[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase inhibitors can alter gene expression and mediate diverse antitumor activities. Herein, we report the safety and activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and identify genes commonly regulated by panobinostat.
Panobinostat was administered orally to patients with CTCL on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of each week on a 28-day cycle. A dose of 30 mg was considered excessively toxic, and subsequent patients were treated at the expanded maximum tolerated dose of 20 mg. Biopsies from six patients taken 0, 4, 8, and 24 h after administration were subjected to microarray gene expression profiling and real-time quantitative PCR of selected genes.
Patients attained a complete response (n = 2), attained a partial response (n = 4), achieved stable disease with ongoing improvement (n = 1), and progressed on treatment (n = 2). Microarray data showed distinct gene expression response profiles over time following panobinostat treatment, with the majority of genes being repressed. Twenty-three genes were commonly regulated by panobinostat in all patients tested.
Panobinostat is well tolerated and induces clinical responses in CTCL patients. Microarray analyses of tumor samples indicate that panobinostat induces rapid changes in gene expression, and surprisingly more genes are repressed than are activated. A unique set of genes that can mediate biological responses such as apoptosis, immune regulation, and angiogenesis were commonly regulated in response to panobinostat. These genes are potential molecular biomarkers for panobinostat activity and are strong candidates for the future assessment of their functional role(s) in mediating the antitumor responses of panobinostat.
Clinical Cancer Research 07/2008; 14(14):4500-10. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4262 · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actual BCR-ABL kinase inhibition in vivo as determined by phospho-CRKL (pCRKL) monitoring has been recognized as a prognostic parameter in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with imatinib. We report a biomarker sub-study of the international phase I clinical trial of nilotinib (AMN107) using the established pCRKL assay in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia or Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A minimum dose (200 mg) required for effective BCR-ABL inhibition in imatinib resistant/intolerant leukemia was determined. The pre-clinical activity profile of nilotinib against mutant BCR-ABL was largely confirmed. Substantial differences between peripheral blood baseline pCRKL/CRKL ratios were observed when comparing chronic myeloid leukemia with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Finally, rapid BCR-ABL-reactivation shortly after starting nilotinib treatment was seen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with progressive disease carrying the P-loop mutations Y253H, E255K, or mutation T315I. Monitoring the actual BCR-ABL inhibition in nilotinib treated patients using pCRKL as a surrogate is a means to establish effective dosing and to characterize resistance mechanisms against nilotinib.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nilotinib is a novel BCR-ABL inhibitor with significantly improved potency and selectivity over imatinib. In Phase I and Phase II clinical studies of nilotinib in patients with a variety of leukemias, infrequent instances of reversible, benign elevation of bilirubin were observed. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) glucuronidates bilirubin in humans, and a polymorphism in the promoter of the gene that encodes it has been associated with hyperbilirubinemia during treatment with a number of drugs. Pharmacogenetic analysis of that TA-repeat polymorphism found an association between the (TA)7/(TA)7 genotype and risk of hyperbilirubinemia in Phase I patients with imatinib-resistant/intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or relapsed/refractory Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); this result was replicated in two separate analyses of the chronic phase (CP) and accelerated phase (AP) CML arms of a Phase II study. As nilotinib is not known to be glucuronidated by UGT1A1, the combined impact of inhibition of UGT1A1 activity by nilotinib and genetic polymorphism is the most likely cause of the increased rate of hyperbilirubinemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LBH589 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cell lines. In this phase I study, LBH589 was administered i.v. as a 30-minute infusion on days 1 to 7 of a 21-day cycle.
Fifteen patients (median age, 63 years; range, 42-87 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (13 patients), acute lymphocytic leukemia (1 patient), or myelodysplastic syndrome (1 patient) were treated with LBH589 at the following dose levels (mg/m(2)): 4.8 (3 patients), 7.2 (3 patients), 9.0 (1 patient), 11.5 (3 patient), and 14.0 (5 patients). The levels of histone acetylation were measured using quantitative flow cytometry and plasma LBH589 concentrations were assayed.
Four dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 QTcF prolongation) were observed, four at 14.0 mg/m(2) and one at 11.5 mg/m(2). QTcF prolongation was asymptomatic and reversed on LBH589 discontinuation. Other potentially LBH589-related toxicities included nausea (40%), diarrhea (33%), vomiting (33%), hypokalemia (27%), loss of appetite (13%), and thrombocytopenia (13%). In 8 of 11 patients with peripheral blasts, transient reductions occurred with a rebound following the 7-day treatment period. H3 acetylation increase was significant in B-cells (CD19(+); P = 0.02) and blasts (CD34(+); P = 0.04). The increase in H2B acetylation was highest in CD19(+) and CD34(+) cells [3.8-fold (P = 0.01) and 4.4-fold (P = 0.03), respectively]. The median acetylation of histones H2B and H3 in CD34(+) and CD19(+) cells significantly increased on therapy as did apoptosis in CD14(+) cells. Area under the curve increased proportionally with dose with a terminal half-life of approximately 11 hours.
