Publications (2)4.56 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: High vegetable and fruit (V&F) consumption has been associated with a lower risk of several cancers. However, little is known about the ability of individuals to increase their intakes markedly. In this 1-year randomized, controlled diet intervention study of men and women with a recent history of adenomas, the intervention group (n = 100) was asked to increase V&F intake to at least eight servings per day; the control group (n = 101) continued eating their usual diet. End-point measures included V&F intake assessed by 3-day diet records, plasma carotenoids, serum lipids, urinary sodium and potassium, and body weight. The intervention group increased their daily V&F intake an average of 5.5 servings over 1 year; the control group had an average decrease of 0.5 servings per day (P < 0.001). Plasma total carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin were each statistically significantly elevated over baseline (11-54%) in the intervention group compared with the control group over the duration of follow-up (P < 0.001). Urinary potassium excretion was elevated 14% over baseline in the intervention group compared with no change in the control group (P < 0.001). Modest decreases in the intervention but not the control group were observed for total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma lycopene, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body weight, and urinary sodium were not affected by the intervention. V&F intake was significantly increased in this motivated population at higher risk of colon cancer and maintained for at least 12 months, as assessed using diet records and an ensemble of biomarkers.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 03/2000; 9(3):307-17. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To test the effect of daily supplemental calcium on serum total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and blood pressure in adults. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial; adjunct study to a trial of calcium and colon cell proliferation in patients with sporadic adenoma. Outpatient clinic. A total of 193 men and women, aged 30 to 74 years. Treatment with 1.0 and 2.0 g/d of elemental calcium vs placebo over a 4-month period for cholesterol determinations and 6 months for blood pressure. Serum total cholesterol and HDL-C levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Because there were no apparent differences in responses between the 1.0-g and 2.0-g calcium groups, their data were combined and compared with those of the placebo group. Among all participants, the mean total cholesterol level dropped 0.07 mmol/L (2.9 mg/dL) (1.3%) (P = .43) more, and the mean HDL-C level dropped 0.01 mmol/L (0.4 mg/dL) (1.1%) (P = .71) less in the calcium group than in the placebo group. Among participants without a history of hypercholesterolemia, the mean total cholesterol level dropped 0.18 mmol/L (6.8 mg/dL) (3.3%) (P = .10) and the HDL-C level dropped 0.02 mmol/L (0.6 mg/dL) (1.5%) (P = .61) more in the calcium group than in the placebo group. Among all participants, there was no apparent change in blood pressure until 6 months, when the mean systolic blood pressure dropped 0.8 mm Hg (0.6%) (P = .85) and the mean diastolic blood pressure dropped 0.4 mm Hg (0.5%) (P = .80) more in the calcium group than in the placebo group. There were no substantial or statistically significant effects of calcium supplementation on total cholesterol or HDL-C levels or on blood pressure. There was a suggestion (not statistically significant) of a 0.07 to 0.18 mmol/L (3-7 mg/dL) or 2% to 4% drop in the total cholesterol level, a finding similar to that reported in other studies, which indicates the need for further study.Archives of Family Medicine 02/2000; 9(1):31-8; discussion 39.