Lois E Shepherd

Queens University of Charlotte, New York, United States

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Publications (158)2027.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chromosome instability (CIN) in solid tumours results in multiple numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumour types. Recent evidence demonstrated CEP17 duplication, a CIN marker, is a predictive marker of anthracycline benefit. An analysis of the BR9601 and MA.5 clinical trials was performed to test the role of existing CIN gene expression signatures as predictive markers of anthracycline sensitivity in breast cancer.Univariate analysis demonstrated, high CIN25 expression score was associated with improved distant relapse free survival (DRFS) (HR: 0.74, 95% CI 0.54-0.99, p = 0.046). High tumour CIN70 and CIN25 scores were associated with aggressive clinicopathological phenotype and increased sensitivity to anthracycline therapy compared to low CIN scores. However, in a prospectively planned multivariate analysis only pathological grade, nodal status and tumour size were significant predictors of outcome for CIN25/CIN70. A limited gene signature was generated, patients with low tumour CIN4 scores benefited from anthracycline treatment significantly more than those with high CIN4 scores (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.20-0.56, p = 0.001). In multivariate analyses the treatment by marker interaction for CIN4/anthracyclines demonstrated hazard ratio of 0.35 (95% CI 0.15-0.80, p = 0.012) for DRFS. This data shows CIN4 is independent predictor of anthracycline benefit for DRFS in breast cancer.
    Oncotarget 09/2015; DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.5562 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NCIC CTG MA.14 and NSABP B-29 trials examined the addition of Octreotide LAR (OCT) to 5 years of tamoxifen (TAM). Gallbladder toxicity led to B-29 discontinuation of OCT, and MA.14 OCT administration shortened to 2 years. Median follow-up was 9.8 years for 667 MA.14 patients and 6.8 years for 893 B-29 patients. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS), defined as time from randomization to time of breast cancer recurrence; second primary cancer other than squamous or basal cell skin carcinoma, cervical carcinoma in situ, or lobular breast carcinoma in situ; or death. The primary statistical test was a univariable pooled stratified log-rank test; multivariable assessment was with Cox regression. For MA.14, 97 % of patients were ≥50 years; for B-29, 62 %. MA.14 patients were 53 % lymph node negative (LN-) while B-29 were 100 % LN-; 33 % of MA.14 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, 2 % concurrently, while B-29 had 53 % concurrent chemotherapy. MA.14 patients were 90% hormone receptor positive; B-29, 100 %. MA.14 patients experienced 5-year DFS of 80 % with TAM, 76 % with TAM + OCT; B-29 patients had 5-year DFS of 88 % for both arms. Pooled univariable TAM + OCT to TAM hazard ratio (HR) was 0.99 (95% CI 0.81-1.20; p = 0.69): for MA.14, HR = 0.94 (0.73-1.20; p = 0.50); for B-29, HR = 1.09 (0.80-1.50; p = 0.59). Multivariable pooled HR = 0.98 (0.81-1.20; p = 0.84). Older patients (p < 0.001), with higher T stage (p < 0.001), and LN + (p < 0.001) had shorter DFS. Addition of OCT to TAM did not significantly improve DFS; gallbladder toxicity shortened the additional administration of OCT. This does not negate targeting the insulin-IGF-I receptor family with less toxic therapeutics.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 08/2015; 153(2). DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3547-4 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a prior substudy of the CAN-NCIC-MA.22 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00066443), we observed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduced tumor RNA integrity in breast cancer patients, a phenomenon we term "RNA disruption." The purpose of the current study was to assess in the full patient cohort the relationship between mid-treatment tumor RNA disruption and both pCR post-treatment and, subsequently, disease-free survival (DFS) up to 108 months post-treatment. To meet these objectives, we developed the RNA disruption assay (RDA) to quantify RNA disruption and stratify it into 3 response zones of clinical importance. Zone 1 is a level of RNA disruption inadequate for pathologic complete response (pCR); Zone 2 is an intermediate level, while Zone 3 has high RNA disruption. The same RNA disruption cut points developed for pCR response were then utilized for DFS. Tumor RDA identified >fourfold more chemotherapy non-responders than did clinical response by calipers. pCR responders were clustered in RDA Zone 3, irrespective of tumor subtype. DFS was about 2-fold greater for patients with tumors in Zone 3 compared to Zone 1 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curves corroborated these findings that high tumor RNA disruption was associated with increased DFS. DFS values for patients in zone 3 that did not achieve a pCR were similar to that of pCR recipients across tumor subtypes, including patients with hormone receptor positive tumors that seldom achieve a pCR. RDA appears superior to pCR as a chemotherapy response biomarker, supporting the prospect of its use in response-guided chemotherapy.