[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) may expand the HIV epidemic from men who have sex with men to the female population. From a respondent-driven sampling survey in Shenzhen, China, we quantified the burden of HIV/syphilis and studied patterns of risk and prevention behaviors in 107 MSMW, and compared these with those of 542 men who have sex with men only (MSM-only). HIV prevention behaviors and consistent condom use with male partners did not differ between the two groups. However, HIV risk behaviors were more common among MSMW than MSM-only. Moreover, among MSMW, the HIV prevalence was as high as 6 % and consistent condom use was extremely low with female partners in MSMW. We conclude that there is risk of HIV transmission from MSMW to the female population. Special efforts are needed to convince MSMW they should refrain from HIV risk behaviors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the shared transmission routes, co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HIV) is very common. Accumulated clinical evidence showed that one could alter the infectious course of the other virus in HIV and HCV co-infected individuals. However, little is known on the molecular basis of HIV/HCV interactions and their modulations on hosts.
In this study, treatment-naive HIV, HCV mono-/co-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts >300/mul were recruited and their gene expression profiles were investigated by microarray assays. The differentially expressed genes were identified and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). To further understand the biological meanings of the gene expression profiles in these three groups, GSEA analysis (version 2.0, Broad Institute http://www.broad.mit.edu/gsea) was performed.
By gene set enrichment analysis, we revealed that gene sets of cell cycle progression, innate immune response and some transcription factors in CD4+ T cells were mainly affected by HIV; while genes associated with GPCR signaling were the major targets of HCV. Metabolic pathways were modulated by both HCV and HIV viruses.
This study for the first time offers gene profiling basis for HCV/HIV mono-/co- infections in human beings. HIV infection displayed the great impact on transcription profile of CD4+ T cells in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals. Genes related to cell cycle arrest were significantly mediated by HIV which may lead to dysfunction of CD4+ T cells and acceleration of HCV-related disease progression in the co-infections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased rapidly in China. Previous studies suggested that some venue-specific characteristics could significantly affect MSM's sexual behaviors that were related to HIV transmission. Thus, to compare the HIV infection rates and related risky sexual behaviors among MSM at different venues, we conducted a cross-sectional study with time-location sampling in Shenzhen, China. Among the 801 MSM recruited in the study, 7.0 % (n = 56) were found to be HIV positive, with 0.9 % of MSM at bars (BMSM), 3.5 % of MSM at suburban recreational centers (RMSM), 8.1 % of MSM at saunas (SMSM), 9.3 % of MSM at parks (PMSM), and 10.1 % of MSM at dorm-based venues (DMSM). HIV infection was significantly more prevalent in MSM in dorm-based venues, parks, and saunas than in other venues. Compared to MSM in other venues, BMSM were more likely to be single, drug and alcohol users, but less likely to be HIV and syphilis positive. More PMSM reported having unprotected anal intercourse with other men while more SMSM reported having multiple male sex partners and more RMSM had a low level of HIV-related knowledge. The results indicated that MSM frequenting different venues were inconsistent with regards to demographic characteristics, HIV and syphilis infection rates, and risky sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to develop intervention strategies that target specific venues and risky behaviors.
Archives of Sexual Behavior 08/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs worldwide, the translation from research studies into public health policy has been slow. This report details the experiences of a city-driven PMTCT program in China using existing health resources.
The PMTCT program was devised to hospital based and city-wide. It achieves full use of available resources: the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Infectious Disease Hospital, Maternal and Child Health Hospitals, and all qualified comprehensive hospitals.
From 2000 to 2010, 1,843,122 pregnant women attended prenatal care or labor and delivery services. Overall, 97.4% received pretest HIV counseling, and 96.2% were tested for HIV. Among the 81.1% (1,495,122) of women who attended prenatal clinics, 97.2% (1,452,753) received pretest counseling and 95.7% (1,430,799) were tested for HIV. Among the 18.9% (348,000) of women with an undocumented HIV status at labor and delivery, 98.6% (343,038) received pretest counseling, and 98.1% (341,371) were tested for HIV. In total, 229 women were determined HIV positive for a prevalence of 1.3 per 10,000 pregnant women. Among the 107 HIV-infected women who carried to delivery, 87.9% received antiretroviral prophylaxis for themselves and their infants. Among the 58 women who were identified HIV positive at labor, 10.3% of mothers and 72.4% of infants received antiretroviral prophylaxis. The estimated mother-to-child transmission rate was 5.3% (95% confidence interval, 2.2%-10.7%).
