M Duran

North West University South Africa, Potchefstroom, North-West, South Africa

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Publications (416)1674.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective antiepileptic drug that may induce progressive microvesicular steatosis. The impairment of mitochondrial function may be an important metabolic effect of VPA treatment with potential adverse consequences. To investigate the influence of VPA on the activity of GTP- and ATP-specific succinate:CoA ligases (G-SUCL and A-SUCL). The GTP- and ATP-specific SUCL activities were measured in human fibroblasts in the reverse direction, i.e. the formation of succinyl-CoA. These were assessed at different concentrations of succinate in the presence of VPA, valproyl-CoA and zinc chloride, an established inhibitor of the enzymes. Activities were measured using an optimized HPLC procedure. Valproyl-CoA (1 mM) inhibited the activity of A-SUCL and G-SUCL by 45-55 % and 25-50 %, respectively. VPA (1 mM) had no influence on the activity of the two enzymes. Valproyl-CoA appears to affect the activity of SUCL, especially with the ATP-specific enzyme. Considering the key role of SUCL in the Krebs cycle, interference with its activity might impair the cellular energy status. Moreover, A-SUCL is bound to the nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), which is responsible for the mitochondrial (deoxy)nucleotide synthesis. An inhibition of A-SUCL might influence the activity of NDPK inducing an imbalance of nucleotides in the mitochondria and eventually mitochondrial DNA depletion. This may account for the potential liver failure associated with valproate therapy, reported in patients with deficiencies within the mitochondrial DNA replicase system such as polymerase gamma 1.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 10/2013; · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An infant carrying a homozygous c.668G>A mutation in the ALPL gene with hypophosphatasia in the absence of bone deformities presented with therapy-resistant seizures. Pyridoxal phosphate was extremely high in CSF and plasma. Pyridoxine treatment had only a transient effect and the severe encephalopathy was fatal. Repeated brain MRIs showed progressive cerebral damage. The precise metabolic cause of the seizures remains unknown and pyridoxine treatment apparently does not cure the epilepsy.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 09/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isovaleric acidemia (IVA, MIM 248600) can be a severe and potentially life-threatening disease in affected neonates, but with a positive prognosis on treatment for some phenotypes. This study presents the first application of metabolomics to evaluate the metabolite profiles derived from urine samples of untreated and treated IVA patients as well as of obligate heterozygotes. All IVA patients carried the same homozygous c.367 G > A nucleotide change in exon 4 of the IVD gene but manifested phenotypic diversity. Concurrent class analysis (CONCA) was used to compare all the metabolites from the original complete data set obtained from the three case and two control groups used in this investigation. This application of CONCA has not been reported previously, and is used here to compare four different modes of scaling of all metabolites. The variables important in discrimination from the CONCA thus enabled the recognition of different metabolic patterns encapsulated within the data sets that would not have been revealed by using only one mode of scaling. Application of multivariate and univariate analyses disclosed 11 important metabolites that distinguished untreated IVA from controls. These included well-established diagnostic biomarkers of IVA, endogenous detoxification markers, and 3-hydroxycaproic acid, an indicator of ketosis, but not reported previously for this disease. Nine metabolites were identified that reflected the effect of treatment of IVA. They included detoxification products and indicators related to the high carbohydrate and low protein diet which formed the hallmark of the treatment. This investigation also provides the first comparative metabolite profile for heterozygotes of this inherited metabolic disorder. The detection of informative metabolites in even very low concentrations in all three experimental groups highlights the potential advantage of the holistic mode of analysis of inherited metabolic diseases in a metabolomics investigation.