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2015; 153(1). DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3498-9 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The NCIC CTG LY.12 study showed that gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) were noninferior to dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP) in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive histology lymphoma prior to autologous stem cell transplantation. We conducted an economic evaluation from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare system based on trial data. The primary outcome was an incremental cost utility analysis comparing costs and benefits associated with GDP vs DHAP. Resource utilization data were collected from 519 Canadian patients in the trial. Costs were presented in 2012 Canadian dollars and disaggregated to highlight the major cost drivers of care. Benefit was measured as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) based on utilities translated from prospectively collected quality-of-life data. All statistical tests were two-sided. The mean overall costs of treatment per patient in the GDP and DHAP arms were $19 961 (95% confidence interval (CI) = $17 286 to $24 565) and $34 425 (95% CI = $31 901 to $39 520), respectively, with an incremental difference in direct medical costs of $14 464 per patient in favor of GDP (P < .001). The predominant cost driver for both treatment arms was related to hospitalizations. The mean discounted quality-adjusted overall survival with GDP was 0.161 QALYs and 0.152 QALYs for DHAP (difference = 0.01 QALYs, P = .146). In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, GDP was associated with both cost savings and improved quality-adjusted outcomes compared with DHAP in 92.6% of cost-pair simulations. GDP was associated with both lower costs and similar quality-adjusted outcomes compared with DHAP in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma. Considering both costs and outcomes, GDP was the dominant therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 07/2015; 107(7). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djv106 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of transformed indolent lymphoma (TRIL) often includes salvage chemotherapy (SC) and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). NCIC CTG LY12 is a randomized phase III trial comparing gemcitabine, dexamethasone, cisplatin (GDP) to dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin (DHAP) prior to ASCT. This analysis compares the results of SC and ASCT for TRIL with de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DL). Six hundred nineteen patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive NHL were randomized to GDP or DHAP; 87 patients (14%) had TRIL and 429 (69%) had DLBCL. The response rate to SC was 47% in TRIL and 45% in DL (p=0.81). Transplantation rates were similar: TRIL: 53%; DL: 52% (p=1.0). With a median follow-up of 53 months, 4 year OS was 39% for TRIL and 41% for DL (p=0.78); 4 year EFS was 27% for TRIL and 27% for DL (p=0.83). Post-ASCT, 4 year EFS was 45% for TRIL and 46% for DL. Histology (TRIL or DL) was not a predictor of any outcome in multivariate models. Patients with relapsed or refractory TRIL and DLBCL have similar outcomes with SC and ASCT; this therapy should be considered the standard of care for patients with TRIL who have received prior systemic chemotherapy. NCIC CTG LY12 is registered to www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00078949. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 06/2015; 126(6). DOI:10.1182/blood-2015-01-622084 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence supporting the clinical utility of predictive biomarkers of anthracycline activity is weak, with a recent meta-analysis failing to provide strong evidence for either HER2 or TOP2A. Having previously shown that duplication of chromosome 17 pericentromeric alpha satellite as measured with a centromere enumeration probe (CEP17) predicted sensitivity to anthracyclines, we report here an individual patient-level pooled analysis of data from five trials comparing anthracycline-based chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for CEP17, HER2, and TOP2A was performed in three laboratories on samples from 3,846 of 4,864 eligible patients from five trials evaluating anthracycline-containing chemotherapy versus CMF. Methodologic differences did not affect HER2-to-CEP17 ratios but necessitated different definitions for CEP17 duplication: > 1.86 observed copies per cell for BR9601, NEAT, Belgian, and DBCG89D trials