With appropriate integration, existing health care resources are adequate for a comprehensive city-driven PMTCT program in an area with a low HIV prevalence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) has become an increasing concern in China. Money boys (MBs) are a subgroup of MSM who sell sex to men. Direct comparison of HIV prevalence and related risk factors between MB and noncommercial MSM (ncMSM) has rarely been done. This study was conducted to make the comparison.
Eight hundred fifty MBs and 801 ncMSM were parallel recruited in Shenzhen by time-location sampling. Their behavioral and serologic data on HIV and syphilis were collected and compared. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the determinants for HIV risk in MBs and ncMSM, respectively.
The prevalence of HIV was 4.5% in MBs and 7.0% in ncMSM. Although MBs tended to have more male partners than ncMSM, they were more likely to report a consistent condom use in male anal intercourse, especially in commercial sex. Noncommercial MSM were more likely to visit parks and saunas instead of bars, massage centers, recreational centers, and home-based venues. Syphilis infection and recruitment venue were associated with HIV infection in both MBs and ncMSM. Being from a hometown with a high HIV prevalence and without a male partner from Hong Kong were found to be risk factors for HIV infection in MBs, and early sexual debut was a risk factor in ncMSM.
Money boys differed from ncMSM in the rate of HIV infection and some sexual characteristics and behaviors. Formatting separate interventions specifically targeting the 2 subgroups may be necessary.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Money boys (MBs) who typically sell sex to males have not yet been extensively studied in China. In this 2009 study, 28 venue-based MBs were interviewed. We analyzed their condom use behaviors with various partners, including male and female clients, male and female casual partners, other MBs and female sex workers, and boyfriends and girlfriends. All participants were aware of the need for using condoms; however, usage with different partner types varied. The longer a relationship with a partner, the less frequent was condom use. A major reason for not using condoms was that they or their partners did not like the loss of sensation due to condom use. Other factors included sexual orientation, age, duration in commercial sex, concerns about HIV/AIDS, attractiveness of partners, and support of "mommies" (brothel supervisors). Both individual- and venue-level interventions are needed to promote condom use, and mommies need to be included in intervention strategies.
AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 04/2012; 24(2):163-78. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the influence of T lymphocyte activation on HIV-1 susceptibility of Han Chinese.
In 2008, 37 HIV-1 highly exposed persistently seronegative individuals (ESNs) and 101 healthy controls were screened from Shenzhen. Flow cytometer was used to assay the expression difference of HIV-1 infection related co-receptor, the difference between the two groups were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U statistics methods.
T cell HLA-DR(+) CD4 T cells and HLA-DR(+) expression of ESNs (12.64 (5.94 - 21.90), 21.12 (10.74 - 30.21)) were all significantly lower than that of healthy controls (22.52 (7.91 - 58.60), 32.28 (14.72 - 67.82)) (P values all < 0.05). T cell CD45RA-RO(+), CCR5(+)CD4 expression of ESNs (58.68 (49.06 - 72.44), 21.93 (15.84 - 25.89)) were all significantly higher than that of healthy controls (53.17 (42.63 - 63.21), 16.14 (11.94 - 21.98)) (P values all < 0.05). T cell CXCR4(+)CD4 T cells expression of ESNs (93.67 (92.17 - 94.96)) was significantly lower than that of healthy controls (95.16 (92.99 - 96.77)) (P values all < 0.05). Healthy controls and ESNs could be divided into low expression group and high expression group according to HLA-DR(+)CD8 T cells bimodal distribution. A total of 89.2% (33/37) ESNs fell into HLA-DR + CD8 low expression group, and 58.4% (59/101) of the healthy controls located in low expression group (P < 0.05).
To Han Chinese, the low activation status of T lymphocyte has significant correlation with HIV-1 low susceptibility.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 04/2012; 46(4):320-3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of HIV-1 subtype in Shenzhen from 1992 to 2008.
489 HIV-1 positive plasma samples were collected from 1992 to 2008 in Shenzhen.HIV-1 env genes were amplified by nested-PCR from RNA. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on data regarding the nucleotide sequence.
