[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholestatic liver disease (CLD) is the main indication for liver transplantation in children. This retrospective study evaluated the outcomes of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in children with CLD.
One hundred fifty-nine children with CLD who underwent 164 LDLT between May 2001 and May 2011 were evaluated. Their original diseases were biliary atresia (n=145, 91%), Alagille syndrome (n=8, 5%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n=2), and the others (n=4). The mean age and body weight of the recipients at LDLT was 42±53 months and 14.0±11.0 kg, respectively.
Parents were living donors in 98%. The left lateral segment was the most common type of graft (77%). There were no reoperations and no mortality in any living donor. Recipients' postoperative surgical complications consisted mainly of hepatic arterial problems (7%), hepatic vein stenosis (5%), portal vein stenosis (13%), biliary stricture (18%), intestinal perforation (3%). The overall rejection rate was 31%. Cytomegalovirus infection and Epstein-Barr virus disease were observed in 26% and 5%, respectively. Retransplantation was performed five times in four patients; the main cause was hepatic vein stenosis (n=3). Four patients died; the main cause was gastrointestinal perforation (n=2). The body height of Alagille syndrome patients less than 2 years old significantly improved compared with older patients after LDLT. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year patient survival rates were 98%, 97%, and 97%, respectively.
LDLT for CLD is an effective treatment with excellent long-term outcomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver retransplantation (re-LT) is required in patients with irreversible graft failure, but it is a significant issue that remains medically, ethically, and economically controversial, especially in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome, morbidity, mortality, safety and prognostic factors to improve the outcome of pediatric living donor liver retransplantation (re-LDLT). Six of 172 children that underwent LDLT between January 2001 and March 2010 received a re-LDLT and one received a second re-LDLT. The overall re-LDLT rate was 3.5%. All candidates had re-LDLT after the initial LDLT. The overall actuarial survival of these patients was 83.3% and 83.3% at one and five yr, respectively. These rates are significantly worse than the rates of pediatric first LDLT. Vascular complications occurred in four patients and were successfully treated by interventional radiologic therapy. There were no post-operative biliary complications. One case expired because of hemophagocytic syndrome after re-LDLT. Although pediatric re-LDLT is medically, ethically, and economically controversial, it is a feasible option and should be offered to children with irreversible graft failure. Further investigations, including multicenter studies, are therefore essential to identify any prognostic factors that may improve the present poor outcome after re-LDLT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, the most common urea cycle disorder, causes hyperammonemic encephalopathy and has a poor prognosis. Recently, LT was introduced as a radical OTCD treatment, yielding favorable outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed LT results for OTCD at our facility. Twelve children with OTCD (six boys and six girls) accounted for 7.1% of the 170 children who underwent LDLT at our department between May 2001 and April 2010. Ages at LT ranged from nine months to 11 yr seven months. Post-operative follow-up period was 3-97 months. The post-operative survival rate was 91.7%. One patient died. Two patients who had neurological impairment preoperatively showed no alleviation after LT. All patients other than those who died or failed to show recovery from impairment achieved satisfactory quality-of-life improvement after LT. The outcomes of LDLT as a radical OTCD treatment have been satisfactory. However, neurological impairment associated with hyperammonemia is unlikely to subside even after LT. It is desirable henceforth that more objective and concrete guidelines for OTCD management be established to facilitate LDLT with optimal timing while avoiding the risk of hyperammonemic episodes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been few reports on the management of intra-abdominal drains after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We retrospectively investigated changes in ascitic data related to management of an intra-abdominal drain.
Between March 2008 and June 2009, we performed 28 LDLT. On the first and the fifth postoperative day (POD) after LDLT, we examined the number of ascites cells and cell fractions as well as performed biochemical examination and cultures.
The day of removal of the drain for massive ascites (10 mL/kg/d or more) was 14.2 ± 5.4 POD; for less than 10 mL/kg/d it was 8.7 ± 1.9 POD (P < .001). Nine patients were ascites culture positive; long-term placement of the drain caused an infection in two patients.
