68 poorer yield grade than MA and Gelb. The left round of each carcass was physically separated into lean, fat and bone to estimate carcass composition; MA and Gelb had a higher percentage of carcass lean (P
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No differences were found in total feed energy required to produce a pound of retail cuts between breeds or management systems. However, across breeds, faster gaining steers were more efficient. When yardage, facilities, labor and interest were also considered, faster gaining cattle and accelerated management programs were more economical.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nearly all steer and heifer beef carcasses processed in the United, States are chilled before cutting. However, recent meat science research has shown that carcasses can be processed, and quality of meat maintained, with little or no chilling. Processing as defined here involves cutting the carcasses into subprimal pieces, removing bones and excess fat, sealing the pieces in vacuum packages, and placing the packages in palletized boxes. It is already known that substantial economic saving can be obtained from reduced storage and transportation costs of boxed beef, but little work has been done on the economic feasibility of hot processing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hot processing is gaining increased interest in the beef processing industry today because of the previously mentioned processing efficiencies and economic advantages. This study examined the color and eating characteristics of electrically stimulated hot-processed beef compared with beef conventionally chilled and processed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different cattle types were evaluated for growth, feed efficiency, and carcass and meat traits. Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, and Charolais sires were bred artificially to Angus and Hereford dams to obtain different cattle types. Three calf crops were born in March, Apri1, and May of 1970, 1971, and 1972 and were weaned when 200 days old. All male calves (1,123) were castrated, fed out and slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant. Carcass cooler data were obtained and the right side transported to Kansas State University for detailed cut-out and meat quality evaluations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein supplements composed of either soybean meal, a combination of soybean meal and urea, or milo Starea improved gain 5% and feed efficiency 4% over supplements of either urea or wheat Starea (P<.25). Cost of gain favored the nonprotein nitrogen compounds; thus, choice of supplement was related to relative cost of supplements.