Michelle J Kupka

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States

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Publications (9)93.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We conducted electron beam computed tomographic (EBCT) testing in a representative sample of 327 Framingham Heart Study subjects without clinical cardiovascular disease. EBCT was compared with 2-dimensional echocardiography for the detection of degenerative aortic valve (AV) disease. We determined the association between EBCT measures of AV calcium and calcium deposits in the coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Of 327 subjects (mean age 60 +/- 9 years; 51% men), 14% had EBCT AV calcium (median Agatston score 0, range 0 to 1,592). The prevalence of AV calcium increased predictably across decades of age. Compared with echocardiography, the sensitivity and specificity of EBCT for the detection of degenerative AV disease were 24% and 94%, respectively. In unadjusted logistic regression models, the prevalence of EBCT AV calcium increased across tertiles of coronary artery calcium (for trend across tertiles, odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 3.5) and thoracic aorta calcium (for trend OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.4). After adjustment for age and gender, the associations of AV calcium with coronary calcium and thoracic aorta calcium were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. Thus, compared with echocardiography, EBCT was specific but insensitive for the detection of degenerative AV disease. EBCT AV calcium was associated with calcium deposits in the coronary arteries and the thoracic aorta, but these associations were confounded by age and risk factors.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 03/2004; 93(4):421-5. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure is a major public health problem. Long-term trends in the incidence of heart failure and survival after its onset in the community have not been characterized. We used statistical models to assess temporal trends in the incidence of heart failure and Cox proportional-hazards regression to evaluate survival after the onset of heart failure among subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. Cases of heart failure were classified according to the date of onset: 1950 through 1969 (223 cases), 1970 through 1979 (222), 1980 through 1989 (307), and 1990 through 1999 (323). We also calculated 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year age-adjusted mortality rates for each period. Heart failure occurred in 1075 subjects (51 percent of whom were women). As compared with the rate for the period from 1950 through 1969, the incidence of heart failure remained virtually unchanged among men in the three subsequent periods but declined by 31 to 40 percent among women (rate ratio for the period from 1990 through 1999, 0.69; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.93). The 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year age-adjusted mortality rates among men declined from 12 percent, 30 percent, and 70 percent, respectively, in the period from 1950 through 1969 to 11 percent, 28 percent, and 59 percent, respectively, in the period from 1990 through 1999. The corresponding rates among women were 18 percent, 28 percent, and 57 percent for the period from 1950 through 1969 and 10 percent, 24 percent, and 45 percent for the period from 1990 through 1999. Overall, there was an improvement in the survival rate after the onset of heart failure of 12 percent per decade (P=0.01 for men and P=0.02 for women). Over the past 50 years, the incidence of heart failure has declined among women but not among men, whereas survival after the onset of heart failure has improved in both sexes. Factors contributing to these trends need further clarification.
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2002; 347(18):1397-402. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even in apparently healthy individuals. It has not been established whether elevated CRP reflects an increased burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. We studied a stratified random sample of 321 men and women (mean age 60 years) from the Framingham Heart Study who were free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease. Subjects underwent electron-beam computed tomography to assess the number of coronary calcifications and the coronary artery calcification (CAC) Agatston score. Spearman correlation coefficients between CRP and CAC score were calculated and adjusted for age, age plus individual risk factors, and age plus the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score. For both sexes, CRP was significantly correlated with the Agatston score (age-adjusted Spearman correlation: 0.25 for men, 0.26 for women; both P<0.01). After adjustment for age and Framingham risk score, the correlation remained significant (P=0.01) for both sexes. Further adjustment for body mass index attenuated the correlation coefficient for women (0.14, P=0.09) but not for men (0.19, P<0.05). High CRP levels are associated with increased coronary calcification. Among individuals with elevated CRP, subclinical atherosclerosis may contribute to an increased risk for future cardiovascular events.
    Circulation 10/2002; 106(10):1189-91. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autopsy data demonstrate a correlation between subclinical aortic atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, noninvasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of subclinical atherosclerosis may provide a novel measure of cardiovascular risk, but it has not been applied to an asymptomatic population-based cohort to establish age- and sex-specific normative data. Participants in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort who were free of clinically apparent coronary disease were randomly sampled from strata of sex, quartiles of age, and quintiles of Framingham Coronary Risk Score. Subjects (n=318, aged 60+/-9 years, range 36 to 78 years, 51% women) underwent ECG-gated T2-weighted black-blood thoracoabdominal aortic CMR scanning. CMR evidence of aortic atherosclerosis was noted in 38% of the women and 41% of the men. Plaque prevalence and all measures of plaque burden increased with age group and were greater in the abdomen than in the thorax for both sexes and across all age groups. In addition, the Framingham Coronary Risk Score was significantly correlated with all plaque prevalence and burden measures for women but only for men after age adjustment. These noninvasive CMR data extend the prior autopsy-based prevalence estimates of subclinical atherosclerosis and may help to lay the foundation for future studies of risk stratification and treatment of affected individuals.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 06/2002; 22(5):849-54. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autopsy data demonstrate a correlation between subclinical aortic atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, noninvasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of subclinical atherosclerosis may provide a novel measure of cardiovascular risk, but it has not been applied to an asymptomatic population-based cohort to establish age- and sex-specific normative data. Participants in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort who were free of clinically apparent coronary disease were randomly sampled from strata of sex, quartiles of age, and quintiles of Framingham Coronary Risk Score. Subjects (n=318, aged 60+/-9 years, range 36 to 78 years, 51
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 05/2002; 22:849-854.
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to derive gender-specific cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reference values for normative left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in a healthy adult population of clinically relevant age. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly applied in the clinical setting, but age-relevant, gender-specific normative values are currently unavailable. A representative sample of 318 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring participants free of clinically overt cardiovascular disease underwent CMR examination to determine LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (EDV and ESV, respectively), mass, ejection fraction (EF) and linear dimensions (wall thickness, cavity length). Subjects with a clinical history of hypertension or those with a systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > or =90 mm Hg at any FHS cycle examination were excluded, leaving 142 subjects (63 men, 79 women; age 57 +/- 9 years). All volumetric (EDV, ESV, mass) and unidimensional measures were significantly greater (p < 0.001) in men than in women and remained greater (p < 0.02) after adjustment for subject height. Volumetric measures were greater (p < 0.001) in men than in women after adjustment for body surface area (BSA), but there were increased linear dimensions in women after adjustment for BSA. In particular, end-diastolic dimension indexed to BSA was greater in women (p < 0.001) than in men. There were no gender differences in global LVEF (men = 0.69; women = 0.70). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance measures of LV volumes, mass and linear dimensions differ significantly according to gender and body size. This study provides gender-specific normal CMR reference values, uniquely derived from a population-based sample of persons free of cardiovascular disease and clinical hypertension. These data may serve as a reference to identify LV pathology in the adult population.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2002; 39(6):1055-60. · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2002; 39:139-139.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We sought to derive gender-specific cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reference values for normative left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in a healthy adult population of clinically relevant age.
    Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2002; 39(6):1055-1060.
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    Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2002; 39:268-268.