A total of 464 sequences were amplified and genotyped. Data from this study revealed that CRF01_AE was a predominant HIV-1 subtype in Shenzhen (64.4%, 299/464), followed by subtypes CRF_BC (17.5%, 81/464), B' (14.7%, 68/464) and B (2.4%, 11/464). Subtype C (0.4%, 2/464), A1 (0.2%, 1/464), CRF02_AG (0.2%, 1/464) and CRF06_cpx (0.2%, 1/464) were also prevalent in Shenzhen. CRF01_AE and CRF_BC were predominant among heterosexuals, homosexuals and injection drug users, while B' was predominant among blood donors. Results from phylogenetic tree analysis showed that some of the HIV-1 clusters had been defined in CRF01_AE strains at different time or groups with different transmission routes. Cross-infections were also seen.
CRF01_AE was the predominant HIV-1 subtype in Shenzhen while CRF_BC, B, B', C, A1, CRF02_AG and a small amount of CRF06_cpx or recombinant subtypes were prevalent in this city. Different subtypes showed great variation in the process of epidemics.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 01/2012; 33(1):82-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Co-infection with HIV and HCV is very common. It is estimated that over 5 million people are co-infected with HIV and HCV worldwide. Accumulated evidence shows that each virus alters the course of infection of the other one. CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in the eradication of viruses and infected target cells. To the best of our knowledge, no one has investigated the gene expression profiles in HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals.
Genome-wide transcriptomes of CD8+ T cells from HIV/HCV-co-infected or mono-infected treatment-naïve individuals were analyzed by microarray assays. Pairwise comparisons were performed and differentially expressed genes were identified followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) validation. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) from Web-based Gene SeT AnaLysis Toolkit (WebGestalt) and DAVID bioinformatics resources 6.7 (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) were used to discover the Gene Ontology (GO) categories with significantly enriched gene numbers. The enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were also obtained by using WebGestalt software.
A total of 110, 24 and 72 transcript IDs were shown to be differentially expressed (> 2-fold and p<0.05) in comparisons between HCV- and HIV-mono-infected groups, HIV/HCV-co-infected and HIV-mono-infected groups, and HIV/HCV-co-infected and HCV-mono-infected groups, respectively. In qRT-PCR assay, most of the genes showed similar expressing profiles with the observation in microarray assays. Further analysis revealed that genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation and cytokine responses were significantly altered. These data offer new insights into HIV/HCV co-infections, and may help to identify new markers for the management and treatment of HIV/HCV co-infections.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45200. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the prevalent status of CRF01_AE strains of recombinant HIV-1 in Shenzhen and their source of infection in order to predict the epidemic trend and evolution.
A total of 489 samples of HIV-1 positive plasma were collected from 1992 to 2008 in Shenzhen. HIV-1 Env genes were amplified by nested-PCR from RNA. Subtype analysis were performed on the nucleotide sequence data. CRF01_AE sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic methods and characterized by calculating the genetic distance.
A total of 300 CRF01_AE strain sequences were amplified, accounting for 64.5% of all genotyped samples of all the 465 samples. The CRF01_AE strains of recombinant in 1992 - 1999, 2000 - 2005 and 2006 - 2008 accounted for 56.8% (21/37), 68.4% (78/114) and 64.0% (201/314) of genotyped samples, respectively. And in these three periods of times, 52.4% (11/21), 43.6% (34/78) and 45.8% (92/201) were heterosexually acquired adults; 4.8% (1/21), 0.0% (0/78) and 22.4% (45/201) were homosexually acquired adults; 19.0% (4/21), 51.3% (40/78), 30.8% (62/210) were intravenous drug users, respectively.Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that HIV samples from different period of time showed distinct aggregation in time and transmission as well as cross infection. The gene divergence rate of CRF01_AE strains in the three different periods of time were (8.783 ± 4.717)%, (11.054 ± 7.141)%, and (13.218 ± 4.080)%, respectively.
