M.E. Dikeman

Kansas State University, Kansas, United States

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Publications (34)10.72 Total impact

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    Ersel Obuz, Levent Akkaya, Veli Gök, Michael E Dikeman
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of blade tenderization (BT), two aging methods (dry (D) and wet (W)), and aging time (2 and 23 d) on tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum muscles from 12 cull Holstein cows were evaluated. Dry-aged loins had higher combined trim and aging losses than control (C) for both D- and W-aging, mostly because of excess trim losses. BT steaks had WBSF of 33.13N while C steaks had WBSF of 41.46N (P=0.09). Aging decreased WBSF. Blade tenderized steaks had higher cook loss than C steaks. Aging, W-aging, and BT×W-aging improved myofibrillar (sensory) tenderness scores. Aging and/or BT improves sensory panel tenderness cull cow Longissimus lumborum steaks. Aging and blade tenderization combined can increase tenderness and value of Longissimus steaks from cull Holstein cows.
    Meat Science 11/2013; 96(3):1227-1232. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.11.015 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8°C and 71.1°C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (P<0.0001) weight loss than W or SB aged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (P<0.01) L* values than D or SB aged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P<0.0001) as end-point temperature increased. Sensory panel evaluation also showed no effect (P>0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8°C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1°C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging.
    Meat Science 02/2013; 94(2):228-233. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.02.002 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (P<0.05) by visual panelists. Noni patties were found to have greater (P<0.05) a* values than controls, even though all patties became less red during display. After 3 and 5d of retail display, patties with higher concentrations of Noni puree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; P<0.05). In fresh taste panels, panelists perceived the patties to have less beef flavor and greater incidence of off-flavors (P<0.05) as Noni puree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use.
    Meat Science 06/2012; 91(2):131-6. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.01.005 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty Bos taurus (Hereford x Angus crosses) and 20 F1 Bos indicus x Bos taurus heifers of the same age, management and feeding regimen, were harvested and evaluated at 2 days postmortem for carcass and meat traits. Ten muscles were obtained from the right sides and aged until 10 days postmortem. Bos indicus carcasses were lighter, had less fat cover, smaller ribeyes, and less intramuscular lipid (all p≤0.05). Bos taurus longissimus lumborum, gluteus medius, triceps brachii, and semimembranosus muscles cooked as steaks and roasts had a lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) (p≤0.05) than those from Bos indicus. Bos taurus deep pectoral and semitendinosus muscles cooked as roasts had a lower WBSF (p<0.05) than Bos indicus. Infraspinatus, longissimus lumborum, and semitendinosus muscles were more tender (p<0.05) as roasts than steaks, whereas the opposite was true for the deep pectoral and semimembranosus muscles. Seven of the 10 muscles had lower WBSF (p≤0.05) for Bos taurus when cooked as steaks, roasts or both.
    Meat Science 11/2011; 90(4):881-6. DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.11.022 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • MICHAEL E. DIKEMAN, H. J. TUMA, GARY R. BEECHER
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT— The longissimus (modest degree of marbling) from forty beef ribs selected 48–56 hr post-mortem was used in two trials. Trial I involved A, C and E maturity ribs (10 each classification). Each rib was subjectively scored for texture (fresh) and adjacent longissimus samples were removed for the determination of protein solubility (fresh) and tenderness. Tenderness (cooked muscle) was measured with a Warner-Bratzler shear and taste panel. Protein solubilities were determined using 0.154M Krebs-Ringer-Bicarbonate buffer, 0.2M KCl + 0.01M K phosphate buffer, 1.1M Kl + 0.1M K phosphate buffer, and 0.03M K phosphate buffer. Trial II involved 10 A maturity ribs. The 0.2M KCl, 1.1M Kl and 0.03M K phosphate buffers as described for trial I were used for protein extraction. Additionally, sarcomere length was measured in formalin. Multiple regression equations were developed to predict tenderness in trial II. Protein solubilities were not significantly different between the carcass maturity groups although there were trends toward increased solubility as maturity increased. Tenderness tended to decrease from A to E maturity indicating a negative relationship between protein solubility and tenderness. Several significant negative correlations between protein solubility and tenderness were found in trial I (A maturity group) and trial II. Additionally, several significant negative correlations between texture and solubility were calculated. Correlations within the C and E maturity groups were variable and showed no definite trends. Multiple regression analyses showed that a combination of protein solubilities, texture score and sarcomere length accounted for 88% of the variation in shear force and 72% of the variation in taste panel tenderness.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 36(2):190 - 193. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1971.tb04022.x · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Implanting boar pigs at 100 lb with 24 mg of Compudose 200® (estradiol 17β) had no significant effect on "boar odor" in meat, rate of gain, feed efficiency, carcass leanness or meat quality traits. The presence of a 7 to 8 mo old gilt in the pen decreased rate of growth in both control and implanted boars, but contrary to our expectations did not increase the incidence of “boar odor". Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 15, 1984
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    M.E. Dikeman, H.D. Loveday, D M Allen
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    ABSTRACT: What's Ahead for Cattlemen? is known as Cattlemen’s Day, 1977 Different cattle types were evaluated for growth, feed efficiency, and carcass and meat traits. Hereford (H), Angus (A), Red Poll (RP), Brown Swiss (BS), Gelbvieh (G), Maine Anjou (MA) and Chianina sires were mated artificially to Angus and Hereford cows to obtain different crossbred (X) cattle types. Two calf crops were born in March, April, and May of 1973, and 1974, and weaned when 200 days old. All male calves (787) were castrated, fed out and slaughtered in a commercial plant. Carcasses were graded in the cooler and the right side was transported to KSU for detailed cutout and meat quality evaluations.