and > 2.25 for the MA.5 trial. Fluorescent in situ hybridization data were available in 89.3% (HER2), 83.9% (CEP17), and 80.6% (TOP2A) of 3,846 patient cases with available tissue. Both CEP17and TOP2A treatment-by-marker interactions remained significant in adjusted analyses for recurrence-free and overall survival, whereas HER2 did not. A combined CEP17 and TOP2A-adjusted model predicted anthracycline benefit across all five trials for both recurrence-free (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.82; P = .001) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.85; P = .005). This prospectively planned individual-patient pooled analysis of patient cases from five adjuvant trials confirms that patients whose tumors harbor either CEP17 duplication or TOP2A aberrations, but not HER2 amplification, benefit from adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2015; 33(15). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.54.7869 · 18.43 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P3-09-02-P3-09-02. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P3-09-02 · 9.33 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P2-05-05-P2-05-05. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P2-05-05 · 9.33 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P4-11-11-P4-11-11. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P4-11-11 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TLE3, a nuclear transcriptional repressor downstream of WNT signalling pathways, has been hypothesised as predictive of benefit from adjuvant taxane. MA.21 tissue microarrays were constructed from 1097 out of 2104 (52%) patients. TLE3 staining by immunohistochemistry used validated methodology. Continuous TLE3+ (percentage of cells staining positive) was assessed with both visual and automated scoring. The primary objective was to test the predictive effect of TLE3 on relapse-free survival using the MA.21 EC/T and CEF arms and the previously defined cut-point of 30% of cells staining positive in ⩾1 core/tumour. MA.21 patients had 83.2% TLE3 positive (TLE3+) tumours by visual score and 80.6% TLE3+ by automated image analysis while the previously observed rate of TLE3+ cases was 58.6%. TLE3 expression was significantly associated with ER expression (91.2% of ER-positive tumours were TLE3+; P<0.0001). At median 8-year follow-up, there was no evidence of a predictive effect of TLE3 expression with respect to taxane benefit using the established 30% or exploratory quartile cut-points. Proportionately more MA.21 patient tumours than expected were TLE3+. The pre-specified TLE3+ cut-point of 30% was not predictive of taxane benefit. TLE3 expression does not represent a viable biomarker for taxane benefit in breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 18 August 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.271 www.bjcancer.com.
    Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P4-11-06-P4-11-06. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P4-11-06 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine intrinsic breast cancer subtypes represented within categories defined by quantitative hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 expression. We merged 1,557 cases from three randomized phase III trials into a single data set. These breast tumors were centrally reviewed in each trial for quantitative ER, PR, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) stain and by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), with intrinsic subtyping by research-based PAM50 RT-qPCR assay. Among 283 HER2-negative tumors with <1% HR expression by IHC, 207 (73%) were basal-like; other subtypes, particularly HER2-enriched (48, 17%), were present. Among the 1,298 HER2-negative tumors, borderline HR (1%-9% staining) was uncommon (n = 39), and these tumors were heterogeneous: 17 (44%) luminal A/B, 12 (31%) HER2-enriched, and only 7 (18%) basal-like. Including them in the definition of triple-negative breast cancer significantly diminished enrichment for basal-like cancer (p < .05). Among 106 HER2-positive tumors with <1% HR expression by IHC, the HER2-enriched subtype was the most frequent (87, 82%), whereas among 127 HER2-positive tumors with strong HR (>10%) expression, only 69 (54%) were HER2-enriched and 55 (43%) were luminal (39 luminal B, 16 luminal A). Quantitative HR expression by RT-qPCR gave similar results. Regardless of methodology, basal-like cases seldom expressed ER/ESR1 or PR/PGR and were associated with the lowest expression level of HER2/ERBB2 relative to other subtypes. Significant discordance remains between clinical assay-defined subsets and intrinsic subtype. For identifying basal-like breast cancer, the optimal HR IHC cut point was <1%, matching the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists guidelines. Tumors with borderline HR staining are molecularly diverse and may require additional assays to clarify underlying biology. ©AlphaMed Press.