CRF01_AE is the major epidemic strains in Shenzhen, which is transmitted through heterosexual contact, MSM and intravenous drug users. The gene variation increased gradually as time goes by.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 11/2011; 45(11):999-1003.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined an at-risk population in China, money boys (MBs), to evaluate their potential role for transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Data were collected from 418 MBs selected by time-location cluster sampling, using a self-administered computerized questionnaire and testing a small blood sample for HIV/STIs. One-third (32.1%) of participants self-identified as homosexual, 25.4% heterosexual, 33.5% bisexual, and 9.1% uncertain. Consistent condom use by participants was 70-80% with commercial sex partners, 43.9% with girlfriends, and 60-70% with other non-commercial partners. HIV prevalence was 3.3%; syphilis, 10.5%; and HSV-2, 11.0%; overall prevalence for any was 20.3%. Factors significantly associated with HIV/STIs included being minority (OR = 4.82), having only male partners (OR = 1.92), having more male casual partners in the last 6 months (OR = 1.28), being younger at sexual debut (OR = 1.14), and being older (OR = 1.11). This study emphasizes the importance of developing targeted interventions for MBs, particularly those who are homosexual or minority.
AIDS and Behavior 07/2011; 16(4):835-46. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China is becoming very serious. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among MSM during cross-boundary commercial sex spread HIV across geographic areas. This study interviewed 186 Chinese male sex workers (MSW) in Shenzhen, China, serving cross-boundary Hong Kong male clients; 49.5% had had UAI with their Hong Kong male clients (last six months) and 24.2% intended to do so (future six months). Multivariate analyses showed that perceived efficacy of condom use for HIV prevention, perceived prevalence of HIV among Hong Kong MSM (>4%), and perceived ability to convince Hong Kong male clients to use condoms during anal sex were associated with lower likelihoods of UAI with such clients (OR = 0.04-0.09); the reverse was true for those who left the decision of condom use to their Hong Kong male clients (OR = 6.44). Perceived condom efficacy, self-efficacy in protection against HIV infection, and perceived control over condom use were associated with an intention for UAI (OR = 0.06-80.44). Adjusting for background variables, the scales representing contextual (Clients Characteristics, Substance Use, or Environmental Influences) and affective factors (Fear of Diseases) were associated with UAI (adjusted OR = 0.44-32.61). Except the Fear of Diseases scale, other scales were associated with an intention for UAI (adjusted OR = 4.59-43.32). MSW are at high risk of HIV transmission. Various factors are associated with UAI with male cross-boundary clients; these factors and the context of sex work need to be considered when designing HIV prevention programs.
AIDS Care 07/2011; 24(1):59-70. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different risks of HIV infection have been reported among different types of male sex workers (MSW). In order to compare the prevalence of HIV infection and related risk behaviors of MSW in different venues in Shenzhen, China, a time-location sampling survey was conducted in 2008. 5.1% of the 394 MSWs were tested positive for HIV, with 6.9% in those working in parks (PMSW), 11.3% in small family clubs (FMSW) and 1.7% in entertainment venues. PMSWs and FMSWs reported a higher proportion of self-identified homosexual/gay. Moreover, FMSWs reported a lower coverage of HIV-related education and services and were more likely to self-report coming from provinces with higher HIV prevalence. The results indicated that MSWs in small venues and parks were comparatively at higher risk of being infected and suggested that current HIV preventive intervention needs to be expanded to the small venues in Shenzhen.
AIDS and Behavior 04/2011; 15(3):635-42. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To understand the rule of vpr gene variance of HIV-1 strains. METHODS: RT-PCR was used to amplify vpr gene of HIV-1 strains in Shenzhen. PCR products were sequenced and used for gene phylogenetic analysis and the 32 - 46 amino acids of Vpr protein were compared. The difference of 77 amino acid polymorphism distribution between domestic region and foreign region was analyzed. RESULTS: 01_AE was the major HIV-1 subtype in Shenzhen. The gene distance among subtype B was larger than in other subtypes. 77-amino acid of Vpr protein had three polymorphism forms as Arginin, Glutamine and Histidine, with Glutamine as the wild form. There were no significant differences in the three amino acid distributions between HIV-1 strains from domestic region and foreign region. CONCLUSION: vpr genes of different HIV-1 strains belonged to 01_AE subtype. There was polymorphism seen in the vpr gene which was consistent with both domestic and international HIV-1 strains.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 08/2010; 31(8):913-915.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV transmission among men who have sex with men has recently become a major concern in China. Little is known, however, about HIV transmission among male sex workers (MSW). This study aimed to investigate HIV infection prevalence and risk factors among MSW in Shenzhen, China.
Following formative research, a cross-sectional study was conducted using time-location sampling among MSW in Shenzhen, from April to July 2008. Behavioural and serological data on HIV and syphilis were collected. The risk factors for HIV infection were analysed using a logistic regression model.
In total, 394 MSW were recruited for the survey. The prevalence of HIV and syphilis among these workers was 5.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Only a quarter of the MSW self-identified as homosexual. More than 70% had sex with both men and women. HIV-related knowledge levels were high regardless of HIV serostatus. Consistent condom use was low (37.1%) and varied by type of sexual partner. Factors including more non-commercial male partners, working in small home-based family clubs, being drunk before sexual intercourse, having a history of HIV tests, syphilis infection and a short period of residence in Shenzhen were associated with an increased risk of HIV infection.
High-risk sexual practices were common among MSW regardless of their high level of HIV awareness. The working venues were associated with HIV infection and a recent test for HIV was a potential predictor of HIV infection. The time-location sampling method was found to be an appropriate way of recruiting MSW for this study, especially those without fixed working places.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is associated with psychological morbidity. There are only a few stress scales specially developed for PLWHA and none of them is in Chinese. This study develops and validates a new Chinese Perceived Stress Scale among PLWHA (PSSHIV) in Shenzhen of Guangdong Province and Hengyang of Hunan Province in China during September 2006 through July 2007. In-depth interviews were administered to 58 PLWHA (33 males, mean age, 32) to generate the items, while 215 other PLWHA were interviewed in another survey to validate the instrument (136 males, mean age, 33). Exploratory factor analysis yielded 8 factors (percent variance explained, 71.47%), namely: social/psychological problems, sexual relationship, functional problems, social acceptance/rejection issues, work-related issues, family/offspring issues, accessibility to treatment, and treatment outcomes. The Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.76 to 0.94 for the overall scale and the 8 subscales. The scores of the overall scale, the social/psychological problems, and functional problems subscales of the PSSHIV were significantly correlated with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and all domains of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) (correlation coefficient = 0.50 to 0.71 for positive correlations, and -0.73 to -0.21 for negative correlations, p < 0.05). The other 6 subscales of the PSSHIV were significantly correlated with the PSS, subscales of the DASS, and MOS-HIV (correlation coefficient = 0.16 to 0.39 for positive correlation, -0.58 to -0.15 for negative correlation, p < 0.05). This new instrument collected information from the PLWHA from qualitative interviews and the items are specific to the HIV/AIDS context. PSSHIV can be used for assessing the level of stress faced by PLWHA in China.
AIDS patient care and STDs 12/2008; 22(12):989-98. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited information is available on host genetic polymorphisms that confer resistance to HIV-1 infection in Han Chinese who persistently remain seronegative (HEPS) despite high exposure to HIV-1 through unprotected sexual activity with known HIV-1-seropositive spouses or long-term sexual partners. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of CCR5-Delta32, CCR2b-64I, and SDF1-3'A polymorphisms with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection through sexual transmission in Han Chinese. A cross-sectional study was used to analyze the differences in allelic frequencies of CCR5-Delta32, CCR2b-64I, and SDF1-3'A among HEPS, healthy HIV-unexposed individuals, and HIV-1-seropositive individuals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used for genotype determination. The CCR5-Delta32 mutation was not detected in the three groups (n = 260). The allelic frequencies of CCR2b-64I were 21.57%, 21.63%, and 22.12% in the three groups, respectively. There was no significant difference among the three groups in CCR2b-64I distribution. The allelic frequencies of SDF1-3'A were 20.19%, 28.37%, and 29.33% in the three groups, respectively. There was a significant difference in the allelic distribution of SDF1-3'A between HEPS and healthy HIV-unexposed individuals (p = 0.023), as well as between HEPS and HIV-1-seropositive individuals (p = 0.049). Statistical analysis showed that the allelic distributions on CCR2b-64I and SDF1-3'A were in equilibrium according to the Hardy-Weinberg equation. The mutant genotypes of CCR5-Delta32 and CCR2b-64I were not correlated with HIV-1 infection through sexual transmission in Han Chinese. SDF1- 3'A was associated with a high risk of HIV-1 infection through sexual transmission in Han Chinese.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 11/2008; 24(11):1341-5. · 2.18 Impact Factor