[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
There is concern about detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in screening mammography. DCIS accounts for a substantial proportion of screen-detected lesions but its effect on breast cancer mortality is debated. The International Cancer Screening Network conducted a comparative analysis to determine variation in DCIS detection.
Patients and Methods
Data were collected during 2004–2008 on number of screening examinations, detected breast cancers, DCIS cases and Globocan 2008 breast cancer incidence rates derived from national or regional cancer registers. We calculated screen-detection rates for breast cancers and DCIS.
Data were obtained from 15 screening settings in 12 countries; 7,176,050 screening examinations; 29,605 breast cancers and 5324 DCIS cases. The ratio between highest and lowest breast cancer incidence was 2.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.76–3.00); 2.97 (95% CI 2.51–3.51) for detection of breast cancer; and 3.49 (95% CI 2.70–4.51) for detection of DCIS.
Considerable international variation was found in DCIS detection. This variation could not be fully explained by variation in incidence nor in breast cancer detection rates. It suggests the potential for wide discrepancies in management of DCIS resulting in overtreatment of indolent DCIS or undertreatment of potentially curable disease. Comprehensive cancer registration is needed to monitor DCIS detection. Efforts to understand discrepancies and standardise management may improve care.
European Journal of Cancer 01/2014; 50(1):185–192. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare outcome of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between men with medical and surgical treatment.
A questionnaire was mailed to men aged 55, 65 and 75 years living in Tampere region, Finland in 1999 and the survey was repeated in 2004. LUTS were evaluated using DAN-PSS-1 questionnaire. A total of 1679 men (68% of the eligible) responded to both questionnaires. Of them, 114 men reported LUTS at baseline and medical treatment in the repeat survey and 47 men with LUTS had received surgical treatment. Seventy-two men with prostate cancer were excluded. Men with no medical treatment or surgery for LUTS in either questionnaire were included to no-treatment group.
The men after surgical treatment showed a reduction in all LUTS symptom groups. However, among the medically treated and untreated men, all the symptoms worsened during the follow up. The proportion of symptomatic men after surgery was lower than among the medically treated men. In men with medical treatment, the prevalence of all 12 LUTS increased. Dysuria and postmicturition dribble were the only symptoms that had slightly better results in medical than in surgical treatment group.
In this population-based study, operative treatment seemed to relieve LUTS, whereas medical treatment only slowed down their progression. These findings suggest that men with surgical treatment experience a more favourable outcome in LUTS than those receiving medical treatment.
International Journal of Clinical Practice 12/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Prostate cancer (PC) screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been shown to decrease PC mortality by the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). We evaluated mortality results in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial, the largest component of ERSPC. The primary endpoint was PC-specific mortality.MethodsA total of 80 144 men were identified from the population registry and randomized to either a screening arm (SA) or a control arm (CA). Men in the SA were invited to serum PSA determination up to three times with a 4-year interval between each scan and referred to biopsy if the PSA concentration was greater than or equal to 4.0ng/mL or 3.0 to 3.99ng/mL with a free/total PSA ratio less than or equal to 16%. Men in the CA received usual care. The analysis covers follow-up to 12 years from randomization for all men. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for incidence and mortality using Cox proportional hazard model. All statistical tests were two-sided.ResultsPC incidence was 8.8 per 1000 person-years in the SA and 6.6 in the CA (HR = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 1.40). The incidence of advanced PC was lower in the SA vs CA arm (1.2 vs 1.6, respectively; HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.82; P < .001). No statistically significant difference was observed between the SA and CA (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.04) (with intention-to-screen analysis). To avoid one PC death, we needed to invite 1199 men to screening and to detect 25 PCs. We observed no difference in all-cause mortality between trial arms.Conclusions