When the amount of ascitic fluid on the fifth POD after LDLT was small, it was important to assess the properties of the ascitic fluid because of the possibility of a drain infection or of poor drainage. If the ascitic neutrophil count is less than 250/mm(3) or the examined ascites is normal, intra-abdominal drains should be removed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe our experience with 126 consecutive living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) procedures performed because of biliary atresia and to evaluate the optimal timing of the operation.
Between May 2001 and January 2010,126 patients with biliary atresia underwent 130 LDLT procedures. Mean (SD) patient age was 3.3 (4.2) years, and body weight was 13.8 (10.7) kg. Donors included 64 fathers, 63 mothers, and 3 other individuals. The left lateral segment was the most commonly used graft (75%). Patients were divided into 3 groups according to body weight: group 1, less than 8 kg (n = 40); group 2,8 to 20 kg (n = 63); and group 3, more than 20 kg (n = 23). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Follow up was 4.5 (2.7) years.
All group 3 donors underwent left lobectomy, and all group 1 donors underwent left lateral segmentectomy. No donors required a second operation or died. Comparison of the 3 groups demonstrated that recipient Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score in group 1 was highest, operative blood loss in group 2 was lowest (78 mL/kg), and operative time in group 3 was longest (1201 minutes). Hepatic artery complications occurred more frequently in group 1 (17.9%), and biliary stenosis (43.5%) and gastrointestinal perforation (8.7%) occurred more frequently in group 3. The overall patient survival rates at 1, 5, and 9 years was 98%, 97%, and 97%, respectively. Five-year patient survival rate in groups 1,2, and 3 were 92.5%, 100%, and 95.7%, respectively. Gastrointestinal perforation (n = 2) was the primary cause of death.
Living-donor liver transplantation is an effective treatment of biliary atresia, with good long-term outcome. It seems that the most suitable time to perform LDLT to treat biliary atresia is when the patient weighs 8 to 20 kg.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of liver transplantation for neonates with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) continues to be extremely poor, especially in patients whose body weight is less than 3 kg. To address this problem, we have developed a safe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) modality for neonates. We performed LDLTs with segment 2 monosubsegment (S2) grafts for three neonatal FHF. The recipient age and body weight at LDLT were 13-27 days, 2.59-2.84 kg, respectively. S2 or reduced S2 grafts (93-98 g) obtained from their fathers were implanted using temporary portacaval shunt. The recipient portal vein was reconstructed at a more distal site, such as the umbilical portion, to have the graft liver move freely during hepatic artery (HA) reconstruction. The recipient operation time and bleeding were 11 h 58 min-15 h 27 min and 200-395 mL, respectively. The graft-to-recipient weight ratio was 3.3-3.8% and primary abdominal wall closure was possible in all cases. Although hepatic artery thrombosis occurred in one case, all cases survived with normal growth. Emergency LDLT with S2 grafts weighing less than 100 g can save neonates with FHF whose body weight is less than 3 kg. This LDLT modality using S2 grafts could become a new option for neonates and very small infants requiring LT.
American Journal of Transplantation 11/2010; 10(11):2547-52. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a rare venous malformation in which mesenteric venous blood drains directly into the systemic circulation. Liver transplantation (OLT) may be indicated for patients with symptomatic CAPV refractory to medical treatment, especially due to hyperammonemia, portosystemic encephalopathy, hepatopulmonary syndrome, or hepatic tumors. Because portal hypertension and collateral circulation do not occur with CAPV, significant splanchnic congestion may occur when the portocaval shunt is totally clamped during portal vein (PV) reconstruction in OLT. This phenomenon results in severe bowel edema and hemodynamic instability, which negatively impact the patient's condition and postoperative recovery. We have successfully reconstructed the PV in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using a venous interposition graft, which was anastomosed end-to-side to the portocaval shunt by a partial side-clamp, using a patent round ligament of the liver, which was anastomosed end-to-end to the graft PV with preservation of both the portal and caval blood flows. Owing to the differences in anatomy among patients, at LDLT for CAPV liver transplant surgeons should seek to preserve both portal and caval blood flows.