    Metabolomics 08/2013; 9(4):765. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperammonemia is a frequent finding in various organic acidemias. One possible mechanism involves the inhibition of the enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), by short-chain acyl-CoAs which accumulate due to defective catabolism of amino acids and/or fatty acids in the cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various acyl-CoAs on the activity of NAGS in conjunction with the formation of glutamate esters. NAGS activity was measured in vitro using a sensitive enzyme assay with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) product analysis. Propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA proved to be the most powerful inhibitors of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) formation. Branched-chain amino acid related CoAs (isovaleryl-CoA, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA) showed less pronounced inhibition of NAGS whereas the dicarboxylic short-chain acyl-CoAs (methylmalonyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, glutaryl-CoA) had the least inhibitory effect. Subsequent work show that the most powerful inhibitors also proved to be the best substrates in the formation of N-acylglutamates. Furthermore, we identified N-isovalerylglutamate, N-3-methylcrotonylglutamate and N-isobutyrylglutamate, (the latter two in trace amounts), in the urines of patients with different organic acidemias. Collectively, these findings explain one of the contributing factors to secondary hyperammonemia, which lead to the reduced in vivo flux through the urea cycle in organic acidemias and result in the inadequate elimination of ammonia.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hyperlysinemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of L-lysine degradation. To date only one causal mutation in the AASS gene encoding alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase has been reported. We aimed to better define the genetic basis of hyperlysinemia. METHODS: We collected the clinical, biochemical and molecular data in a cohort of 8 hyperlysinemia patients with distinct neurological features. RESULTS: We found novel causal mutations in AASS in all affected individuals, including 4 missense mutations, 2 deletions and 1 duplication. In two patients originating from one family, the hyperlysinemia was caused by a contiguous gene deletion syndrome affecting AASS and PTPRZ1. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperlysinemia is caused by mutations in AASS. As hyperlysinemia is generally considered a benign metabolic variant, the more severe neurological disease course in two patients with a contiguous deletion syndrome may be explained by the additional loss of PTPRZ1. Our findings illustrate the importance of detailed biochemical and genetic studies in any hyperlysinemia patient.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 04/2013; 8(1):57. · 3.96 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible conversion of acyl-CoAs into acylcarnitine esters. This family includes the mitochondrial enzymes carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). CPT2 is part of the carnitine shuttle that is necessary to import fatty acids into mitochondria and catalyzes the conversion of acylcarnitines into acyl-CoAs. In addition, when mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation is impaired, CPT2 is able to catalyze the reverse reaction and converts accumulating long- and medium-chain acyl-CoAs into acylcarnitines for export from the matrix to the cytosol. However, CPT2 is inactive with short-chain acyl-CoAs and intermediates of the branched-chain amino acid oxidation pathway (BCAAO). In order to explore the origin of short-chain and branched-chain acylcarnitines that may accumulate in various organic acidemias, we performed substrate specificity studies using purified recombinant human CrAT. Various saturated, unsaturated and branched-chain acyl-CoA esters were tested and the synthesized acylcarnitines were quantified by ESI-MS/MS. We show that CrAT converts short- and medium-chain acyl-CoAs (C2 to C10-CoA), whereas no activity was observed with long-chain species. Trans-2-enoyl-CoA intermediates were found to be poor substrates for this enzyme. Furthermore, CrAT turned out to be active towards some but not all the BCAAO intermediates tested and no activity was found with dicarboxylyl-CoA esters. This suggests the existence of another enzyme able to handle the acyl-CoAs that are not substrates for CrAT and CPT2, but for which the corresponding acylcarnitines are well recognized as diagnostic markers in inborn errors of metabolism.