At 12 years, a relatively conservative screening protocol produced a small, non-statistically significant PC-specific mortality reduction in the Finnish trial, at the cost of moderate overdiagnosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Prospective cohort studies to determine cofactors with oncogenic HPV- infections for cervical cancer are very rare from developing countries and such data are limited to the few screening trials. Large screening trials provide such data as a by product. Some of the cases are prevented by screening and do not surface as invasive cancers at all. Also, pre-invasive lesions are detected almost entirely by screening. Screening causes selection bias if attendance in or effectiveness of screening is correlated with the risk factors. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of screening on risk factors for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Our material stems from a rural cohort of 80,000 women subjected to a randomised screening trial. The effect of screening on the incidence of cervix cancer was estimated with reference to socio-demographic and reproductive risk factors of cervical cancer. We compared these risks with the incidence of cancer in the randomised control population by the same determinants of risk. Results: The results in the screening arm compared to the control arm showed that the women of low SES and young age were benefitting more than those of high SES and old age. The relative risk by age (30-39 vs 50-59) was 0.33 in the control arm and 0.24 in the screening arm. The relative risk by education (not educated vs educated) was 2.8 in the control arm and 1.8 in the screening arm. The previously married women did not benefit (incidence 113 and 115 per 100,000 women years in control vs screening arms) whereas the effect was substantial in those married (86 vs 54). Conclusions: The results in controls were consistent with the general evidence, but results in attenders and nonattenders of the screening arm showed that screening itself and self-selection in attendance and effectiveness can influence the effect estimates of risk factors. The effect of cervical cancer screening programmes on the estimates of incidence of cervical cancer causes bias in the studies on etiology and, therefore, they should be interpreted with caution.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2013; 14(1):589-594. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The ICS has divided LUTS into three groups: storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms. The classification is based on anatomical, physiological and urodynamic considerations of a theoretical nature. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the inter-correlations of various LUTS, which is a novel approach to research and can strengthen existing knowledge of the phenomenology of LUTS. After we had completed our analyses, another study was published that used a similar approach and results were very similar to those of the present study. We evaluated the constellation of LUTS using PCA of the data from a population-based study that included >4000 men. In our analysis, three components emerged from the 12 LUTS: voiding, storage and incontinence components. Our results indicated that incontinence may be separate from the other storage symptoms and post-micturition symptoms should perhaps be regarded as voiding symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine how lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) relate to each other and assess if the classification proposed by the International Continence Society (ICS) is consistent with empirical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information on urinary symptoms for this population-based study was collected using a self-administered postal questionnaire in 2004. The questionnaire was sent to 7470 men, aged 30-80 years, from Pirkanmaa County (Finland), of whom 4384 (58.7%) returned the questionnaire. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score-1 questionnaire was used to evaluate urinary symptoms. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the inter-correlations among various urinary symptoms. RESULTS: The PCA produced a grouping of 12 LUTS into three categories consisting of voiding, storage and incontinence symptoms. Post-micturition symptoms were related to voiding symptoms, but incontinence symptoms were separate from storage symptoms. In the analyses by age group, similar categorization was found at ages 40, 50, 60 and 80 years, but only two groups of symptoms emerged among men aged 70 years. The prevalence among men aged 30 was too low for meaningful analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study suggests that LUTS can be divided into three subgroups consisting of voiding, storage and incontinence symptoms based on their inter-correlations. Our empirical findings suggest an alternative grouping of LUTS. The potential utility of such an approach requires careful consideration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared test sensitivity (in terms of prevented cancers) and overdiagnosis (in terms of non-progressive pre-invasive lesions) between the human papillomavirus test (HPV test, Hybrid Capture 2) and the traditional Pap test in routine screening for cervical cancer. The design was a randomised (1:1) health services study in Finland with intake between 2003 and 2007. We estimated sensitivity by the incidence method within one screening round. Overdiagnosis was based on the rate of cervical intraepithelial Grade 3 (CIN3) lesions diagnosed at screen and during the following interval. Out of 203,788 randomised women 132,298 attended (65% in both study arms) and 600,753 person-years accumulated among attenders up to the end of 2010. In all attenders, 34 invasive cervical cancers and 288 CIN3 lesions were diagnosed at screen or during the following interval. The interval cancer incidence was 2.5/10(5) person-years (sensitivity 0.87) and 1.4 (sensitivity 0.93) in the HPV arm and Pap test arm, respectively. The rate of CIN3 lesions was 57.1 and 38.8, respectively. In conclusion, sensitivity of HPV testing was similar to that of Pap testing but caused more overdiagnosis. Therefore, implementation of HPV testing needs to be reconsidered especially in countries with well organised programmes.