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    ABSTRACT: Different cattle types were evaluated for growth, feed efficiency, and carcass and meat traits. Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, and Charolais sires were bred artificially to Angus and Hereford dams to obtain different cattle types. Three calf crops were born in March, Apri1, and May of 1970, 1971, and 1972 and were weaned when 200 days old. All male calves (1,123) were castrated, fed out and slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant. Carcass cooler data were obtained and the right side transported to Kansas State University for detailed cut-out and meat quality evaluations.
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    ABSTRACT: Beef Cattle Research, 2011 is known as Cattlemen’s Day, 2011 In semitropical climates in the United States, Bos indicus breeds of cattle, primarily the Brahman breed, are utilized in crossbreeding programs with Bos taurus cattle to improve productivity by increasing disease and insect resistance, heat tolerance, heterosis, and additive genetic variation. About 25% of the U.S. beef population contains some Bos indicus breeding. Numerous published reports show that tenderness of ribeye and strip loin steaks and marbling are significantly reduced in Bos indicus straightbred or crossbred cattle compared to most Bos taurus breeds. One very large study reported that heritability of tenderness and marbling is around 0.4, making it a positive trait to try to improve through selection. Only one published report has compared tenderness differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle for more than the ribeye and strip loin (longissimus muscle) and that study showed that other muscles were less tender for Bos indicus cattle. The objectives of our study were: (1) to compare carcass traits between Hereford x Angus crossbred cattle with those containing at least 50% Brahman and Sahiwal inheritance, and (2) to validate Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks and roasts and proximate composition of 10 different muscles from these cattle.
  • R. Jerry Lipsey, Michael E. Dikeman, Robert R. Schalles
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Sixteen Maine-Anjou (MA) and 14 Gelbvieh (Gelb) steers from Angus or Hereford crossbred dams, and 16 Hereford x Angus (HxA-Ax H) reciprocal crossbred steers were fed the same ration in individual pens until they reached an energy coefficiency endpoint of 8.0 Mcal of NEp per kilogram gain. Gelb and MA crosses were fed an average of 70 days longer, averaged more than 94 kg heavier at slaughter, and gained an average of .21 kg more per day than HX A-Ax H. On a gross basis, HX A-AX H were more than 1.4 kg DM per kilogram gain less efficient than MA and Gelb. ADG and gross efficiency were significantly related by both pooled and within-breed analyses. Faster gain- ing cattle were more efficient when fed to the same NEp efficiency endpoint, t-Ix A-Ax H car- casses showed no advantage in quality grade over MA and Gelb, although Hx A-Ax H aver- aged .48 cm more external fat at the 12th rib and .68 poorer yield grade than MA and Gelb. The left round of each carcass was physically separated into lean, fat and bone to estimate carcass composition; MA and Gelb had a higher percentage of carcass lean (P
  • John D. Crouse, Michael E. Dikeman
  • D.H. Kropf, M.E. Dikeman, M.C. Hunt, H.R. Cross
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    ABSTRACT: Beef carcass quality factors were evaluated under 25 different lighting systems (five lighting types each at five light intensities). Cool White fluorescent caused the darkest and most mature lean score, but marbling quantity score was not affected by lighting type or intensity. Lean was scored progressively brighter and more youth with increasing lighting intensity.
  • M.E. Dikeman, H.J. Tuma, D M Allen
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous instruments have been developed to objectively measure tenderness, an important eating characteristics of beef. The Kramer shear press and Warner-Bratzler shear show the best relationships to taste panel tenderness scores. However, shear values of raw muscle are poorly correlated with shear value of cooked meat. An instrument that could be used in the beef cooler an raw carcass muscle to predict tenderness of cooked meat would be valuable.
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    ABSTRACT: This report contains results from the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center Cattle Germ Plasm Evaluation Program. Dr. Keith Gregory and Dr. Hudson Glimp, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska, initiated and designed the cattle germ plasm evaluation program. Dr. Dan Laster and Dr. John Crouse are currently working on the project from the Research Center. Kansas State University and the Livestock Division, C&MS, U.S.D.A. are cooperating on the project.