    The Oncologist 04/2015; 20(5). DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0372 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with poor breast cancer outcomes in observational studies. We examined the association of vitamin D blood levels with relapse-free survival (RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and overall survival (OS) in the MA.21 randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood was collected pre-chemotherapy in 934/2104 (44.4 %) of subjects; 25 hydroxy vitamin D was measured (radioimmunoassay, Diasorin) in one batch. Vitamin D was assessed as a transformed continuous factor, and categorically (quartiles and clinical classifications). Univariate and multivariate prognostic analyses (adjusted for treatment, stratification factors, and baseline imbalances) were performed using Cox models. Most patients were young (median 47.8 years), white (91.6 %) and premenopausal (69.4 %) with grade III (52 %), HER2 negative or missing (89.5 %), ER positive (61.9 %), T1-2 (89.4 %), N + (72.7 %) breast cancer. Compared to the full population, those with vitamin D levels were more likely to be white, PS 1 or 2, to have undergone mastectomy, and to have an ER + tumor. Mean vitamin D was 69.7 nmol/L (27.9 ng/ml) and did not vary by tumor subtype. The majority (80.5 %) had levels >50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml), considered adequate by Institute of Medicine. Continuous vitamin D was not multivariately associated with RFS, BCSS, or OS (p = 0.36, 0.26, 0.33, respectively); categorical vitamin D was also not associated with outcome. Vitamin D associations with RFS did not differ within ER/HER2 subgroups. There was no evidence that vitamin D blood level was associated with RFS, BCSS, and OS in MA.21; the majority of subjects had adequate vitamin D levels at study entry.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2015; 150(3):605-11. DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3355-x · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of lapatinib versus trastuzumab combined with taxanes in the first-line setting of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive metastatic breast cancer (BC) is unknown. The MA.31 trial compared a combination of first-line anti-HER2 therapy (lapatinib or trastuzumab) and taxane therapy for 24 weeks, followed by the same anti-HER2 monotherapy until progression. Stratification was by prior (neo)adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy, prior (neo)adjuvant taxane, planned taxane, and liver metastases. The primary end point was intention-to-treat (ITT) progression-free survival (PFS), defined as time from random assignment to progression by RECIST (version 1.0) criteria, or death for patients with locally assessed HER2-positive tumors. The primary test statistic was a stratified log-rank test for noninferiority. PFS was also assessed for patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive tumors. From July 17, 2008, to December 1, 2011, 652 patients were accrued from 21 countries, resulting in 537 patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive tumors. Median follow-up was 21.5 months. Median ITT PFS was 9.0 months with lapatinib and 11.3 months with trastuzumab. By ITT analysis, PFS was inferior for lapatinib compared with trastuzumab, with a stratified hazard ratio (HR) of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.65; P = .001). In patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive tumors, median PFS was 9.1 months with lapatinib and 13.6 months with trastuzumab (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.83; P < .001). More grade 3 or 4 diarrhea and rash were observed with lapatinib (P < .001). PFS results were supported by the secondary end point of overall survival, with an ITT HR of 1.28 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.72; P = .11); in patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive tumors, the HR was 1.47 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.09; P = .03). As first-line therapy for HER2-positive metastatic BC, lapatinib combined with taxane was associated with shorter PFS and more toxicity compared with trastuzumab combined with taxane. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2015; 33(14). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.56.9590 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Metformin may improve metabolic factors (insulin, glucose, leptin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) associated with poor breast cancer outcomes. The NCIC Clinical Trials Group (NCIC CTG) MA.32 investigates effects of metformin vs placebo on invasive disease-free survival and other outcomes in early breast cancer. Maintaining blinding of investigators to outcomes, we conducted a planned, Data Safety Monitoring Committee–approved, analysis of the effect of metformin vs placebo on weight and metabolic factors at six months, including examination of interactions with baseline body mass index (BMI) and insulin, in the first 492 patients with paired blood samples.
