Lin Chen

JiangHan University, Jiang’an, Hubei, China

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Publications (68)164.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the predominant lung cells responsible for both ingestion and clearance of inhaled particulate matter (PM). The aims of this study were (1) to examine effects of fine PM on rat NR8383 cell line apoptosis, and (2) to determine whether NR8383 cell functions are further affected when exposed to fine PM in the presence of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Standard Reference Material 2786 (SRM 2786) for fine PM was used to measure the following parameters: cytotoxicity, apoptotic rate, Bax/Bcl-2 expression, nitric oxide (NO) production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in NR8383 cells. Data showed that SRM 2786 alone induced damage and apoptosis in NR8383 cells in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by significant decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and increase in expression of Bax, suggesting fine PM might trigger apoptosis involving a mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. In addition, there was elevated production of free radicals, such as NO and ROS, suggesting oxidative stress plays a role in the observed apoptotic responses. Further, LPS pretreatment enhanced apoptosis of NR8383 cells induced by SRM 2786. Consequently, data indicate that SRM 2786 triggered cell apoptosis in NR8383 cells, probably by mechanisms involving oxidative stress, as evidenced by elevated NO and ROS levels, while the degree of apoptosis was further aggravated by inflammation.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 04/2015; 78(7):443-52. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2014.993490 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple subtypes were found epidemic in Shenzhen MSM population, which always predict the emergence of unique recombinant. In 2012, CRF55_01B was first reported, which was later proved to originate in MSMs in Shenzhen city. In this study, we reported a unique recombinant form (URF) of HIV-1 identified in a man who has sex with men in Shenzhen city. The strain showed similar genomic schematic map to CRF55_01B with subtype C segments inserted in the gag and pol genes. The full-length genome was amplified in two halves with the 1kb overlap regions. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Recombination detection program showed that two subtype C fragments and two subtype B fragments were inserted into CRF01_AE backbone genome in gag and pol region. In phylogenetic tree, the subtype C fragments clustered with CRF07_BC variants, the other segments grouped with CRF55_01B strains except one segment clustered with CRF01_AE. Similar breakpoints between our strain and CRF65_cpx were also observed. The data suggested that the URF strain might be the recombinant form of CRF55_01B, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. This is the first report of third generation of recombination of HIV-1 originated from CRF55_01B in China. The identification of the URF suggested the severe situation of HIV in Shenzhen MSM and urgent the epidemiology surveillance of new recombination.
  • Sexual Health 02/2015; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the association of the phenotype of ATP-activated current with the genotype of P2X1-6 subunits in nociceptors, we developed a method that allows us to label nociceptive neurons innervating tooth-pulp in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons using a retrograde fluorescence-tracing method, to record ATP-activated current in freshly isolated fluorescence-labeled neurons, and then to conduct single cell immunohistochemical staining for P2X1-6 subunits in the same neuron. We found that fast application of 100 μM ATP to fluorescence-traced TG neurons produced robust inward current in 87% (96/110) of cells tested. The diameter of cells varied from 16 to 56 μm. Three types of ATP-activated current (F, I and S) were recorded with distinct rise times of the current (R10–90, P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the cell diameter and the value of R10–90 (P < 0.05): the value of R10-90 increased with increases in the cell diameter. Cells responsive to ATP with the type F current mainly showed positive staining for P2X3 and P2X5, but negative staining for P2X2; cells responsive to ATP with the type I current showed positive staining for P2X1-3 and P2X5, but negative staining for P2X4; and cells responsive to ATP with the type S current showed positive staining for P2X1-5, but negative staining for P2X6. The present findings suggest that in addition to P2X3 subunits, P2X5 subunits are also involved in the generation of the F type of ATP-activated current in small-sized nociceptive neurons. In addition to the P2X2/3 subunit-containing channels, more complex uncharacterized combinations of P2X1-5 subunits exist in native medium-sized nociceptive neurons exhibiting the I and S types of ATP-activated current. In addition, the P2X6 subunit is not a main subunit involved in the nociceptive signal in rat TG neurons innervating tooth-pulp.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.01.156 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidences suggest that innate immunity is involved in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the liable innate immune receptors have not been completely elucidated. Here, we explored the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a member of the cytosolic NOD-like receptor family, in acute focal cerebral I/R injury. An in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model that in wild type (WT) and NOD2 deficient (NOD2(-/-)) mice and in vitro model of oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in cultured primary microglia and astrocytes were used to investigate the expression of NOD2 and explore the roles of NOD2 in ischemic stroke. Our results showed that NOD2 expression was significantly increased in microglia and astrocytes in response to the I/R insult. Pretreatment with muramyl dipeptide, an extrinsic ligand of NOD2, significantly increased the infarct volume and neurological dysfunction in mice subjected to MCAO. Genetic ablation of the NOD2 gene significantly improved stroke outcomes and reduced inflammation, as evidenced by a lower expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in conjunction with attenuated activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and JNK. Moreover, NOD2 deficiency prevented the upregulation of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and ROS generation induced by I/R. Mechanistically, NOD2-induced production of IL-6 in primary cultured microglia was mediated through activation of NOX2. This study showed the contribution of NOD2 to inflammatory response and provided direct evidence that NOX2-mediated oxidative stress as an important target molecule linked NOD2 to inflammatory damage in ischemic stroke. Pharmacological targeting of NOD2-mediated inflammatory response at multiple levels may help design a new approach to develop therapeutic strategies for prevention of deterioration of cerebral function and for the treatment of stroke.