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by cognitive and locomotor regression and stereotypic hand movements. The disorder is caused by mutations in the X chromosomal MECP2 a gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein. It has been associated with disturbances of cerebral folate homeostasis, as well as with speculations on a compromised DNA-methylation. Folinic acid is the stable form of folate. Its derived intermediate 5-MTHF supports the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, the precursor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). This in turn donates its methyl group to various acceptors, including DNA, thereby being converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). The SAM/SAH ratio reflects the methylation potential. The goal of our study was to influence DNA methylation processes and ameliorate the clinical symptoms in Rett syndrome. Therefore we examined the hypothesis that folinic acid supplementation, besides increasing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-MTHF (p = 0.003), influences SAM and SAH and their ratio. In our randomized, double-blind crossover study on folinic acid supplementation, ten female Rett patients received both folinic acid and placebo for 1 year each. It was shown that both SAM and SAH levels in the CSF remained unchanged following folinic acid administration (p = 0.202 and p = 0.097, respectively) in spite of a rise of plasma SAM and SAH (p = 0.007; p = 0.009). There was no significant change in the SAM/SAH ratio either in plasma or CSF. The apparent inability of Rett patients to upregulate SAM and SAH levels in the CSF may contribute to the biochemical anomalies of the Rett syndrome. Our studies warrant further attempts to promote DNA methylation in the true region of interest, i.e. the brain.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 02/2013; 36(6). · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased urinary 3-methylglutaconic acid excretion is a relatively common finding in metabolic disorders, especially in mitochondrial disorders. In most cases 3-methylglutaconic acid is only slightly elevated and accompanied by other (disease specific) metabolites. There is, however, a group of disorders with significantly and consistently increased 3-methylglutaconic acid excretion, where the 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is a hallmark of the phenotype and the key to diagnosis. Until now these disorders were labelled by roman numbers (I-V) in the order of discovery regardless of pathomechanism. Especially, the so called "unspecified" 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type IV has been ever growing, leading to biochemical and clinical diagnostic confusion. Therefore, we propose the following pathomechanism based classification and a simplified diagnostic flow chart for these "inborn errors of metabolism with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria as discriminative feature". One should distinguish between "primary 3-methylglutaconic aciduria" formerly known as type I (3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency, AUH defect) due to defective leucine catabolism and the-currently known-three groups of "secondary 3-methylglutaconic aciduria". The latter should be further classified and named by their defective protein or the historical name as follows: i) defective phospholipid remodelling (TAZ defect or Barth syndrome, SERAC1 defect or MEGDEL syndrome) and ii) mitochondrial membrane associated disorders (OPA3 defect or Costeff syndrome, DNAJC19 defect or DCMA syndrome, TMEM70 defect). The remaining patients with significant and consistent 3-methylglutaconic aciduria in whom the above mentioned syndromes have been excluded, should be referred to as "not otherwise specified (NOS) 3-MGA-uria" until elucidation of the underlying pathomechanism enables proper (possibly extended) classification.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 01/2013; 36(6). · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Newborn screening (NBS) for long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency does not discriminate between isolated LCHAD deficiency, isolated long-chain keto acyl-CoA (LCKAT) deficiency and general mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency. Therefore, screening for LCHAD deficiency inevitably comprises screening for MTP deficiency, which is much less amenable to treatment. Furthermore, absence of a clear classification system for these disorders is still lacking. Materials and Methods: Two newborns screened positive for LCHAD deficiency died at the age of 10 and 31 days, respectively. One due to severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), cardiomyopathy and multiorgan failure and the other due to severe infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (Keto)-acylcarnitine concentration and enzymatic analysis of LCHAD and LCKAT suggested MTP deficiency in both patients. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous HADHB c.357+5delG mutation in one patient and a homozygous splice-site HADHB mutation c.212+1G>C in the other patient.Data on enzymatic and mutation analysis of 40 patients with presumed LCHAD, LCKAT or MTP deficiency were used to design a classification to distinguish between these disorders. Discussion: NEC as presenting symptom in MTP deficiency has not been reported previously. High expression of long-chain fatty acid oxidation enzymes reported in lungs and gut of human foetuses suggests that the severe NEC and IRDS observed in our patients are related to the enzymatic deficiency in these organs during crucial stages of development.Furthermore, as illustrated by the cases we propose a classification system to discriminate LCHAD, LCKAT and MTP deficiency based on enzymatic analysis.