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 03/2015; 107(3). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djv006 · 12.58 Impact Factor

  • Annual Meeting of the; 02/2015
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    ABSTRACT: PAM50-defined breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and risk-of-relapse (ROR) scores are prognostic and predictive of endocrine therapy and some chemotherapy. We investigated the prognostic and predictive effect of PAM50 classifications by chemotherapy type. NCIC CTG MA.21 randomized 2,104 patients to doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel (AC/T); dose-intense cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and flurouracil (CEF); or dose-dense, dose-intense epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel (EC/T). Patients were ≤60 years, with node-positive or high-risk node-negative disease, with median 8-year follow-up. Intrinsic subtypes and ROR were determined from RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections by the NanoString PAM50 test. Univariate effects on relapse-free survival (RFS) were assessed with stratified log-rank test; multivariate analyses utilized stratified Cox regression. Among 1094 cases completing PAM50 intrinsic subtyping, 27 % were classified as luminal A, 23 % luminal B, 18 % HER2E, and 32 % basal-like. CEF and EC/T were superior to AC/T (p = 0.01). Higher continuous ROR was multivariately associated with worse RFS (p = 0.03), although categorical ROR was neither prognostic nor predictive. Intrinsic subtypes had a significant multivariate prognostic effect on RFS (p = 0.002). Compared with luminal A, hazard ratios were luminal B = 1.48 (95 % CI 0.92–2.37); HER2E = 2.68 (95 % CI 1.60–4.48); and basal-like = 1.97 (95 % CI 1.10–3.53). Intrinsic subtypes were not predictive of treatment benefit (AC/T vs. EC/T + CEF); however, subgroup analysis indicated subtypes (non-luminal vs. luminal) was predictive of taxane benefit (EC/T vs. CEF; p = 0.05). Both NanoString PAM50 subtypes and continuous ROR had significant prognostic effects on RFS for breast cancer patients treated with CEF, EC/T, and AC/T. Non-luminal tumors differentially responded to EC/T (with taxane) over CEF.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2015; 149(2). DOI:10.1007/s10549-014-3259-1 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment-emergent symptoms with adjuvant tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been associated with superior recurrence-free survival (RFS). We hypothesized that MA.27 anastrozole- or exemestane-treated patients with new or worsening vasomotor and/or joint symptoms would have improved RFS. MA.27 randomly assigned 7,576 postmenopausal women with breast cancer to 5 years of anastrozole or exemestane. Patient-reported symptoms were collected using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 at protocol-specified baseline and 6- and 12-month clinical visits. Symptoms were considered present with either vasomotor and/or joint complaints. Associations between symptoms and baseline patient characteristics were examined with χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests. Subsequent effects of new or worsening symptoms on RFS were examined with landmark analyses and stratified univariable and multivariable Cox models. We examined the effects of 3-month symptoms arising from unplanned clinic visits as a result of severe toxicity. Patients were assessable if eligible for the MA.27 trial, received some trial therapy, and had no disease recurrence at the end of a symptom assessment period; 96% of patients (n = 7,306 patients) were included at 6 months, and 96% (n = 7,246) were included at 12 months. Thirty-four percent of patients had baseline symptoms. For patients without baseline symptoms, 25% and 52% had new symptoms by 6 and 12 months, respectively. Neither treatment-emergent nor baseline symptoms significantly impacted RFS (P > .10) in patients with or without baseline symptoms. In MA.27, anastrozole or exemestane treatment-emergent symptoms were not associated with improved RFS. Women should be supported through treatment and encouraged to remain on their AI regardless of their symptoms. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2014; 33(3). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.57.6926 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To show a new paradigm of simultaneously testing whether breast cancer therapies impact other causes of death. MA.14 allocated 667 postmenopausal women to 5 years of tamoxifen 20 mg/daily ± 2 years of octreotide 90 mg, given by depot intramuscular injections monthly. Event-free survival was the primary endpoint of MA.14; at median 7.9 years, the tamoxifen+octreotide and tamoxifen arms had similar event-free survival (P = 0.62). Overall survival was a secondary endpoint, and the two trial arms also had similar overall survival (P = 0.86). We used the median 9.8 years follow-up to examine by intention-to-treat, the multivariate time-to-breast cancer-specific (BrCa) and other cause (OC) mortality with log-normal survival analysis adjusted by treatment and stratification factors. We tested whether baseline factors including Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein-3, C-peptide, body mass index, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were associated with (1) all cause mortality, and if so and (2) cause-specific mortality. We also fit step-wise forward cause-specific adjusted models. The analyses were performed on 329 patients allocated tamoxifen and 329 allocated tamoxifen+octreotide. The median age of MA.14 patients was 60.1 years: 447 (82%) < 70 years and 120 (18%) ≥ 70 years. There were 170 deaths: 106 (62.3%) BrCa; 55 (32.4%) OC, of which 24 were other malignancies, 31 other causes of death; 9 (5.3%) patients with unknown cause of death were excluded from competing risk assessments. BrCa and OC deaths were not significantly different by treatment arm (P = 0.40): tamoxifen patients experienced 50 BrCa and 32 OC deaths, while tamoxifen + octreotide patients experienced 56 BrCa and 23 OC deaths. Proportionately more deaths (P = 0.004) were from BrCa for patients < 70 years, where 70% of deaths were due to BrCa, compared to 54% for those ≥ 70 years of age. The proportion of deaths from OC increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.02). Higher pathologic T and N were associated with more BrCa deaths (P < 0.0001 and 0.002, respectively). The cumulative hazard plot for BrCa and OC mortality indicated the concurrent accrual of both types of death throughout follow-up, that is the existence of competing risks of mortality. MA.14 therapy did not impact mortality (P = 0.77). Three baseline patient and tumor characteristics were differentially associated with cause of death: older patients experienced more OC (P = 0.01) mortality; patients with T1 tumors and hormone receptor positive tumors had less BrCa mortality (respectively, P = 0.01, P = 0.06). Additionally, step-wise cause-specific models indicated that patients with node negative disease experienced less BrCa mortality (P = 0.002); there was weak evidence that, lower C-peptide (P = 0.08) was associated with less BrCa mortality, while higher BMI (P = 0.01) was associated with worse OC mortality. We demonstrate here a new paradigm of simultaneous testing of therapeutics directed at multiple diseases for which postmenopausal women are concurrently at risk. Octreotide LAR did not significantly impact breast cancer or other cause mortality, although different baseline factors influenced type of death.
    12/2014; 5(5):1088-1096. DOI:10.5306/wjco.v5.i5.1088
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    ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has an increased incidence in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), especially during chemotherapy. Mechanisms including upregulation of procoagulant factors, such as factor VIII, have been postulated. The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group MY.10 phase III clinical trial compared thalidomide-prednisone to observation for 332 patients with MM post-autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with a primary endpoint of overall survival and various secondary endpoints including the incidence of VTE. One hundred and fifty-three patients had biomarker data, including D-dimer, factor VIII and thrombin anti-thrombin (TAT) levels collected post-ASCT at baseline and 2 months after intervention investigating in-vivo thrombin generation. Differences between the time-points included a significant reduction over time in D-dimer, factor VIII and TAT levels in the observation group and sustained elevation of D-dimer, significant increase in factor VIII and reduction in TAT levels in the thalidomide-prednisone group. Eight VTE events were reported in this subset of study patients, all in the thalidomide-prednisone arm, with a trend to increase in D-dimer levels over time in those patients with VTE. This study provides physiological and clinical evidence for an increased risk of VTE associated with thalidomide-prednisone maintenance therapy post-ASCT for MM.
    British Journal of Haematology 10/2014; 168(4). DOI:10.1111/bjh.13176 · 4.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: For patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive lymphoma, we hypothesized that gemcitabine-based therapy before autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is as effective as and less toxic than standard treatment. Patients and methods: We randomly assigned 619 patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive lymphoma to treatment with gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) or to dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP). Patients with B-cell lymphoma also received rituximab. Responding patients proceeded to stem-cell collection and ASCT. Coprimary end points were response rate after two treatment cycles and transplantation rate. The noninferiority margin for the response rate to GDP relative to DHAP was set at 10%. Secondary end points included event-free and overall survival, treatment toxicity, and quality of life. Results: For the intention-to-treat population, the response rate with GDP was 45.2%; with DHAP the response rate was 44.0% (95% CI for difference, -9.0% to 6.7%), meeting protocol-defined criteria for noninferiority of GDP (P = .005). Similar results were obtained in a per-protocol analysis. The transplantation rates were 52.1% with GDP and 49.3% with DHAP (P = .44). At a median follow-up of 53 months, no differences were detected in event-free survival (HR, 0.99; stratified log-rank P = .95) or overall survival (HR, 1.03; P = .78) between GDP and DHAP. Treatment with GDP was associated with less toxicity (P < .001) and need for hospitalization (P < .001), and preserved quality of life (P = .04). Conclusion: For patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive lymphoma, in comparison with DHAP, treatment with GDP is associated with a noninferior response rate, similar transplantation rate, event-free survival, and overall survival, less toxicity and hospitalization, and superior quality of life.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2014; 32(31). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.53.9593 · 18.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
2,027.03 Total Impact Points


  • 2011-2015
    • Queens University of Charlotte
      New York, United States
  • 2003-2015
    • Queen's University
      • Cancer Research Institute
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    • Robarts Clinical Trials
      London, Ontario, Canada
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997-2015
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013
    • Boston Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006-2013
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • BC Cancer Research Centre
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Fudan University
      • School of Public Health
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2000-2011
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2009
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of Vermont
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 1998-2006
    • Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
      Kolkata, West Bengal, India
    • Lakeland Regional Health Cancer Center
      Lakeland, Florida, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Ottawa
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • Kingston General Hospital
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • American Society of Hematology
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 1993
    • Government of Ontario, Canada
      XIA, Ontario, Canada