International Journal of Cancer 09/2012; · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and bother of postmicturition dribble in relation to age in the male population. Material and methods. Information for a population-based study was collected by means of a mailed self-administered questionnaire, which was returned by 4384 men out of 7470 (58.7%). The participants were men aged 30-80 years from the Pirkanmaa Region in Finland. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire was used to evaluate their urinary symptoms. SPSS was used in the data analysis. Two-sided chi-squared test and Kendall tau-b test were used for analysis. Results. The overall prevalence of postmicturition dribble was 58.1% (95% confidence interval 56.6-59.6). Prevalence of postmicturition dribble increased with age (p < 0.001). In men aged 60-80 years, two-thirds reported postmicturition dribble and approximately one out of four had dribbling into their trousers after voiding. In the 30-year-old group, over 40% reported postmicturition dribble and almost one out of five had also dribbling into their trousers. One out of five men in the 30-year-old group reported minor bother; the proportion of men reporting bother increased with age to one-third of the men in the oldest cohort (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of the postmicturition dribble was found to be high in this survey. Half of the 30-year-old men and two-thirds of the men aged 60-80 years had postmicturition dribble. Dribbling into trousers increased with age but as a severe symptom, it was rare (0.5%). Minor problems from postmicturition dribble were common, but major bother occurred seldom (1.1%).
Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 07/2012; · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient preference for the choice of treatment modality for prostate cancer has increasingly gained attention. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of client-oriented decision on long-term mortality, disease progression and biochemical failure compared with standard treatment protocol (TP). METHODS: With data from a Finnish multicentre, randomized controlled trial with two arms [104 in the enhanced patient participation (EPP) arm and 106 in the TP arm], disease-specific and disease-free survival, biochemical failure with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and disease progression were compared between the two arms using Wilcoxon test and also Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: Patients in the EPP arm had a higher risk of death by 37% [HR, 1.37 (0.87-2.17)] compared with those in the TP arm. Patients in the EPP arm were at increased risk of having biochemical failure by 14% [HR, 1.14 (0.72-1.79)] and for having disease progression by 2% [HR, 1.02 (0.61-1.70)] compared with those in the TP arm. All the differences were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients actively involved in the choice of treatment had higher risk of prostate cancer death but only slightly increased risk of biochemical failure and clinical disease progression. These findings would provide a good reference when patient autonomy for the choice of treatment modality is addressed.
Health expectations: an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy 07/2012; · 1.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy (EPHT) Trial assigned 4170 potential participants prior to recruitment to blind or non-blind hormone therapy (HT), with placebo or non-treatment the respective alternatives. Before having to decide on participation, women were told whether they had been randomised to the blind or non-blind trial. Eligible women who were still willing to join the trial were recruited. After recruitment participants in the non-blind trial (N = 1001) received open-label HT or no treatment, participants in the blind trial (N = 777) remained blinded until the end of the trial. The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of blinding on internal and external validity of trial outcomes.
Effect of blinding was calculated as the hazard ratio of selected chronic diseases, total mortality and all outcomes. For analysing the effect of blinding on external validity, the hazard ratios from women recruited to the placebo arm and to the non-treatment arm were compared with those not recruited; for analysing the effect of blinding on internal validity, the hazard ratios from the blind trial were compared with those from the non-blind trial.
The women recruited to the placebo arm had less cerebrovascular disease events (HR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.26-0.71) and all outcomes combined (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63-0.91) than those who were not recruited. Among women recruited or not recruited to the non-treatment arm, no differences were observed for any of the outcomes studied.Among women recruited to the trial, the risk for coronary heart disease events (HR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64-0.93), cerebrovascular disease events (HR 0.66; 95%CI: 0.47-0.92), and all outcomes combined (HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72-0.94) was smaller among participants in the blind trial than in the non-blind trial. There was no difference between the blind and the non-blind trial for total cancer (HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.64-1.42), bone fractures (0.93; 95% CI: 0.74-1.16), and total mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI: 0.53-1.98).
The results from blind and non-blind trials may differ, even if the target population is the same. Blinding may influence both internal and external validity. The effect of blinding may vary for different outcome events.
BMC Medical Research Methodology 04/2012; 12:44. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The randomised controlled (or clinical) trial (RCT) is recognized as the most valid among the study designs. The use of RCT in research is widespread and well formalised. In contrast, implementations of new methods and policies in routine health care are commonly lacking a formalised design, impairing the ability to evaluate and improve health care. Use of experimental designs in health care is possible at the implementation phase of clinical or preventive action or more broad process-of-care. We propose the terminology randomised health services studies (RHS) to denote the use of a randomised design with observations in routine health care, regardless of whether randomisation is done at individual, population or process level. In contrast to RCT, the RHS should be based on the same regulative actions, funding mechanisms and ethical framework as routine health care itself. This commentary discusses the different basis, practicalities, and formalities that distinguish the RHS from the RCT. Development of a formalised framework for RHS, including distinct registration, could contribute to an increased use of valid methods in effectiveness research, thus gaining better and more direct evidence on routine medical practice.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2012; 131(12):2898-902. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several trials evaluating the effect of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on prostate-cancer mortality have shown conflicting results. We updated prostate-cancer mortality in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer with 2 additional years of follow-up.
The study involved 182,160 men between the ages of 50 and 74 years at entry, with a predefined core age group of 162,388 men 55 to 69 years of age. The trial was conducted in eight European countries. Men who were randomly assigned to the screening group were offered PSA-based screening, whereas those in the control group were not offered such screening. The primary outcome was mortality from prostate cancer.
After a median follow-up of 11 years in the core age group, the relative reduction in the risk of death from prostate cancer in the screening group was 21% (rate ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.91; P=0.001), and 29% after adjustment for noncompliance. The absolute reduction in mortality in the screening group was 0.10 deaths per 1000 person-years or 1.07 deaths per 1000 men who underwent randomization. The rate ratio for death from prostate cancer during follow-up years 10 and 11 was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.85; P=0.003). To prevent one death from prostate cancer at 11 years of follow-up, 1055 men would need to be invited for screening and 37 cancers would need to be detected. There was no significant between-group difference in all-cause mortality.
Analyses after 2 additional years of follow-up consolidated our previous finding that PSA-based screening significantly reduced mortality from prostate cancer but did not affect all-cause mortality. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN49127736.).
New England Journal of Medicine 03/2012; 366(11):981-90. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Population-based screening for prostate cancer (PCa) has used serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) since the early 1990s. However, the efficacy could be affected by screening interval, age ranges of screening, attendance, and contamination of the control group in randomised controlled trials.
Assess the impact of the above-mentioned factors on screening efficacy.
Parameters pertaining to the natural history of PCa and sensitivity were estimated using data from the Finnish quadrennial screening program starting at 55 yr of age and terminating at 71 yr of age and comprising 80 458 men (32 000 in the screening arm and 48 458 in the control arm). We performed Markov decision analyses for different screening policies with a simulated 25-yr follow-up.
The impact of different interscreening intervals and target age ranges on advanced PCa (stage III or worse) and PCa mortality was assessed.
With 65% attendance and 20% contamination, as in the Finnish trial, screening would result in an 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1-13.3%) reduction in advanced cancers and a 7.3% (95% CI, 5.3-9.7%) reduction in PCa death, with corresponding absolute risk difference of 2.6% (95% CI, 1.9-3.5%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4-2.2%), respectively. Numbers needed to screen were 385 to prevent one case of advanced PCa and 556 to prevent one PCa death at 25 yr. Those figures remained similar from 12 yr onwards. Reduction in advanced PCa increased to 40% with annual screening and to 24% with biennial screening. When the age at screening initiation was increased by 5 yr, the benefit was reduced by 9% with annual screening and by 3% with biennial screening.
We predicted the impact of basic screening characteristics on the benefit of the program. The screening interval (1-4 yr) had a greater impact on mortality reduction than did the age at start of screening (55-65 yr).
International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): ISRCTN49127736.
European Urology 01/2012; 61(5):1011-8. · 10.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: India shows some of the highest rates of cervical cancer worldwide, and more than 70% of the population is living in rural villages. Prospective cohort studies to determine the risk factors for cervical cancer are very rare from low and medium resource countries. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of risk factors related to cervical cancer in a rural setting in South India.
Sociodemographic and reproductive potential risk factors for cervical cancer were studied using the data from a cohort of 30,958 women who constituted the unscreened control group in a randomised screening trial in Dindigul district, Tamilnadu, India. The analysis was accomplished with the Cox proportional hazard regression model.
Women of increasing age (HR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8 in 50-59 vs 30-39), having many pregnancies (HR=7.1; 1.0, 52 in 4+ vs 0) and no education (HR=0.6; 0.2, 0.7 in high vs none) were found to be at significantly increased risk of cervical cancer.
This cohort study gives very strong evidence to say that education is the fundamental factor among the sociodemographic and reproductive determinants of cervical cancer in low resource settings. Public awareness through education and improvements in living standards can play an important role in reducing the high incidence of cervical cancer in India. These findings further stress the importance of formulating public health policies aimed at increasing awareness and implementation of cervical cancer screening programmes.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2012; 13(6):2991-5. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the detection rates of precancerous and cancerous cervical lesions by human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing and by conventional cytology screening.
Prospective randomised trial. Two cohorts were followed over one screening round of five years, screened initially by primary HPV DNA testing or by primary Pap test.
Population based programme for cervical cancer screening in Finland.
Women aged 25-65 years invited for screening in 2003-07 (101 678 in HPV arm; 101 747 in conventional cytology arm). INTERVENTION : Women were randomly allocated (1:1) to primary HPV DNA screening followed by cytology triage if they had positive results, or to primary cytology screening. Screening method was disclosed at the screening visit. Trial personnel involved were aware of all test results.
Cumulative detection rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and invasive cervical cancer before the second screening (after five years) or before 31 December 2008. Lesions detected at screening and during the five year interval were included.
1010 and 701 precancerous or cancerous lesions were detected during an average follow-up of 3.6 years in the HPV and cytology arms, respectively. Among invited women, the hazard ratio was 1.53 (95% confidence interval l.28 to 1.84) for CIN grade 1, 1.54 (1.33 to 1.78) for CIN 2, 1.32 (1.09 to 1.59) for CIN 3 or AIS, and 0.81 (0.48 to 1.37) for cervical cancer. In 25-34 year old participants, the cumulative hazard (or cumulative detection rate) was 0.0057 (0.0045 to 0.0072) for HPV screening versus 0.0046 (0.0035 to 0.0059) for conventional screening; corresponding data for women aged 35 years and older were 0.0022 (0.0019 to 0.0026) and 0.0017 (0.0014 to 0.0021), respectively.
Primary HPV DNA screening detects more cervical lesions than primary cytology within one screening round of five years. Even if the detection rate of CIN 3 or AIS increased in the HPV arm in both age groups, the absolute difference in cumulative rates in women aged 35 years or older was small. By carefully selecting age groups and screening intervals, HPV screening could increase the overall detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions only slightly. However, these findings should be interpreted in the context of the high level of opportunistic screening that occurs in Finland.
International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial ISRCTN23885553.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the survival between screen-detected and clinically detected cancers, we applied a series of non-homogeneous stochastic processes to deal with leadtime, length bias, and over-detection by using full information on detection modes obtained from the Finnish randomized controlled trial for prostate cancer screening. The results show after 9-year follow-up the hazard ratio of prostate cancer death for screen-detected cases against clinically detected cases increased from 0.24 (95% CI: 0.16-0.35) without correction for these biases, to 0.76 after correction for leadtime and length biases, and finally to 1.03 (95% CI: 0.79-1.33) for a further adjustment for over-detection. Adjustment for leadtime and length bias but no over-detection led to a 24% reduction in prostate cancer death as a result of prostate-specific antigen test. The further calibration of over-detection indicates no gain in survival of screen-detected prostate cancers (excluding over-detected case as stayer considered in the mover-stayer model) as compared with the control group in the absence of screening that is considered as the mover. However, whether the model assumption on over-detection is robust should be validated with other data sets and longer follow-up.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As with wide-spread use of prostate cancer (Pca) screening with prostate-specific antigen testing, overdetection has increasingly gained attention. The authors aimed to estimate absolute risk of overdetection (RO) in Pca screening with various interscreening intervals and ages at start of screening. We estimated age-specific preclinical incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) for progressive cancer (from 128 for age group 55-58 years to 774 for age group 67-71 years) and nonprogressive cancer (from 40 for age group 55-58 years to 66 for age group 67-71 years), the mean sojourn time (7.72 years) and the sensitivity (42.8% at first screen and 59.8% at the second screen) by using a multistep epidemiological model with data from the Finnish randomized controlled trial. The overall number of screens for overdetection (NSO) was 29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 18, 48) for screenees aged 55-67 years, equivalent to 3.4 (95% CI: 2.1, 5.7) overdetected Pcas per 100 screenees. The NSO decreased from 63 (95% CI: 37, 109) at the first screen to 29 (95% CI: 18, 48) at the third screen and from 43 (95% CI: 36, 52) for age 55 years to 25 (95% CI: 8, 75) at age 67 years at the first screen. In conclusion, around 3.4 cases for every 100 screened men would be overdetected during three screen rounds (~ 13 years of follow-up) in the Finnish randomized controlled trial. Elucidating the absolute RO under various scenarios makes contribution for evaluating the benefit and harm of Pca screening.
International Journal of Cancer 11/2011; 131(6):1367-75. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mammography screening invitation interval on breast cancer mortality in women aged 40-49 years.
Since 1987 in Turku, Finland, women aged 40-49 years and born in even calendar years were invited for mammography screening annually and those born in odd years triennially. The female cohorts born during 1945-1955 were followed for up to 10 years for incident breast cancers and thereafter for an additional 3 years for mortality.
Among 14,765 women free of breast cancer at age 40, there were 207 incident primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed before the age of 50. Of these, 36 women died of breast cancer. The mean follow-up time for cancer incidence was 9.8 years and for mortality 12.8 years. The incidence of breast cancer was similar in the annual and triennial invitation groups (RR: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-1.29). Further, there were no significant differences in overall mortality (RR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.99-1.46) or in incidence-based breast cancer mortality (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.59-1.27) between the annual and triennial invitation groups.
There were no differences in the incidence of breast cancer or incidence-based breast cancer mortality between the women who were invited for screening annually or triennially.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2011; 105(9):1388-91. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Type--Therapy (symptom prevalence). Level of Evidence 2a. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? In several population-based studies the prevalence of hesitancy has varied from 20% to 52%. Studies concern mostly older men ≥50-years-old. Knowledge of troublesomeness that hesitancy causes is very scarce. This is a large population-based study on hesitancy in men with a wide age range. This study reports the prevalence of hesitancy from 30-year-old men to 80-year-old men. The bother of hesitancy is reported and this is also presented in different age groups.
• To estimate the prevalence and bother of hesitancy by age group.
• In this population-based study, the target population was 30- to 80-year-old men from Pirkanmaa County, Finland. • Information was collected by means of a mailed self-administered questionnaire in 2004. The overall participation proportion was 58.7% (4384 men out of 7470). • The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire was used to evaluate urinary symptoms, particularly hesitancy. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis.
• Almost half of the men (46.8%, 95% CI 45.3-48.3%) reported hesitancy at least occasionally, but only 0.5% (95% CI 0.3-0.7%) had hesitancy every time they urinated. The prevalence of any hesitancy was 42.3% at 30 years and 50.5% at 80 years of age (trend P < 0.001). Only a few men reported hesitancy often or always, prevalence increasing with age from 2.6% to 11.4% (trend P < 0.001). • Hesitancy caused a small problem for 18.3% of the men and a moderate or major problem for 0.9-5.3%. Only 3% of the men with infrequent hesitancy reported more than a small problem, whereas 59% of the men with hesitancy often or always reported a small problem and 32% reported a moderate or major problem. • Two other voiding symptoms, straining and weak stream, were strongly associated with hesitancy (with odds ratios exceeding 80).
• Mild hesitancy is very common in men of all ages. • Severe cases are rare, but the prevalence increases with age. • Hesitancy is a well-tolerated urinary symptom.
BJU International 08/2011; 109(9):1360-4. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose was to evaluate alternative cytological screening methods in population-based screening for cervical cancer up to cancer incidence and mortality outcome. Automation-assisted screening was compared to conventional cytological screening in a randomized design. The study was based on follow-up of 503,391 women invited in the Finnish cervical cancer screening program during 1999-2003. The endpoints were incident cervical cancer, severe intraepithelial neoplasia and deaths from cervical cancer. One third of the women had been randomly allocated to automation-assisted screening and two thirds to conventional cytology. Information on cervical cancer and severe neoplasia were obtained through 1999-2007 from a linkage between screening and cancer registry files. There were altogether 3.2 million woman-years at risk, and the average follow-up time was 6.3 years. There was no difference in the risk of cervical cancer between the automation-assisted and conventional screening methods; the relative risk (RR) of cervical cancer between the study and control arm was 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76-1.29) among all invited and 1.08 (95% CI = 0.76-1.51) among women who were test negative at entry. Comparing women who were test negative with nonscreened, RR of cervical cancer incidence was 0.26, 95% CI = 0.19-0.36 and of mortality 0.24 (0.13-0.43). Both methods were valid for screening. Because cervical cancer is rare in our country, we cannot rule out small differences between methods. Evidence on alternative methods for cervical cancer screening is increasing and it is thus feasible to evaluate new methods in large-scale population-based screening programs up to cancer outcome.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 128(5):1204-12. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Population-based randomized controlled trials (RCTs) often involve enormous costs and long-term follow-up to evaluate primary end points. Analytical decision-simulated model for sample size and effectiveness projections based on primary and surrogate end points are necessary before planning a population-based RCT.
Based on the study design similar to two previous RCTs, transition rates were estimated using a five-state natural history model [normal, preclinical detection phase (PCDP) Dukes' A/B, PCDP Dukes' C/D, Clinical Dukes' A/B and Clinical Dukes' C/D]. The Markov cycle tree was assigned transition parameters, variables related to screening and survival rate that simulated results of 10-year follow-up in the absence of screening for a hypothetical cohort aged 45-74 years. The corresponding screened arm was to simulate the results after the introduction of population-based screening for colorectal cancer with fecal occult blood test with stop screen design.
The natural course of mean sojourn time for five-state Markov model were estimated as 2.75 years for preclinical Dukes' A/B and 1.38 years for preclinical Dukes' C/D. The expected reductions in mortality and Dukes' C/D were 13% (95% confidence intervals: 7-19%) and 26% (95% confidence intervals: 20-32%), respectively, given a 70% acceptance rate and a 90% colonoscopy referral rate. Sample sizes required were 86,150 and 65,592 subjects for the primary end point and the surrogate end point, respectively, given an incidence rate up to 0.0020 per year.
The sample sizes required for primary and surrogate end points and the projection of effectiveness of fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening were developed. Both are very important to plan a population-based RCT.
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 02/2011; 17(1):123-9. · 1.51 Impact Factor