    JIMD reports. 01/2013; 7:1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphohydroxylysinuria has been described in two patients with neurological symptoms, but the deficient enzyme or mutated gene has never been identified. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that this condition is due to mutations in the AGXT2L2 gene, recently shown to encode phosphohydroxylysine phospholyase. DNA analysis from a third patient, without neurological symptoms, but with an extreme hyperlaxicity of the joints, shows the existence of two mutations, p. Gly240Arg and p.Glu437Val, both in the heterozygous state. Sequencing of cDNA clones derived from fibroblasts mRNA indicated that the two mutations were allelic. Both mutations replace conserved residues. The mutated proteins were produced as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and HEK293T cells and shown to be very largely insoluble, whereas the wild-type one was produced as a soluble and active protein. We conclude that phosphohydroxylysinuria is due to mutations in the AGXT2L2 gene and the resulting lack of activity of phosphohydroxylysine phospholyase in vivo. The finding that the nul alleles of p.Gly240Arg and p.Glu437Val are present at low frequencies in the European and/or North American population suggests that this condition is more common than previously thought. The diversity of the clinical symptoms described in three patients with phosphohydroxylysinuria indicates that this is most likely not a neurometabolic disease.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 12/2012; 36(6). · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in schizophrenia have been reported, however there is substantial variation in the findings. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA). We identified 18 studies which compared PUFA in the erythrocyte cell-membrane between patients with schizophrenia and controls. A total of 642 patients (169 were antipsychotic-naïve) and 574 controls participated in these studies. We found suggestive evidence that the levels of DPA (C22:5n3) and DHA (C22:6n3) are decreased both in patients on current use of antipsychotic medication as well as antipsychotic-naïve patients. Our findings furthermore suggest that the levels of LA (C18:2n6) are decreased in the medicated subgroup, but not in the antipsychotics-naïve group. Finally, we found decreased levels of AA (C20:4n6), most convincingly in antipsychotic naive patients. Taken together, there is substantial evidence that decreased levels of DPA (C22:5n3), DHA (C22:6n3), and AA (C20:4n6) are associated with the schizophrenia syndrome, apart from a possible influence of antipsychotic medication. Given the large heterogeneity in results, these conclusions should be interpreted cautiously.
    Psychiatry research. 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Background:White matter (WM) abnormalities have been implicated in schizophrenia, yet the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not fully understood. Several lines of evidence suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in myelination, and there is substantial evidence documenting decreased PUFA concentrations in schizophrenia. We therefore hypothe sized that lower membrane PUFA concentrations may be related to reduced WM integrity in schizophrenia and related disorders. Methods: In 30 male patients with a recent-onset psychotic disorder, erythrocyte membrane PUFA concentrations were assessed and diffusion tensor imaging was performed with voxelwise analysis. Results: Lower total PUFA concentration was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) throughout the corpus callosum and bilateral parietal, occipital, temporal and frontal WM (P < .05, corrected). Of the individual PUFAs, lower arachidonic acid concentration, and to a lesser extent, lower nervonic acid, linoleic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid concentration were significantly associated with lower FA. PUFA concentrations were inversely associated with radial diffusivity but showed little association with axial diffusivity. Greater severity of negative symptoms was associated with lower nervonic acid concentration and lower FA values. Conclusions: Membrane PUFA concentrations appear to be robustly related to brain WM integrity in early phase psychosis. These findings may provide a basis for studies to investigate the effects of PUFA supplementation on WM integrity and associated symptomatology in early psychosis.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 08/2012; · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is one of the most common organic acidemias found in South Africa. Since 1983, a significant number of IVA cases have been identified in approximately 20,000 Caucasian patients screened for metabolic defects. IVA is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) resulting in the accumulation of isovaleryl-CoA and its metabolites. In total, 10 IVA patients and three carriers were available for phenotypic and genotypic investigation in this study. All patients were found to be homozygous for a single c.367 G > A (p.G123R) mutation. The amino acid substitution of a glycine to arginine resulted in a markedly reduced steady-state level of the IVD protein, which explains the nearly complete lack of IVD enzyme activity as assessed in fibroblast homogenates. Despite the genetic homogeneity of this South African IVA group, the clinical presentation varied widely, ranging from severe mental handicap and multiple episodes of metabolic derangement to an asymptomatic state. The variation may be due to poor dietary intervention, delayed diagnosis or even epigenetic and polygenetic factors of unknown origin.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 02/2012; 35(6):1021-9. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (HB-carnitine) is a metabolite that has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is currently unknown whether HB-carnitine can be produced from D-3-hydroxybutyrate (D-3HB), a ketone body; but its formation from L-3-HB-CoA, a fatty acid β-oxidation intermediate, is well established. We aimed to assess which stereoisomers of 3-HB-carnitine are present in vivo. Ketosis and increased fatty acid oxidation were induced in 12 lean healthy men by a 38-hour fasting period. The D-3HB kinetics (stable isotope technique) and stereoisomers of muscle 3-HB-carnitine (high-performance liquid chromatography/ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) were measured. Muscle D-3HB-carnitine content was much higher compared with L-3HB-carnitine. In addition, muscle D-3HB-carnitine correlated significantly with D-3-HB production. Following the finding that a ketone body can be converted into a carnitine ester in vivo, we show in vitro that D-3-HB can be converted into HB-carnitine (ketocarnitine) via an acyl-CoA synthetase reaction in several tissues including human muscle. During fasting, HB-carnitine in muscle is derived mainly from the ketone body D-3HB. The role of D-3HB-carnitine synthesis in metabolism remains to be elucidated.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 12/2011; 61(7):966-73. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant drug which affects mitochondrial metabolism including the catabolism of fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids. To elucidate the effect of valproate on the leucine pathway through a targeted metabolomics approach and the evaluation of the effects of valproate on the activity of biotinidase and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3MCC). Urine organic acid analysis was performed in patients under VPA therapy and healthy controls using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Biotinidase activity was determined in plasma samples of both groups using an optimized spectrophotometric assay. After immunoprecipitation of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (crotonase, ECHS1), 3MCC activity was measured in human liver homogenate using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in the absence and presence of valproyl-CoA. The levels of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3OH-IVA), one secondary metabolite of the leucine pathway, were significantly elevated in human urine after VPA treatment. Biotinidase activity in plasma samples ranged from very low to normal levels in treated patients as compared with controls. Enzyme activity measurements revealed inhibition of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase by valproyl-CoA (IC(50) = 1.36 mM). Furthermore, we show that after complete immunoprecipitation of crotonase in a human liver homogenate, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-CoA is not formed. Our results suggest the interference of VPA with the activity of 3MCC through a potential cumulative effect: direct inhibition of the enzyme activity by the drug metabolite valproyl-CoA and the inhibition of biotinidase by valproate and/or its metabolites. These interactions may be associated with the skin rash and hair loss which are side effects often reported in VPA-treated patients.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 12/2011; 35(3):443-9. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A deficiency of plasmalogens, caused by impaired peroxisomal metabolism affects normal development and multiple organs in adulthood. Treatment options aimed at restoring plasmalogen levels may be relevant for the therapy of peroxisomal and non-peroxisomal disorders. In this study we determined the in vivo efficacy of an alkyl glycerol (AG), namely, 1-O-octadecyl-rac-glycerol, as a therapeutic agent for defects in plasmalogen synthesis. To achieve this, Pex7 knockout mice, a mouse model for Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata type 1 characterized by the absence of plasmalogens, and WT mice were fed a control diet or a diet containing 2% alkyl-glycerol. Plasmalogen levels were measured in target organs and the biochemical data were correlated with the histological analysis of affected organs. Plasmalogen levels in all peripheral tissues of Pex7 KO mice fed the AG diet for 2 months normalized to the levels of AG fed WT mice. In nervous tissues of Pex7 KO mice fed the AG-diet, plasmalogen levels were significantly increased compared to control fed KO mice. Histological analysis of target organs revealed that the AG-diet was able to stop the progression of the pathology in testis, adipose tissue and the Harderian gland. Interestingly, the latter tissues are characterized by the presence of lipid droplets which were absent or reduced in size and number when ether-phospholipids are lacking, but which can be restored with the AAG treatment. Furthermore, nerve conduction in peripheral nerves was improved. When given prior to the occurrence of major pathological changes, the AG-diet prevented or ameliorated the pathology observed in Pex7 KO mice depending on the degree of plasmalogen restoration. This study provides evidence of the beneficial effects of treating a plasmalogen deficiency with alkyl-glycerol.
    PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e28539. · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder in girls, related to mutations in MECP2 gene. It has been postulated that low 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) levels are present in cerebrospinal fluid. Folinic acid demonstrated clinical improvement. However, because studies have produced conflicting results, we performed a randomized, double-blind crossover, long-term, follow-up study on folinic acid. Eight Rett syndrome patients received both folinic acid and placebo, for 1 year each. Measurements included plasma folate, 5-MTHF, and clinical outcome scores like Rett Syndrome Motor Behavioral Assessment, Hand Apraxia Scale, and the parental Overall Well-Being Index. In 2 patients, low 5-MTHF levels were present. Folinic acid supplementation increased cerebrospinal fluid 5-MTHF levels, but with no objective evidence of clinical improvement. The Overall Well-Being Index showed a significant difference in favor of folinic acid, not confirmed objectively. In our double-blind randomized study, folinic acid supplementation resulted in increased 5-MTHF levels, but with no objective signs of clinical improvement.