    International journal of biological sciences 01/2015; 11(5):525-35. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.10927 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel tetramethylpyrazine derivative, CXC195, has been recently shown to protect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the neuroprotection of CXC195 are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CXC195 on the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in response to cerebral I/R and to determine whether phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway might be involved. An in vitro model of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) which was performed on primary cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and an in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model that was performed on Wistar rats were used in this study. CXC195 increased nitric oxide (NO) production and the phosphorylation but not the protein level of eNOS in HAECs subjected to 1 h OGD followed by reperfusion. In addition, CXC195 increased the phosphorylation of Akt; inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway by a specific inhibitor, wortmannin, suppressed CXC195-induced NO release in HAECs. Consistently, CXC195 treatment significantly restored the phosphorylations of eNOS and Akt in the cortical penumbra of rats subjected to 2 h MCAO followed by reperfusion. Moreover, wortmannin abolished CXC195-induced eNOS phosphorylation and neuroprotection as evidenced by a reversal of the reduction in infarct volume and neurobehavioral outcomes. In conclusion, CXC195 induced phosphorylation of eNOS by activation of PI3K/Akt signaling under pathological cerebral I/R conditions, which provided a novel explanation for the neuroprotective effect of CXC195.
    Neurochemical Research 11/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1007/s11064-014-1485-x · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence has proved that potassium channels (K+ channels) are involved in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the precise cellular mechanisms are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of quinidine, a commonly used voltage‑gated K+ channel blocker, on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human glioma U87‑MG cells. We found that quinidine significantly inhibited the proliferation of U87‑MG cells and induced apoptosis in a dose‑dependent manner. The results of caspase colorimetric assay showed that the mitochondrial pathway was the main mode involved in the quinidine‑induced apoptotic process. Furthermore, the concentration range of quinidine, which inhibited voltage‑gated K+ channel currents in electrophysiological assay, was consistent with that of quinidine inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. In U87‑MG cells treated with quinidine (100 µmol/l), 11 of 2,042 human microRNAs (miRNAs) were upregulated and 16 were downregulated as detected with the miRNA array analysis. The upregulation of miR‑149‑3p and downregulation of miR‑424‑5p by quinidine treatment were further verified by using quantitative real‑time PCR. In addition, using miRNA target prediction program, putative target genes related to cell prolif-eration and apoptosis for two differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. Taken together, these data suggested that the anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptosis effect of voltage‑gated K+ channel blocker quinidine in human glioma cells was mediated at least partly through regulating expression of miRNAs, and provided further support for the mechanisms of voltage‑gated K+ channels in mediating cell proliferation and apoptosis.
    International Journal of Oncology 11/2014; 46(2). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2014.2777 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the polymorphism of IL-22 gene in Han Chinese, and to evaluate the influence of IL-22 polymorphism on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.MethodsIL-22 gene polymorphism was analyzed in 73 healthy blood samples. The influence of the genotype and allele distribution of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2227484, rs2227485, and rs2227513) of IL-22 on HIV infection was evaluated in 619 HIV seropositive patients and 619 healthy controls. To determine the association between rs2227513 genotype and IL-22 levels in plasma, we randomly selected 29 HIV seropositive blood samples and 15 healthy blood samples, and measured the levels of IL-22.ResultsNine SNPs loci (rs2227484, rs2227485, rs2227491, rs2227508, rs2227513, rs1179249, rs1179250, rs1179251, and rs1182844) of IL-22 gene were found. Stratified analysis (by gender) showed a higher association of HIV infection and A/G genotype and G allele at rs2227513 in females but not in males (A/G genotype: OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.13-24.27; allele G: OR=5.27, 95% CI 1.15-24.23). rs2227513 A/G genotype was also associated with significantly higher levels of plasma IL-22, regardless of whether HIV seropositive or seronegative.Conclusion Our results suggested that IL-22 production in blood might act as a pathogenic factor in HIV infection.
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    ABSTRACT: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a key population for HIV control and prevention in China. It is difficult to acquire representative samples of this hidden population. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), based on peer referral, and time-location sampling (TLS) based on random selection of venue-day-time periods, are among the most commonly used sampling methods. However, differences in HIV-related characteristics of MSM recruited by these two methods have not been fully evaluated. We compared sociodemographics, risk behaviors, utilization of HIV-related intervention services, and HIV/syphilis infection rates between samples of 621 RDS MSM and 533 TLS MSM in Shenzhen, China in 2010. We found that the HIV prevalence was comparable in RDS and TLS MSM. TLS recruited larger proportions of more marginalized MSM than RDS: MSM recruited by TLS were older, less educated and more likely to be migrants (without Shenzhen hukou registration), to be non-gay identified and to engage in risky sexual behaviors. On the other hand, MSM recruited by TLS were more likely to have been covered by HIV-related intervention services. To conclude, in Shenzhen, TLS is more effective to reach the marginalized population of MSM. But because TLS can only reach MSM who physically attend venues and HIV-related intervention services are already commonly available at gay venues in Shenzhen, RDS is more informative for allocating prevention efforts than TLS. Furthermore, researchers and public health authorities should take into account the different sample compositions of RDS and TLS and apply sampling methods consistently when evaluating trends over time.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10508-014-0350-y · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • 07/2014; 998-999:164-168. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.998-999.164
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    ABSTRACT: Previous investigations have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) has many actions including antitumor, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Rg3 exists as 2 stereoisomeric pairs, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(S)-Rg3] and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(R)-Rg3], which have disparate pharmacological actions because of their different chemical structures. In this study, the 2 epimers were compared for their effects on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma H22 transplanted tumors and the immune function of H22-bearing mice. In vivo efficacy study showed that the growth of H22 transplanted tumors was significantly inhibited when treated with 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 (P < 0.05), and the inhibition rate of tumor growth was 23.6% and 40.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the cellular immunity of H22-bearing mice was remarkably enhanced after Rg3 treatment (P < 0.05), which may be due to stimulation of ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation and augmentation of Th1-type cytokines interleukin-2 and interferon-γ levels in mice. Interestingly, the effects of 20(R)-Rg3 were significantly greater than those of the S-form (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that Rg3 inhibits H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly by improving the host's cellular immunity in a stereospecific manner, and 20(R)-Rg3 is more potent for treating cancers or other immune-mediated diseases clinically.
    Journal of Food Science 07/2014; 79(7). DOI:10.1111/1750-3841.12518 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96792. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096792 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased rapidly in China. Previous studies suggested that some venue-specific characteristics could significantly affect MSM's sexual behaviors that were related to HIV transmission. Thus, to compare the HIV infection rates and related risky sexual behaviors among MSM at different venues, we conducted a cross-sectional study with time-location sampling in Shenzhen, China. Among the 801 MSM recruited in the study, 7.0 % (n = 56) were found to be HIV positive, with 0.9 % of MSM at bars (BMSM), 3.5 % of MSM at suburban recreational centers (RMSM), 8.1 % of MSM at saunas (SMSM), 9.3 % of MSM at parks (PMSM), and 10.1 % of MSM at dorm-based venues (DMSM). HIV infection was significantly more prevalent in MSM in dorm-based venues, parks, and saunas than in other venues. Compared to MSM in other venues, BMSM were more likely to be single, drug and alcohol users, but less likely to be HIV and syphilis positive. More PMSM reported having unprotected anal intercourse with other men while more SMSM reported having multiple male sex partners and more RMSM had a low level of HIV-related knowledge. The results indicated that MSM frequenting different venues were inconsistent with regards to demographic characteristics, HIV and syphilis infection rates, and risky sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to develop intervention strategies that target specific venues and risky behaviors.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 05/2014; 43(4):801-809. DOI:10.1007/s10508-013-0167-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the characteristics and influencing factors of HIV detection among HIV/AIDS patients in Zhejiang province.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 05/2014; 48(5):380-5.
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    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2014; 66(3). DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000144 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) may expand the HIV epidemic from men who have sex with men to the female population. From a respondent-driven sampling survey in Shenzhen, China, we quantified the burden of HIV/syphilis and studied patterns of risk and prevention behaviors in 107 MSMW, and compared these with those of 542 men who have sex with men only (MSM-only). HIV prevention behaviors and consistent condom use with male partners did not differ between the two groups. However, HIV risk behaviors were more common among MSMW than MSM-only. Moreover, among MSMW, the HIV prevalence was as high as 6 % and consistent condom use was extremely low with female partners in MSMW. We conclude that there is risk of HIV transmission from MSMW to the female population. Special efforts are needed to convince MSMW they should refrain from HIV risk behaviors.
    AIDS and Behavior 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10461-014-0735-x · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the shared transmission routes, co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HIV) is very common. Accumulated clinical evidence showed that one could alter the infectious course of the other virus in HIV and HCV co-infected individuals. However, little is known on the molecular basis of HIV/HCV interactions and their modulations on hosts. In this study, treatment-naive HIV, HCV mono-/co-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts >300/mul were recruited and their gene expression profiles were investigated by microarray assays. The differentially expressed genes were identified and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). To further understand the biological meanings of the gene expression profiles in these three groups, GSEA analysis (version 2.0, Broad Institute http://www.broad.mit.edu/gsea) was performed. By gene set enrichment analysis, we revealed that gene sets of cell cycle progression, innate immune response and some transcription factors in CD4+ T cells were mainly affected by HIV; while genes associated with GPCR signaling were the major targets of HCV. Metabolic pathways were modulated by both HCV and HIV viruses. This study for the first time offers gene profiling basis for HCV/HIV mono-/co- infections in human beings. HIV infection displayed the great impact on transcription profile of CD4+ T cells in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals. Genes related to cell cycle arrest were significantly mediated by HIV which may lead to dysfunction of CD4+ T cells and acceleration of HCV-related disease progression in the co-infections.
    Virology Journal 02/2014; 11(1):27. DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-11-27 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CXC195 showed strongest protective effects among the ligustrazine derivatives in cells and prevented apoptosis induced by H2O2 injury. We recently demonstrated that CXC195 protected against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by its antioxidant activity. However, whether the anti-apoptotic action of CXC195 is involved in cerebral I/R injury is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CXC195 in apoptotic processes induced by cerebral I/R and the possible signaling pathways. Male Wistar rats were submitted to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h, followed by 24 h reperfusion. CXC195 was injected intraperitoneally at 2 h and 12 h after the onset of ischemia. The number of apoptotic cells was measured by TUNEL assay, apoptosis-related protein cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and the phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β in ischemic penumbra were assayed by western blot. The results showed that administration of CXC195 at the doses of 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg significantly inhibited the apoptosis by decreasing the number of apoptotic cells, decreasing the level of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, and increasing the level of Bcl-2 in rats subjected to I/R injury. Simultaneously, CXC195 treatment markedly increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. Blockade of PI3K activity by wortmannin, dramatically abolished its anti-apoptotic effect and lowered both Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation levels. Our study firstly demonstrated that CXC195 protected against cerebral I/R injury by reducing apoptosis in vivo and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect.
    Neurochemistry International 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2014.01.006 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some studies of animal models of middle cerebral artery occlusion indicate that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia and secondary damage. Flurbiprofen has been suggested to alleviate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in both focal and global cerebral ischemia models, but the mechanisms underlying the protective action are still incompletely understood. In this study we want to investigate the protective effect of flurbiprofen after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and the role of the NF-κB signaling pathway on this neuroprotective effect. Male Wistar rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h, followed by 24 h reperfusion. Flurbiprofen was administrated via tail-vein injection at the onset of reperfusion. HE staining and Immunohistochemistry were carried out to detect the morphological changes in ischemic penumbra cortex. The expression of inflammatory cytokines genes (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and the levels of p-NF-κB (p65) in ischemic penumbra cortex were measured by RT-PCR and western blot. Administration of flurbiprofen at the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg significantly attenuated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, as shown by a reduction in the morphological changes and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in ischemic penumbra cortex. Moreover, our findings further demonstrated that the inhibition of NF-κB activity was involved in the neuroprotective effect of flurbiprofen on inflammatory responses. Flurbiprofen protects against cerebral injury by reducing expression of inflammatory cytokines genes and this effect may be partly due to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2014; 7(9):3087-95. · 1.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

307 Citations
164.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2015
    • JiangHan University
      Jiang’an, Hubei, China
  • 2014
    • Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
      Chiang-tu, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2010–2014
    • University of Jinan (Jinan, China)
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2013
    • Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention
      • National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention
      Shen-ch’üan-shih, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Shandong University
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2011
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2010–2011
    • East Tennessee State University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      جونسون سيتي، تينيسي, Tennessee, United States