Intravenous administration of LBH589 was well tolerated at doses <11.5 mg/m(2) with consistent transient antileukemic and biological effects.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2006; 12(15):4628-35. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0511 · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to imatinib mesylate can occur in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Preclinical in vitro studies have shown that nilotinib (AMN107), a new BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is more potent than imatinib against CML cells by a factor of 20 to 50.
In a phase 1 dose-escalation study, we assigned 119 patients with imatinib-resistant CML or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to receive nilotinib orally at doses of 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg, 600 mg, 800 mg, and 1200 mg once daily and at 400 mg and 600 mg twice daily.
Common adverse events were myelosuppression, transient indirect hyperbilirubinemia, and rashes. Of 33 patients with the blastic phase of disease, 13 had a hematologic response and 9 had a cytogenetic response; of 46 patients with the accelerated phase, 33 had a hematologic response and 22 had a cytogenetic response; 11 of 12 patients with the chronic phase had a complete hematologic remission.
Nilotinib has a relatively favorable safety profile and is active in imatinib-resistant CML. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00109707 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2006; 354(24):2542-51. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa055104 · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that patients with Bcr-Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) either have primary disease that is refractory to imatinib mesylate or develop disease recurrence after an initial response.
The authors investigated the effects of a newly designed Bcr-Abl inhibitor, AMN107, by comparing its in vitro inhibitory potency on p190 Bcr-Abl ALL cell lines with that of imatinib.
In two Philadelphia (Ph)-positive ALL cell lines, AMN107 was found to be 30-40 times more potent than imatinib in inhibiting cellular proliferation. AMN107 was also more effective than imatinib in inhibiting phosphorylation of p190 Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase in cell lines and primary ALL cells. The inhibition of cellular proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis in only one of the cell lines. No activity was observed in cell lines lacking the BCR-ABL genotype.
The results of the current study suggest the superior potency of AMN107 compared with imatinib in Ph-positive ALL and support clinical trials of AMN107 in patients with Ph-positive ALL.
Cancer 09/2005; 104(6):1230-6. DOI:10.1002/cncr.21299 · 4.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to or intolerance of imatinib in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has encouraged the development of more potent Bcr-Abl inhibitors. AMN107 is a novel, orally bioavailable ATP-competitive inhibitor of Bcr-Abl. The effects of AMN107 were compared with those of imatinib on imatinib-sensitive (KBM5 and KBM7) and imatinib-resistant CML cell lines (KBM5-STI571R1.0 and KBM7-STI571R1.0). Compared with the antiproliferative activity of imatinib, AMN107 was 43 times more potent in KBM5 (IC50 of 11.3 versus 480.5 nmol/L) and 60 times more potent in KBM7 (IC50 of 4.3 versus 259.0 nmol/L) cells. IC50 for AMN107 and imatinib were 2,418.3 and 6,361.4 nmol/L, respectively, in KBM5-STI571R1.0, and 97.2 and 2,497.3 nmol/L, respectively, in KBM7-STI571R1.0 cells. AMN107 inhibited autophosphorylation of Bcr-Abl kinase more effectively than imatinib in all cell lines. They had similar effects on cell cycle progression and apoptotic response in these cell lines. Among severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing KBM5 cells, mean survival times of groups treated with 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg/d of AMN107, starting day 20 after leukemic cell grafting and continuing for 20 days, were 144%, 159%, and 182%, respectively, compared with controls. These results strongly support investigation of the clinical efficacy of AMN107 in patients with CML.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2005; 11(13):4941-7. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-2601 · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma and serum biomarkers of angiogenesis and activated endothelial cells were evaluated to assess biological activity of PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK), a novel oral angiogenesis inhibitor targeting all known vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinases.
Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) (n=63) were enrolled into two phase I/II dose escalation trials of PTK/ZK in 28-day cycles until discontinuation. Patients with stable disease for > or =2 months were categorized as 'non-progressors'. Plasma markers of angiogenesis, VEGF-A and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and the serum markers of activated endothelial cells, sTIE-2 and sE-Selectin, were assessed at baseline, and pre-dose on days 1, 8, 15, 22 and 28 of every cycle, with additional assessments 10 h post-dose on days 1 and 15. The percentage change from baseline was subsequently correlated with AUC and C(max) of PTK/ZK on day 1, cycle 1 and clinical outcome.
A dose-dependent increase in plasma VEGF-A and bFGF was observed in the first cycle of PTK/ZK treatment. The correlation of change in plasma VEGF-A with AUC and C(max) was characterized by an E(max) model, suggesting that a change of > or =150% from baseline VEGF-A correlated with non-progressive disease. Change from baseline plasma VEGF-A within the first cycle of treatment was significantly correlated with clinical outcome by logistic regression analysis (P=0.027).
In patients with CRC treated with PTK/ZK, changes in plasma VEGF-A and bFGF demonstrate biological activity of PTK/ZK, may help to establish optimal dose and correlate with outcome.
Annals of Oncology 05/2005; 16(4):558-65. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdi118 · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK), an orally active inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinases, inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. The pharmacodynamic effects of PTK/ZK were evaluated by assessing changes in contrast-enhancement parameters of metastatic liver lesions using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated in two ongoing, dose-escalating phase I studies.
Twenty-six patients had DCE-MRI performed at baseline, day 2, and at the end of each 28-day cycle. Doses of oral PTK/ZK ranged from 50 to 2000 mg once daily. Tumor permeability and vascularity were assessed by calculating the bidirectional transfer constant (Ki). The percentage of baseline Ki (% of baseline Ki) at each time point was compared with pharmacokinetic and clinical end points.
A significant negative correlation exists between the % of baseline Ki and increase in PTK/ZK oral dose and plasma levels (P =.01 for oral dose; P =.0001 for area under the plasma concentration curve at day 2). Patients with a best response of stable disease had a significantly greater reduction in Ki at both day 2 and at the end of cycle 1 compared with progressors (mean difference in % of baseline Ki, 47%, P =.004%; and 51%, P =.006; respectively). The difference in % of baseline Ki remained statistically significant after adjusting for baseline WHO performance status.
These findings should help to define a biologically active dose of PTK/ZK. These results suggest that DCE-MRI may be a useful biomarker for defining the pharmacological response and dose of angiogenesis inhibitors, such as PTK/ZK, for further clinical development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK) is an oral potent and selective inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated Flt-I and KDR receptor tyrosine kinases. PTK/ZK has been shown to reduce growth and microvasculature in subcutaneously implanted human tumor xenografts in nude mice. A clinical difficulty in evaluating angiogenesis inhibitors has been the usefulness of conventional study endpoints. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been studied as a pharmacodynamic marker of efficacy of PTK/ZK. Phase I studies are under way evaluating the optimum dose and schedule of oral PTK/ZK administered continuously to patients with advanced cancers of types known to overexpress VEGF. To date, particularly in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated with PTK/ZK, DCE-MRI has been a useful predictor of the biological response of VEGF-receptor inhibition. Toxicities have been manageable and have included lightheadedness, ataxia, nausea, vomiting, and hypertension. Stabilization of disease for ≥ 6 months has been seen in heavily pretreated patients receiving PTK/ZK at higher doses. Preliminary data suggest that PTK/ZK can be administered safely on a continuous daily dosing schedule, efficacy data look promising, and DCE-MRI correlates with biological response. DCE-MRI will be used to guide dose optimization of PTK/ZK and perhaps of other angiogenesis inhibitors in future studies.
Seminars in Oncology 06/2003; 30(3). DOI:10.1016/S0093-7754(03)00123-4 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK) is an oral potent and selective inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated Flt-1 and KDR receptor tyrosine kinases. PTK/ZK has been shown to reduce growth and microvasculature in subcutaneously implanted human tumor xenografts in nude mice. A clinical difficulty in evaluating angiogenesis inhibitors has been the usefulness of conventional study endpoints. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been studied as a pharmacodynamic marker of efficacy of PTK/ZK. Phase I studies are under way evaluating the optimum dose and schedule of oral PTK/ZK administered continuously to patients with advanced cancers of types known to overexpress VEGF. To date, particularly in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated with PTK/ZK, DCE-MRI has been a useful predictor of the biological response of VEGF-receptor inhibition. Toxicities have been manageable and have included lightheadedness, ataxia, nausea, vomiting, and hypertension. Stabilization of disease for >/= 6 months has been seen in heavily pretreated patients receiving PTK/ZK at higher doses. Preliminary data suggest that PTK/ZK can be administered safely on a continuous daily dosing schedule, efficacy data look promising, and DCE-MRI correlates with biological response. DCE-MRI will be used to guide dose optimization of PTK/ZK and perhaps of other angiogenesis inhibitors in future studies.