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    John D. Crouse, Michael E. Dikeman, Dell M. Allen
  • Michael U May, Michael E. Dikeman, Robert Schalles
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Twelve Simmental  Angus (SXA), 12 Here- ford  Angus (HXA) and 12 Limousin  Angus (LXA) crossbred steers fed the same finishing ration were slaughtered in three equal groups (four from each breed) after 200, 242 and 284 days on feed after weaning. After obtaining U.S.D.A. quality and yield grade data from the chilled carcass, 3.18 cm thick steaks were removed from the lO-11-12th rib locations from the right wholesale rib for taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear and histological evalua- tion. The lean plus fat portion of the 9-10-11th rib section from the left wholesale rib was analyzed for moisture, chemical fat and pro- tein. The right side of each carcass was fabri- cated into retail product, fat trim and bone. Histological samples from the medial and lateral positions of the longissimus muscle were cryogenically frozen and stored on dry ice. Samples were later sectioned on a cryostat and stained by using myosin ATPase and DPNH diaphorase procedures. Photomicrographs were made from the stained muscle sections and fibers were classified as ~R, aW or fiR, and the number of each in a given area was counted. The size of each fiber type in selected areas was also measured. LXA crosses had more (P.05) between breeds. The LXA crosses had more (P
  • H. D. Loveday, M. E. Dikeman
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Fourteen Angus x Hereford (AHX) recipro- cal crossbred steers and 30 Brown Swiss (BSX) sired steers out of AHX reciprocal crossbred dams represented cattle of different biological types. Steers were slaughtered at an energy efficiency end point (EEP) of either 9.0 Mcal NEp/kg gain (EEP1) or 11.5 Meal NEp/kg gain (EEP2). The 14 AHX steers were fed a low energy (LE) diet; seven were killed at EEP1 and the other seven at EEP 2. Seventeen BSX steers received the LE diet; eight were slaughtered at EEP 1 and nine at EEP 2. Thirteen other BSX steers received a high energy (HE) diet, and eight and five were slaughtered at EEPI and EEP2, respectively. Although differences be- tween EEPt and EEP2 steers were not signifi- cant, EEPt cattle tended to have lower 12th rib adjusted fat thicknesses, lower yield grades and higher predicted percentages of separable lean. EEP2 cattle required more days on feed (P
  • R.R. Schalles, M.E. Dikeman, K.O. Zoellner
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    ABSTRACT: Fast-growth genotype steers placed on a high energy ration a month after weaning were compared to a slow-growth genotype on a growing ration for 155 days, followed by a finishing ration for 62 days. The fast-growth genotype produced heavier, higher quality carcasses in less time than the slow-growth genotype, with similar energy conversion. Using contemporary prices. the fast-growth genotype cattle broke even, and the slow-growth genotype lost $124 per head.
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    ABSTRACT: To help insure that hot-processed beef has an acceptable shelf life and is microbiologically safe, the microbial characteristics of the product must be evaluated. This is particularly true for hot-processed cuts that are packaged and boxed prior to complete chilling--a practice that facilitates handling. An adequate chilling rate the first several hours postmortem is extremely important to the microbiological quality and shelf life of meat. Therefore, in order to insure an acceptable hot-processed beef product, this study was designed to establish chilling rates necessary to satisfactorily control microbial activity in hot-boned beef.
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    John D Crouse, Michael E Dikeman, Dell M Allen
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    ABSTRACT: Visual appraisals of 452 slaughter steers of 14 breeding groups, representing a wide range in biological type, were made to evaluate criteria for characterizing body composition and carcass quality. Animals were fed and managed under the same conditions and inde-pendently evaluated before slaughter by three experienced appraisers. Steers were slaughtered in three groups after 215,243 and 271 days on feed. U.S.D.A. quality and yield grades were determined on carcasses and the right side of each carcass was cut into semi-boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of live-animal traits studied. Carcass quality grade was more difficult to predict than carcass quantitative traits such as yield grade and percentage of retail product. Simple regression equations involving live-animal estimates of quality grades accounted for 13% of the variation in carcass quality grades on an overall subclass basis and 5% of the variation in carcass quality grades within breeds and slaughter groups. Addition of live-animal estimates of fat thickness improved the predictive value of the equation. Live-animal estimates of carcass yield grades accounted for 51 and 65% of the variation in carcass yield grade and percentage of actual cutability on an overall subclass basis. The accuracy of a devel-oped equation, which included factors found in the U.S.D.A. yield grade equation, was im-proved (P~.05) by the addition of scores which estimated muscling. However, this im-provement was small and the practical import-ance questionable. Live-animal estimates of the 12th rib fat thickness were found to be important in all carcass quantitative equations.