M Castagna

Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (78)292.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: When thyroid follicles are intact, some colloidal thyroglobulin (Tg) reaches the circulation by megalin-mediated transcytosis and is to various extents complexed with megalin secretory components. In contrast, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), serum Tg is not complexed with megalin because it is directly secreted by tumor cells. Here we attempted to use measurement of megalin secretory components to distinguish PTC patients with thyroid remnant plus metastases from those with thyroid remnant only, after thyroidectomy and before 131I ablation. Tg values in anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb)-free sera from 5 PTC patients with thyroid remnant plus metastases and 12 PTC patients with thyroid remnant only were measured following pre-adsorption with uncoupled protein A beads or with protein A beads coupled with antimegalin antibodies. The degree of Tg pre-adsorption with antimegalin antibodies was minimal, with no substantial differences between the two groups. Thus, we concluded that measurement of megalin secretory components is unlikely to be useful to identify the origin of serum Tg in PTC patients after thyroidectomy.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 07/2014; 27(7):636-42. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The association of thyroid cancer and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) has been widely addressed, with conflicting results in surgical and cytological series, likely affected by selection bias. Objective: To evaluate the association between cytological features suggestive or indicative of malignancy and AIT in 2504 consecutive patients (2029 females and 475 males, mean age 58.3 ± 14.1 years) undergoing to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for thyroid nodules. Patients: Based on the clinical diagnosis, patients were divided into four groups: AIT with nodules (N-AIT, 14.9%); nodular Graves disease (N-GD, 2.8%); nodular goiter and negative thyroid antibodies (NGAb-, 68.4%); nodular goiter with positive thyroid antibodies (NGAb+, 13.9%). Results: The prevalence of patients with cytological features suggestive (Thy4) or indicative of malignancy (Thy5) was 4.5 % in the N-AIT group, not different compared to the other groups (N-GD 5.6%, NGAb- 5.0%, NGAb+ 4.3%). No difference was also found in the others categories (Thy2 and Thy3). When the same analysis was performed in the sub-group of patients (14.3%) with histological confirmation, we found that the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was significantly higher (p=0.01) in the N-AIT group (67.8%) compared with the other groups (N-GD: 40.0%, NGAb-: 37.2%, NGAb+: 36.9%). Conclusions: The results of our cytological series do not support a link between N-AIT and thyroid cancer. The association between cancer and N-AIT found in the histology based series is likely due to a selection bias represented by the fact that the prevalent indication for surgery in the N-AIT group was suspicious cytology (60.7% of patients) more frequently than in the others groups.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Enhanced reduction of multinodular goiter (MNG) can be achieved by stimulation with recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) before radioiodine (131I) therapy. The objective was to compare the long-term efficacy and safety of two low doses of modified release rhTSH (MRrhTSH) in combination with 131I-therapy. Methods: In this phase II, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 95 patients (57.2±9.6 years old, 85% women, 83% Caucasians) with MNG (median size 96.0 ml (31.9 - 242.2 ml)) were randomized to receive placebo (n=32), 0.01 mg MRrhTSH (n=30) or 0.03 mg MRrhTSH (n=33), 24 hours before a calculated 131I activity. Thyroid volume (TV) and smallest cross-sectional area of trachea (SCAT) were measured (by CT-scan) at baseline, month 6 and month 36. Thyroid function and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated at 3 month and yearly intervals, respectively. Results: At 6 months, TV reduction was enhanced in the 0.03 mg MRrhTSH group (32.9% versus 23.1% in the placebo group, p=0.03), but not in the 0.01 mg MRrhTSH group. At month 36 the mean percent TV reduction from baseline was 44 ± 12.7% (SD) in the placebo group, 41 ± 21.0% in the 0.01 mg MRrhTSH-group and 53 ± 18.6% in the 0.03 mg MRrhTSH-group, with no statistically significant differences among the groups, p=0.105. In the 0.03 mg MRrhTSH-group, the subset of patients with basal 131I uptake <20% had at month 36 a 24% greater TV reduction than the corresponding subset of patients in the placebo group, p=0.01. At month 36, the largest relative increase in SCAT was observed in the 0.03 mg MRrhTSH-group (13.4 ± 23.2% (SD)), but this was not statistically different from the increases observed in the placebo or the 0.01 mg MRrhTSH-group, p=0.15. Goiter related symptoms were reduced and QoL improved, without any enhanced benefit from using MRrhTSH. At 3 years, the prevalence of permanent hypothyroidism was 13%, 33% and 45% in the placebo, 0.01 mg and 0.03 mg MRrhTSH-group, respectively. The overall safety profile of the study was favorable. Conclusions: When used as adjuvant to 131I, enhanced MNG reduction could not be demonstrated with MRrhTSH doses at or below 0.03 mg, indicating that the lower threshold for efficacy is around this level.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 12/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at intermediate risk of recurrences, no evidences are provided regarding the optimal radioactive iodine (RAI) activity to be administered for post-surgical thyroid ablation. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of RAI activities on the outcome of 225 DTC patients classified as intermediate risk, treated with low (1110-1850 MBq) or high RAI activities (≥3700 MBq). RESULTS: Six-eighteen months after ablation remission was observed in 60.0% of patients treated with low and in 60% of those treated with high RAI activities, biochemical disease was found in 18.8% of patients treated with low and in 14.3% of patients treated with high RAI activities, metastatic disease was found in 21.2% of patients treated with low and in 25.7% of patients treated with high RAI activities (p=0.56). At the last follow-up (low activities, median 4.2 years: high activities median 6.9 years) remission was observed in 76.5% of patients treated with low and in 72.1% of patients treated with high RAI activities, persistent disease was observed in 18.8% of patients treated with low and in 23.5% of patients treated with high RAI activities, recurrent disease was 2.4% in patients treated with low and 2.1% in patients treated with high RAI activities, deaths occurred in 2.4% of patients treated with low and in 2.1% of patients treated with high RAI activities (p=0.87). CONCLUSION: our study provides the first evidence that in DTC patients at intermediate risk, high RAI activities at ablation have no major advantage over low activities.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 04/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer has evolved to become the standard of care, whereas the tumor capability of activating effective mechanisms of defence against both chemical and physical cytotoxic agents represents a serious obstacle to the successful therapy of human tumors. Therefore, the possibility to have an assay useful to measure the drug sensitivity of tumor cells has a great importance. A number of cytotoxicity assays are currently available, each of them using a specific approach to detect different aspects of cell viability, such as cell integrity, proliferation and metabolic functions. The purpose of this study is to compare, under identical experimental conditions, three common cytotoxicity assays (ATP-lite, MTT and CCK-8 assays) in the assessment of the anti-proliferative effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (OHP) on three colon cancer cell lines (WiDr, SW620 and HT-29). Regarding 5-FU, the three assays were found to be significantly correlated with a moderate or high correlation coefficient, whereas in the case of OHP we found different outcomes among the assays. Our study demonstrates that the CCK-8 is the most sensitive assay for detecting changes of cell viability, suggesting that the viability measured in cells after drug exposure depends on several parameters like the drug used, the biological characteristics of the target cell and the specific approach employed by the method to detect distinct cell growth and metabolic functions.
    Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2013; 27(1):275-284. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction:In thyroid cells, binding of TSH to its receptor increases cAMP levels, sustaining thyrocytes growth and hormone production. The main cAMP effector enzyme is protein kinase A (PKA). Praja2 is a widely expressed RING (Really Interesting New Gene) ligase, which degrades the regulatory subunits of PKA, thus controlling the strength and duration of PKA signaling in response to cAMP. Differentiated thyroid cancer expresses a functional TSH receptor, and its growth and progression are positively regulated by TSH and cAMP signaling.Aim:We aimed to analyze the expression of praja2 in a group of 36 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), 14 benign nodules, and six anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC).Methods:We measured praja2 mRNA levels by quantitative RT-PCR and praja2 expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Possible association between praja2 mRNA and the presence of known mutations was evaluated.Results:We found a statistical significant increase of mRNA levels in PTC tissue samples, compared with benign nodules and ATC. In particular, mRNA levels were maximal in differentiated thyroid cancer (PTC), progressively decreasing in more aggressive tumors, ATC having the lowest amount of praja2 mRNA. Accordingly, higher levels of praja2 protein were detected in lysates from PTC, compared with ATC. By immunohistochemistry, in PTC sections we observed a marked increase of cytoplasmic praja2 signal, which significantly decreased in less differentiated thyroid tumors, completely disappearing in ATC. Studies in cultured cells stably expressing RET/PTC1 oncogene or mutant BRAF revealed a direct correlation between praja2 mRNA levels and malignant phenotype of transformed cells. Similar results were obtained using thyroid cancer tissues carrying the same mutations.Conclusions:praja2 is markedly overexpressed in differentiated thyroid cancer, and its levels inversely correlate with the malignant phenotype of the tumor. Thus, praja2 is a novel cancer-related gene whose expression is linked to the histotype and mutational status of the thyroid tumor.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2012; · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • Furio Pacini, Maria Grazia Castagna
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, although representing fewer than 1% of all human tumors. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) includes the papillary and follicular histotypes and their variants, accounting for more than 90% of all thyroid cancers. Given the changing presentation of DTC in the last years, the aim of DTC management is to ensure the most effective but least invasive treatment, and adequate follow-up for a disease that nowadays is mostly cured just with surgery and is rarely fatal. This review addresses the multiple steps of current management, based on previous assumptions.
    The Medical clinics of North America 03/2012; 96(2):369-83. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • F Pacini, M G Castagna
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    ABSTRACT: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), either papillary or follicular, has usually a very good prognosis with an overall mortality of less than 10%. In recent decades, the clinical presentation of DTC has been changing from advanced cases requiring intense treatment and surveillance to cancer detected by fortuitous neck ultrasonography requiring less aggressive treatment and follow-up. Given the changing presentation of DTC in the last years, the aim of DTC follow-up is to ensure the most effective and less invasive follow-up for a disease that nowadays is mostly cured just with surgery and is rarely fatal. The concept of "Ongoing Risk Stratification" or "Delayed Risk Stratification" which better define the patient risk based on the results of the initial treatment, can maximize the beneficial effects of aggressive therapy in patients with DTC who are likely to benefit from it, while minimizing potential complications and side effects in low-risk patients who will achieve complete remission.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 01/2012; 35(6 Suppl):36-9. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Child s Nervous System 11/2011; 28(2):297-303. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After initial treatment, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients are stratified as low and high risk based on clinical/pathological features. Recently, a risk stratification based on additional clinical data accumulated during follow-up has been proposed. To evaluate the predictive value of delayed risk stratification (DRS) obtained at the time of the first diagnostic control (8-12 months after initial treatment). We reviewed 512 patients with DTC whose risk assessment was initially defined according to the American (ATA) and European Thyroid Association (ETA) guidelines. At the time of the first control, 8-12 months after initial treatment, patients were re-stratified according to their clinical status: DRS. Using DRS, about 50% of ATA/ETA intermediate/high-risk patients moved to DRS low-risk category, while about 10% of ATA/ETA low-risk patients moved to DRS high-risk category. The ability of the DRS to predict the final outcome was superior to that of ATA and ETA. Positive and negative predictive values for both ATA (39.2 and 90.6% respectively) and ETA (38.4 and 91.3% respectively) were significantly lower than that observed with the DRS (72.8 and 96.3% respectively, P<0.05). The observed variance in predicting final outcome was 25.4% for ATA, 19.1% for ETA, and 62.1% for DRS. Delaying the risk stratification of DTC patients at a time when the response to surgery and radioiodine ablation is evident allows to better define individual risk and to better modulate the subsequent follow-up.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 09/2011; 165(3):441-6. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) can be used to enhance (131)I therapy for shrinkage of multinodular goiter (MG). Objective, Design, and Setting: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 0.01 and 0.03 mg modified-release (MR) rhTSH as an adjuvant to (131)I therapy, vs. (131)I alone, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, international, multicenter study. Patients and Intervention: Ninety-five patients (57.2 +/- 9.6 yr old, 85% females, 83% Caucasians) with MG (median size 96.0, range 31.9-242.2 ml) were randomized to receive placebo (group A, n = 32), MRrhTSH 0.01 mg (group B, n = 30), or MRrhTSH 0.03 mg (group C, n = 33) 24 h before a calculated activity of (131)I. Main Outcome Measures: The primary end point was a change in thyroid volume (by computerized tomography scan, at 6 months). Secondary end points were the smallest cross-sectional area of the trachea; thyroid function tests; Thyroid Quality of Life Questionnaire; electrocardiogram; and hyperthyroid symptom scale. Results: Thyroid volume decreased significantly in all groups. The reduction was comparable in groups A and B (23.1 +/- 8.8 and 23.3 +/- 16.5%, respectively; P = 0.95). In group C, the reduction (32.9 +/- 20.7%) was more pronounced than in groups A (P = 0.03) and B. The smallest cross-sectional area of the trachea increased in all groups: 3.8 +/- 2.9% in A, 4.8 +/- 3.3% in B, and 10.2 +/- 33.2% in C, with no significant difference among the groups. Goiter-related symptoms were effectively reduced and there were no major safety concerns. Conclusion: In this dose-selection study, 0.03 mg MRrhTSH was the most efficacious dose as an adjuvant to (131)I therapy of MG. It was well tolerated and significantly augmented the effect of (131)I therapy in the short term. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are warranted
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2011; 96(5). · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent findings showed the presence of a reciprocal relationship between thyroid hormones and ghrelin, although the exact mechanism is not known. Design: Our study is addressed to evaluate the effect of acute exogenous rhTSH administration on serum ghrelin levels in athyreotic patients on replacement l-thyroxine therapy. The study group included 50 patients (16 males and 34 females) submitted to total thyroidectomy and 131-iodine remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer on l-thyroxine therapy. Mean age was 47.5 ± 16.5 years and mean BMI was 25.6 ± 5.01 kg/m(2). rhTSH was administrated at the dosage of 0.9 mg i.m. once daily for two consecutive days. Blood samples were taken between 08.00 and 09.00 after a overnight fasting for measurement of TSH, FT3, FT4, and ghrelin before the first administration of rhTSH and for measurement of TSH and ghrelin 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the first administration of rhTSH. Results: Mean ± SD values of basal TSH were 0.54 ± 0.77 μU/ml without significant difference between females and males. As expected, after rhTSH administration TSH concentrations increased at 24 and 48 h with peak TSH values ranging from 20.20 to 313 μU/ml (mean ± SD 98.4 ± 66.7 μU/ml). Mean ± SD values of basal ghrelin were 1085 ± 373 pg/ml without significant difference between males and females. After rhTSH administration ghrelin concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.01) at 24 h (mean ± SD 934 ± 314 pg/ml p < 0.01) and returned to pre-treatment levels at 96 h. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that acute exogenous TSH administration has a suppressive effect on ghrelin secretion independent from changes in thyroid status.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2011; 2:94.
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a genetic disease characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) associated (MEN 2A and 2B) or not familial MTC (FMTC) with other endocrine neoplasia due to germline RET gene mutations. The prevalence of these rare genetic diseases and their corresponding RET mutations are unknown due to the small size of the study population. We collected data on germline RET mutations of 250 families with hereditary MTC followed in 20 different Italian centres. The most frequent RET amino acid substitution was Val804Met (19.6%) followed by Cys634Arg (13.6%). A total of 40 different germline RET mutations were present. Six families (2.4%) were negative for germline RET mutations. The comparison of the prevalence of RET germline mutations in the present study with those published by other European studies showed a higher prevalence of Val804Met and Ser891Ala mutations and a lower prevalence of Leu790Phe and Tyr791Phe (P<0.0001). A statistically significant higher prevalence of mutations affecting non-cysteine codons was also found (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the phenotype data collection showed an unexpected higher prevalence of FMTC (57.6%) with respect to other MEN 2 syndromes (34% MEN 2A and 6.8% of MEN 2B). In conclusion, we observed a statistically significant different pattern of RET mutations in Italian MEN 2 families with respect to other European studies and a higher prevalence of FMTC phenotype. The different ethnic origins of the patients and the particular attention given to analysing apparently sporadic MTC for RET germline mutations may explain these findings.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 08/2010; 163(2):301-8. · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • F Pacini, M G Castagna, C Cipri, M Schlumberger
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    ABSTRACT: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 5-8% of all thyroid cancers. MTC is mainly sporadic in nature, but an hereditary pattern [multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2)] is present in 20-30% of cases, transmitted as an autosomal-dominant trait due to germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. About 98% of patients with MEN 2 have germline mutations in exons 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 or 16 of the RET gene. The primary treatment of both hereditary and sporadic forms of MTC is total thyroidectomy and removal of all neoplastic tissue present in the neck. The therapeutic option for lymph node surgery should be dictated by the results of presurgical evaluation. After total thyroidectomy, measurements of serum calcitonin (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen are of paramount importance in the postsurgical follow-up of patients with MTC as they reflect the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. Complete remission is demonstrated by undetectable and stimulated serum CT measurement. On the contrary, if serum CT is detectable under basal conditions or becomes detectable after stimulation, the patient is probably not cured, but imaging techniques will not demonstrate any disease until serum CT approaches levels >150 pg/ml. The tumour metastasises early to both paratracheal and lateral cervical lymph nodes. Metastases outside the neck may occur in the liver, lungs, bones and, less frequently, brain and skin. Surgery is the main treatment for local and distant metastases whenever feasible. Systemic chemotherapy with dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin (alone or in combination) has shown very limited efficacy, achieving only partial responses in the range of 10-20% and of short duration. Several kinase inhibitors are currently under evaluation and preliminary results are promising. Familial cases must be identified by searching for RET proto-oncogene mutations in the proband and in family members. Carriers of the RET gene are candidates for prophylactic thyroidectomy at different ages depending on the risk associated with the specific RET mutations.
    Clinical Oncology 08/2010; 22(6):475-85. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TSH-receptor (TSHR) has been found in a variety of cell types, including preadipocytes and adipocytes. In vitro, TSH-mediated preadipocyte and adipocyte responses include proliferation, differentiation, survival, and lipolysis. Objective To measure the response of serum leptin to exogenous administration of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) in vivo. Patients One hundred patients with differentiated thyroid cancer already treated by total thyroidectomy and (131)I remnant ablation were enrolled. Mean (+/-s.e.m.) body mass index (BMI) was 26.9+/-0.6 kg/m(2). Methods Patients received a standard dose of rhTSH for measurement of thyroglobulin in the follow-up of their disease. Blood samples were taken for the assay of TSH and leptin before the first administration of rhTSH (time 0), and 24 h (time 1), 48 h (time 2), 72 h (time 3), and 96 h (time 4) after the first administration of rhTSH. Results Significant mean serum leptin increments, with respect to basal value, were 16, 13, 18, and 11% at times 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Significant positive correlations of leptin-area under the curve with respect to basal leptin levels (r=0.43; P<0.0001) and BMI (r=0.32; P<0.005) were observed. Conclusions Acute rhTSH administration in hypothyroid subjects under l-thyroxine therapy produces a rise in serum leptin. This increase is proportional to the adipose mass suggesting that a functioning TSHR is expressed on the surface of adipocytes. The role that TSHR activation in adipocytes might play in physiological and pathological conditions remains a matter of investigation.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 07/2010; 163(1):63-7. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    Annals of Oncology 05/2010; 21 Suppl 5:v214-9. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of serum Tg using ultrasensitive assays is proposed to replace TSH-stimulated Tg measurement in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Aim of our study was to verify this possibility using two ultrasensitive Tg assays. We selected 215 DTC patients with undetectable (<1 ng/ml) basal serum Tg at the time of a recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) stimulation. According to standard criteria, 173 (80.4%) patients were considered free of disease, 17 (7.9%) had documented disease and 25 (11.7%) had no evidence of disease but detectable serum rhTSH-stimulated Tg (biochemical disease). The sera of these patients were re-assayed with two commercial ultrasensitive assays and the results were compared with the clinical data. Basal Access and E-Iason Tg assays were able to distinguish patients with persistent disease or free of disease with a sensitivity of 82.3 and 82.3%, specificity of 85.5 and 86.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 35.8 and 36.8%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 98 and 98.6%, respectively. With both assays the addition of neck ultrasound to basal Tg increased the sensitivity and the NPV to 100% and decreased the false negative rate to 0%. In patients with detectable basal Tg without evidence of disease, serum Tg converted from detectable to undetectable in about 80% of the cases during 2-yr follow-up. Our study indicates that the combination of neck ultrasound and basal ultrasensitive Tg allows to identify all patients free of disease and can decrease the need for rhTSH stimulation in nearly 80% of the patients.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 03/2010; 34(8):e219-23. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low-iodine diet is prescribed before (131)I administration in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, although no study has properly quantified its clinical benefit. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and (131)I ablation by correlating UIE with the rate of successful ablation. We retrospectively studied 201 differentiated thyroid cancer patients who had received (131)I therapy and posttherapy whole-body scan (WBS) for remnant ablation after either thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW group, n = 125) or recombinant human TSH (rhTSH group, n = 76). The outcome of thyroid ablation was assessed using two different criteria: no visible uptake at control WBS 8-12 months after ablation or no visible uptake plus undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg). According to the criterion of no visible uptake, 84.6% of the patients were successfully ablated, with no significant difference between THW and rhTSH groups. Mean UIE at the time of ablation was 132 +/- 160 microg/liter, not significantly different between patients of the THW and rhTSH groups. There was no significant difference in UIE between ablated or nonablated patients both in the whole group and the rhTSH or THW groups. According to the criterion of no visible uptake plus undetectable stimulated serum Tg (in anti-Tg negative patients) at control WBS 8-12 months after ablation, UIE was not significantly different in ablated and nonablated patients. Our study indicates that the body iodine content is not an important determinant of thyroid ablation, when preparing the patients with either THW or rhTSH.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2009; 95(1):230-7. · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Oncology 05/2009; 20 Suppl 4:143-6. · 6.58 Impact Factor
  • Furio Pacini, Maria Grazia Castagna
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, withdrawal of thyroid hormone to increase serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been used in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) to optimize radio-iodine uptake and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) stimulation during follow-up and in preparation for radio-iodine therapy. However, this procedure is associated with signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism which negatively affect the patient's quality of life. Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) has provided an effective alternative to thyroid hormone withdrawal. After favourable experimental trials in humans, rhTSH obtained regulatory approval in North America and in Europe as a diagnostic tool, and more recently as a preparation for radio-iodine thyroid remnant ablation. Since then, rhTSH has radically changed the diagnostic and therapeutic management of DTC patients. This review will focus on the clinical application of rhTSH in the management of DTC, highlighting current indications and future perspectives.
    Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 01/2009; 22(6):1009-21. · 4.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
292.05 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • Università degli Studi di Siena
      Siena, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1988–2010
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1999–2005
    • Università degli Studi di Messina
      • • Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale
      • • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e delle Immagini Morfologiche e Funzionali
      Messina, Sicily, Italy
  • 2001
    • Università degli studi di Parma
      Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1987
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      Benevento, Campania, Italy