    Journal of child neurology 08/2011; 27(3):304-9. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) is a simple branched medium-chain fatty acid with expanding therapeutic applications beyond its prime anticonvulsant properties. (1) To resolve the underlying basis for the interference of valproate with the isoleucine degradative pathway and (2) to shed new light on the enzymology of the β-oxidation pathway of valproate. Urine organic acids were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In vitro studies were performed with heterologously expressed human 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MHBD) and fibroblasts from controls and a patient with MHBD deficiency using 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA and 3-hydroxyvalproyl-CoA as substrates. The respective enzymatic activities were measured using optimized HPLC procedures. Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) immunoprecipitation in a human liver homogenate was performed and hydratase activity was measured in the supernatants by HPLC, using crotonyl-CoA and Δ(2(E))-valproyl-CoA as substrates. Patients on valproate therapy had a moderately increased urinary excretion of the isoleucine metabolite 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid. MHBD was found to convert 3-hydroxyvalproyl-CoA into 3-ketovalproyl-CoA. MHBD activity in control fibroblasts was comparable using both 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA and 3-hydroxyvalproyl-CoA as substrates. In fibroblasts of a patient with MHBD deficiency, there was no detectable MHBD activity when 3-hydroxyvalproyl-CoA was used as substrate. Samples with immunoprecipitated crotonase had no detectable hydratase activity using both crotonyl-CoA and Δ(2(E))-valproyl-CoA as substrates. This work demonstrates for the first time, that MHBD is the unique enzyme responsible for the dehydrogenation of 3-hydroxyvalproyl-CoA. Furthermore, we show that crotonase is the major, if not the single hydratase involved in VPA β-oxidation, next to its role in isoleucine catabolism.
    Biochemical pharmacology 08/2011; 82(11):1740-6. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 05/2011; 15. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutaric aciduria type I (synonym, glutaric acidemia type I) is a rare organic aciduria. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia during infancy resulting in a high morbidity and mortality. The neuropathological correlate is striatal injury which results from encephalopathic crises precipitated by infectious diseases, immunizations and surgery during a finite period of brain development, or develops insidiously without clinically apparent crises. Glutaric aciduria type I is caused by inherited deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase which is involved in the catabolic pathways of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine and L-tryptophan. This defect gives rise to elevated glutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid, and glutarylcarnitine which can be detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (organic acids) or tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines). Glutaric aciduria type I is included in the panel of diseases that are identified by expanded newborn screening in some countries. It has been shown that in the majority of neonatally diagnosed patients striatal injury can be prevented by combined metabolic treatment. Metabolic treatment that includes a low lysine diet, carnitine supplementation and intensified emergency treatment during acute episodes of intercurrent illness should be introduced and monitored by an experienced interdisciplinary team. However, initiation of treatment after the onset of symptoms is generally not effective in preventing permanent damage. Secondary dystonia is often difficult to treat, and the efficacy of available drugs cannot be predicted precisely in individual patients. The major aim of this revision is to re-evaluate the previous diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations for patients with this disease and incorporate new research findings into the guideline.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 03/2011; 34(3):677-94. · 4.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,674.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • North West University South Africa
      • Centre for Human Metabonomics
      Potchefstroom, North-West, South Africa
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Lisbon
      • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    • Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
  • 1997–2013
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • • Academic Medical Center
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1980–2012
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      • • Department of Clinical Biochemistry
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2001–2010
    • Academic Medical Center (AMC)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Erasmus MC
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Hannover Medical School
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • BT
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Universidade da Madeira
      Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
  • 1976–2004
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • • Department of Medical Genetics
      • • Wilhelmina Children´s Hospital
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Maxima Medical Center
      Veldhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 1999
    • NL Agency, Netherlands
      's-Gravenhage, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1997–1999
    • Canisius-Wilhelmina Ziekenhuis
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 1973–1999
    • Utrecht University
      • • Division of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Organic Chemistry and Catalysis
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1998
    • University of Iowa Children's Hospital
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 1978–1998
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Clinical Genetics
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1993
    • Diakonessen Hospital Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1983
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1981
    • Karolinska Institutet
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden