[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated antibody persistence in children 1 year after 2 doses of either an AS03(B)-adjuvanted split-virion or nonadjuvanted whole-virion monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine and assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a subsequent dose of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV).
Children previously immunized at age 6 months to 12 years in the original study were invited to participate. After a blood sample was obtained to assess persistence of antibody against swine influenza A/H1N1(2009) pandemic influenza, children received 1 dose of 2010/2011 TIV, reactogenicity data were collected for 7 days, and another blood sample was obtained 21 days after vaccination.
Of 323 children recruited, 302 received TIV. Antibody persistence (defined as microneutralization [MN] titer ≥1:40) 1 year after initial vaccination was significantly higher in the AS03(B)-adjuvanted compared with the whole-virion vaccine group, 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.1%-100%) vs 32.4% (95% CI, 21.5%-44.8%) in children immunized <3 years old and 96.9% (95% CI, 91.3%-99.4%) vs 65.9% (95% CI, 55.3%-75.5%) in those 3-12 years old at immunization, respectively (P < .001 for both groups). All children receiving TIV had post-vaccination MN titers ≥1:40. Although TIV was well tolerated in all groups, reactogenicity in children <5 years old was slightly greater in those who originally received AS03(B)-adjuvanted vaccine.
This study provides serological evidence that 2 doses of AS03(B)-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine may be sufficient to maintain protection across 2 influenza seasons. Administration of TIV to children who previously received 2 doses of either pandemic influenza vaccine is safe and is immunogenic for the H1N1 strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pandemic influenza A H1N1 infections occurred worldwide from 2009. Children were particularly vulnerable. Novel vaccines were used during the pandemic.
To assess the persistence of antibody to H1N1 influenza 1 year after children aged 6 months to 12 years had been immunised with two doses of either a non-adjuvanted whole-virion H1N1 influenza vaccine or an AS03B-adjuvanted split-virion H1N1 influenza vaccine; and also to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity in this population of a single dose of 2010-11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine.
Multicentre, open-label, follow-on from randomised, head-to-head trial.
Five UK sites (Southampton, Oxford, Bristol, London and Exeter).
Children who completed last year's head-to-head randomised study were invited to participate. Children who had subsequently received a further dose of H1N1 vaccine, or who had already received a dose of 2010-11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, were excluded.
In the previous study, children were randomised (in a 1 : 1 ratio) to receive two doses, 21 days apart, of either a non-adjuvanted whole-virion H1N1 influenza vaccine or an AS03B-adjuvanted split-virion H1N1 influenza vaccine. In this follow-on study, a blood sample was taken to assess the persistence of antibody 1 year later, followed by administration of one 0.5 ml-dose of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine. A second blood sample was taken 3 weeks later.
Comparison between vaccines of the percentage of participants with a microneutralisation (MN) titre ≥ 1 : 40 and a haemagglutination titre ≥ 1 : 32, 1 year after vaccination. Immunogenicity of the trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine was assessed 3 weeks after vaccination by both the MN and the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres. Reactogenicity data were recorded for 7 days after vaccination.
A total of 323 children were enrolled and 318 were included in the analysis of the persistence of antibody. One year after receipt of whole-virion vaccine, the MN titre was ≥ 1 : 40 in 32.4% of those vaccinated when < 3 years old and in 65.9% of those vaccinated when ≥ 3 years old; the HI titre was ≥ 1 : 32 in 63.2% and 79.1% of children in the respective age groups. One year after receipt of the adjuvanted vaccine, the MN titre was ≥ 1 : 40 in 100% of those vaccinated when < 3 years old and in 96.9% of those vaccinated when ≥ 3 years old; the HI titre was ≥ 1 : 32 in 98.4% and 96.9% of children in the respective age groups. Three hundred and two children were given trivalent seasonal influenza vaccination. Three weeks later, sera were obtained from 282 children; 100% had an MN titre ≥ 1 : 40 and HI titre ≥ 1 : 32. Trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine was well tolerated, although in children < 5 years old, fever ≥ 38 °C was reported in 13.6% of those who had previously received whole-virion vaccine, and in 18.3% of those who had received adjuvanted vaccine.
Nearly all children who received two doses of AS03B-adjuvanted split-virion pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine had titres of antibody deemed protective (HI titre ≥ 1 : 32, MN titre ≥ 1 : 40) 1 year later. Children who received two doses of whole-virion vaccine had lower titres, although many were above the putative protective thresholds. One year after either pandemic vaccine, the 2010-11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine produced a marked serological response to the H1N1 component of the vaccine and was well tolerated. We propose to investigate whether or not previous receipt of monovalent influenza vaccines affected serological response to the H3N2 and B components of the 2010-11 seasonal influenza vaccine, using stored sera.
The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2009, 943 children aged 6 months to 10 years were randomised to receive two doses of an oil-in water AS03B-adjuvanted split virion or a non-adjuvanted whole virion H1N1 (2009) vaccine. The large numbers allowed investigation of possible predictors of immune response and reactogenicity. We used regression analysis to examine the effect of variables including past receipt of seasonal vaccine, antipyretics post-vaccination, interval between doses and pre-existing antibodies to H1N1 (2009) on immunogenicity. We also examined the relationship between immunogenicity and reactogenicity and whether prior infection or underlying conditions affected reactogenicity. For both vaccines, haemagglutination-inhibition titres were 60% higher in children with fever ≥38 °C after vaccination and 29% lower in those previously given seasonal vaccine. Early use of antipyretics did not affect immunogenicity. Post-vaccination titres were higher with longer intervals between doses and in those with evidence of prior infection, but reactogenicity in the latter was unaffected. In the adjuvanted vaccine group, reactions were more common in children with atopy. Both vaccines were safe and immunogenic in those with prior infection. Reduction in the interval between doses for earlier protection would be at the cost of reduced immunogenicity. The effect of seasonal vaccine on immunogenicity merits further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsTo explore the reasons behind parental decisions about participation of their children in specific paediatric infection clinical research scenarios in order to improve recruitment strategies.Methods
Parents of children aged 0–10 years were asked to complete a 20-page researcher-assisted semi-quantitative semi-structured questionnaire while waiting for their child's appointment in the outpatient waiting area. Socio-demographic information was collected. Open-ended and closed questions based on seven hypothetical paediatric clinical research scenarios were asked to explore reasoning behind the parental decision-making process. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the analysis.Results50 out of 62 approached parents (89%) completed the questionnaire, which took 10–25 min to complete. The overall parental opinion of paediatric clinical research was positive (55% positive, 45% indifferent, 0% negative). Most parents believed paediatric clinical research was helpful (64%), beneficial to all children (70%) and a way to give some sick children better medical treatment (58%). Of the hypothetical research scenarios, the observational studies showed the highest number of parents consenting (nasal swabbing 82%, blood sampling 74%), followed by PICU trials (low-dose steroid 49%, new unknown drug 25%). Vaccine studies had the lowest potential consent (new vaccine 12%, all-in-one vaccine trial 11%, all-in-one vaccine study 6%). The main incentive stated for hypothetical parental consent was the possible direct benefits of research to the child. The main barriers identified in potential refusal of parental consent were perceived risks outweighing the benefits of research, invasive procedures and a negative effect of participation on the child.Conclusions
When asked, the majority of parents have a positive opinion of paediatric clinical research. A parent's decision to consent for their child's participation in paediatric clinical research depends on a balance between the perceived risks and benefits of research. Minimising the main barriers to parental consent in future designs of paediatric clinical research could benefit recruitment rates. A large proportion of parents have a negative perception of vaccine research, highlighting the need for continued public education on the importance and safety of vaccines.
Archives of Disease in Childhood 04/2011; 96(1). DOI:10.1136/adc.2011.212563.103 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of an AS03(B)/oil-in-water emulsion-adjuvanted (AS03(B)) split-virion versus non-adjuvanted whole-virion H1N1 influenza vaccine in UK children aged 6 months to 12 years.
Multicentre, randomised, head-to-head, open-label trial.
Five UK sites (Oxford, Bristol, Southampton, Exeter and London).
Children aged 6 months to < 13 years, for whom a parent or guardian had provided written informed consent and who were able to comply with study procedures, were eligible for inclusion.
A tocopherol/oil-in-water emulsion-adjuvanted (AS03(B)) egg culture-derived split-virion H1N1 vaccine and a non-adjuvanted cell culture-derived whole-virion vaccine, given as a two-dose schedule, 21 days apart, were compared. Participants were grouped into those aged 6 months to < 3 years (younger group) and 3 years to < 13 years of age (older group) and were randomised by study investigators (1 : 1 ratio) to receive one of the two vaccines. Vaccines were administered by intramuscular injection (deltoid or anterior-lateral thigh, depending on age and muscle bulk). Local reactions and systemic symptoms were collected for 1 week post immunisation, and serum was collected at baseline and after the second dose. To assess safety and tolerability, parents or guardians recorded the following information in diary cards from days 0-7 post vaccination: axillary temperature, injection site reactions, solicited and unsolicited systemic symptoms, and medications.
Comparison between vaccines of the percentage of participants demonstrating seroconversion by microneutralisation assay.
Among 937 children receiving vaccine, per-protocol seroconversion rates were higher after the AS03(B)-adjuvanted vaccine than after the whole-virion vaccine (98.2% vs 80.1% in children < 3 years, 99.1% vs 95.9% among those aged 3-12 years), as were severe local reactions (3.6% vs 0.0% in those under 5 years, 7.8% vs 1.1% in those aged 5-12 years), irritability in children < 5 years (46.7% vs 32.0%), and muscle pain in older children (28.9% vs 13.2%). The second dose of the adjuvanted vaccine was more reactogenic than the first, especially for fever > 38.0°C in those under 5 years of age (8.9% vs 22.4%).
The adjuvanted vaccine, although reactogenic, was more immunogenic, especially in younger children, indicating the potential for improved immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in this age group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted split virion H1N1 vaccine and a non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine used in the pandemic immunisation programme in the United Kingdom.
Open label, randomised, parallel group, phase II study.
Five UK centres (Oxford, Southampton, Bristol, Exeter, and London).
Children aged 6 months to less than 13 years for whom a parent or guardian had provided written informed consent and who were able to comply with study procedures were eligible. Those with laboratory confirmed pandemic H1N1 influenza or clinically diagnosed disease meriting antiviral treatment, allergy to egg or any other vaccine components, or coagulation defects, or who were severely immunocompromised or had recently received blood products were excluded. Children were grouped by age: 6 months-<3 years (younger group) and 3-<13 years (older group). Recruitment was by media advertising and direct mailing. Recruitment visits were attended by 949 participants, of whom 943 were enrolled and 937 included in the per protocol analysis.
Participants were randomised 1:1 to receive AS03(B) (tocopherol based oil in water emulsion) adjuvanted split virion vaccine derived from egg culture or non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine derived from cell culture. Both were given as two doses 21 days apart. Reactogenicity data were collected for one week after immunisation by diary card. Serum samples were collected at baseline and after the second dose.
Primary reactogenicity end points were frequency and severity of fever, tenderness, swelling, and erythema after vaccination. Immunogenicity was measured by microneutralisation and haemagglutination inhibition assays. The primary immunogenicity objective was a comparison between vaccines of the percentage of participants showing seroconversion by the microneutralisation assay (fourfold rise to a titre of >or=1:40 from before vaccination to three weeks after the second dose).
Seroconversion rates were higher after the adjuvanted split virion vaccine than after the whole virion vaccine, most notably in the youngest children (163 of 166 participants with paired serum samples (98.2%, 95% confidence interval 94.8% to 99.6%) v 157 of 196 (80.1%, 73.8% to 85.5%), P<0.001) in children under 3 years and 226 of 228 (99.1%, 96.9% to 99.9%) v 95.9%, 92.4% to 98.1%, P=0.03) in those over 3 years). The adjuvanted split virion vaccine was more reactogenic than the whole virion vaccine, with more frequent systemic reactions and severe local reactions in children aged over 5 years after dose one (13 (7.2%, 3.9% to 12%) v 2 (1.1%, 0.1% to 3.9%), P<0.001) and dose two (15 (8.5%, 4.8% to 13.7%) v 2 (1.1%, 0.1% to 4.1%), P<0.002) and after dose two in those under 5 years (15 (5.9%, 3.3% to 9.6%) v 0 (0.0%, 0% to 1.4%), P<0.001). Dose two of the adjuvanted split virion vaccine was more reactogenic than dose one, especially for fever >or=38 masculineC in those aged under 5 (24 (8.9%, 5.8% to 12.9%) v 57 (22.4%, 17.5% to 28.1%), P<0.001).
In this first direct comparison of an AS03(B) adjuvanted split virion versus whole virion non-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine, the adjuvanted vaccine, while more reactogenic, was more immunogenic and, importantly, achieved high seroconversion rates in children aged less than 3 years. This indicates the potential for improved immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in this age group.
Clinical trials.gov NCT00980850; ISRCTN89141709.