Lan Shen

Chongqing Medical University, Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China

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Publications (71)199.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study is aimed to investigate the applicability of poloxamer 407 (P407) and 188 (P188)-based temperature-sensitive in situ hydrogel (TSHG) in sustained delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules following intramuscular administration. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with molecular weight of 5-, 20-, and 40-kDa were used as model drugs, which can represent the common size range of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs using TSHG. The correlation between the level of poloxamers and thermogelling transition temperatures (Tsol-gel) was established and two formulations "20% P407/10% P188" and "24% P407/10% P188" were chosen for further study. The results showed that the release kinetics of PEGs was close to zero order. Sustained in vivo behaviors were achieved by both of the two formulations for all the PEGs though variations were seen. Lower molecular weight PEG showed more remarkable pharmacokinetic improvements. No significant differences in pharmacokinetics were observed between the two formulations for the same PEG. This suggested that 20-24% P407/10% P188 formulations, with accordingly Tsol-gel in the range of 24.6 °C-31.7 °C, might be freely chosen to achieve comparable pharmacokinetics for hydrophilic macromolecular drugs after intramuscular injection.
    Drug Delivery 03/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study on proteomic analysis has shown that clusterin (CLU) is significantly decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with epilepsy. Therefore, the present study aimed to confirm CLU concentration reduction in the CSF of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and drug-responsive epilepsy. Fifty-two patients with epilepsy (23 drug resistance and 29 drug effectivity) and 20 control individuals were recruited. The concentrations of CSF and serum CLU were detected. Moreover, alteration of CLU was detected in the rat hippocampus over time after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Our results showed that human CSF-CLU levels were decreased in patients with both drug-resistant epilepsy and drug-responsive epilepsy compared to controls, and concentration of CSF-CLU was obviously lower in drug-resistant epilepsy than in drug-responsive epilepsy. In the pilocarpine-induced seizure rats, expression of neuronal CLU was gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner from acute phase to chronic phase after the onset of SE. In conclusion, CLU level is decreased in the CSF of human epilepsy and the similar alteration is confirmed in a rat model with epilepsy. Therefore, CLU might contribute to the development of epilepsy and be a potential CSF biomarker for resistant epilepsy.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 02/2014; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder with systemic complications and has been a worldwide epidemic. Ophiopogon japonicus is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat diabetes for thousands of years. From our previous work, we know that MDG-1, a water-soluble β-d-fructan polysaccharide from O. japonicas could treat T2DM experimentally. However, MDG-1 is poorly absorbed and its mechanism of action is still unknown. Therefore, a GC TOF/MS-based metabonomic approach in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was performed to investigate the mechanism of MDG-1 in a spontaneous diabetic model. Female diabetic KKay mice (21 weeks old) were randomly divided into a diabetic group (n = 6, gavaged with distilled water) and a MDG-1-Diabetic group (n = 7, gavaged with MDG-1, 300 mg kg(-1)) and female C57BL/6 mice (21 weeks old) were set as controls (n = 6, gavaged with distilled water). After 8-weeks of treatment, feces samples were collected for GC-TOF/MS analysis. Consequently, 12 potential biomarkers were identified, including monosugars (d-tagatose, d-lyxose, d-erythrose, xylo-hexos-5-ulose, 2-deoxy-galactose), butanedioic acid, amino acids (phenylalanine, l-lysine, l-methionine, l-aspartic acid) and purine derivatives (7H-purine, 2'-deoxyinosine). We assume the monosugars and butanedioic acid were the fermentation products of MDG-1 by intestinal microbes and MDG-1 actions against diabetes might be accomplished through the absorbable monosugars and butanedioic acid via suppressing intestinal glucose absorption, enhancing liver glycogenesis, inhibiting glycogenolysis and promoting GLP-1 secretion. Besides, MDG-1 might alleviate diabetes and diabetic nephropathy by reducing 7H-purine and 2'-deoxyinosine. Further omics-driven studies including genomics, proteomics and metabonomics were considered to be carried out to provide direct evidence of gut microbiome contribution to MDG-1 actions.
    Molecular BioSystems 11/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because neuroprotective effects of estrogen remain controversial, we aimed to investigate the effect of different doses of estradiol (E2) on cerebral ischemia using both in vivo and in vitro experiments. PC12 cells were cultured at physiological (10 nM and 20 nM) or pharmacological (10 muM and 20 muM) dosages of E2 for 24 hours (h). The results of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) incorporation and flow cytometric analysis showed that physiological doses of E2 enhanced cell proliferation and pharmacological doses of E2 inhibited cell proliferation. After the cells were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) for 4 h and reperfusion for 20 h, the results of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, flow cytometric analysis and Western blot analysis showed that physiological doses of E2 enhanced cell viability, reduced cell apoptosis and decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3. In contrast, pharmacological doses of E2 decreased cell viability and induced cell apoptosis. In vivo, adult ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received continuous subcutaneous injection of different doses of E2 for 4 weeks. Transient cerebral ischemia was induced for 2 h using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) technique, followed by 22 h of reperfusion. The results of Garcia test, 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining showed that 6 mug/kg and 20 mug/kg E2 replacement induced an increase in neurological deficit scores, a decrease in the infarct volume and a reduction in the expression of caspase-3 when compared to animals in the OVX group without E2 treatment. However, 50 mug/kg E2 replacement treatment decreased neurological deficit scores, increased the infarct volume and the expression of caspase-3 when compared to animals in the control group and 6 up/kg or 20 mug/kg E2 replacement group. We conclude that physiological levels of E2 exhibit neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia; whereas, pharmacological or supraphysiological doses of E2 have damaging effects on neurons after cerebral ischemia.
    BMC Neuroscience 10/2013; 14(1):118. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breviscapine, one of cardiovascular drugs extracted from a Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapinus, has been frequently used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary heart disease and stroke. However, its poor water solubility and low bioavailability in vivo severely restrict the clinical application. To overcome these drawbacks, breviscapine solid dispersion tablets consisting of breviscapine, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30), microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone were appropriately prepared. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that breviscapine released percentage of solid dispersion tablets reached 90 %, whereas it was only 40 % for commercial breviscapine tablets. Comparative pharmacokinetic study between solid dispersion tablets and commercial products was investigated on the normal beagle dogs after oral administration. Results showed that the bioavailability of breviscapine was greatly increased by 3.45-fold for solid dispersion tablets. The greatly improved dissolution rate and bioavailability might be attributed to intermolecular hydrogen bonding reactions between PVP K30 and scutellarin. These findings suggest that our solid dispersion tablets can greatly improve the bioavailability as well as the dissolution rate of breviscapine.
    European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 09/2013; · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preparative HPLC was used to prepare ferulic acid, senkyunolide I and senkyunolide H from Ligusticum chuanxiong. The separation was conducted on a Shim-Pack Prep-ODS (20.0 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with the mobile phase of methanol-0.2% glacial acetic acid (50:50)at the flow rate of 5 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was 278 nm, and the purity of each compound was detected by HPLC analysis. Spectral data analyses including UV, ESI-MS and NMR were used to identify their structures. This method is simple, fast, which is suitable for preparation of standard reference of ferulic acid, senkyunolide I and senkyunolide H from L. chuanxiong and can meet the requirement of new drug research and development.
    Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 06/2013; 38(12):1947-50.
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    ABSTRACT: This work aimed to improve the clinical application of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a natural anti-myocardial ischemic fructan with Mw of 4.80 kDa, by mono-PEGylation. Three mono-PEGylated ROPs were prepared by a moderate coupling reaction between amino-terminated methoxy-PEG (20-, 30-, or 40-kDa) and excessive hydroxyl-activated ROP. After being fully characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance as well as high-performance gel permeation chromatography and anthrone-sulfuric acid colorimetry coupled assay, they were evaluated for pharmacokinetics and anti-myocardial ischemic activities in rats with coronary artery ligation. The results showed that mono-PEGylated ROPs were successfully and effectively prepared. Compared with ROP, the three mono-PEGylated ROPs showed approximately 32-, 85-, and 100-fold prolonged retention in systemic circulation with plasma half-lives reaching 16.1, 42.4, and 49.8 h, respectively. Studies on anti-myocardial ischemic effects of the conjugates showed that administrated at the same molar dose of 4 μmol/kg per injection as ROP, they could achieve comparable or even better therapeutic effects although their administration intervals were 2- to 6-fold longer than that of ROP. These findings confirm that PEGylation would be a promising approach to markedly reducing the injection-administered frequency of ROP and hence patient compliance without sacrifice of the therapeutic efficacy by significantly improving its pharmacokinetics.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is involved in cell apoptosis and survival. Although reported to be highly expressed in the cardiac tissue, the biological function of NDRG2 in the heart remains to be established. Insulin exerts protective effects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Here, we examined the changes in phosphorylation of NDRG2, a novel substrate and phosphoprotein of Akt, in insulin-induced protection against myocardial I/R. Rat hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by reperfusion with or without insulin at the onset of reperfusion. Reperfusion with insulin inhibited myocardial apoptosis and reduced infarct size, as well as significantly up-regulated myocardial Akt and NDRG2 phosphorylation levels compared with the I/R group. These effects of insulin were blocked by pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or Akt inhibitor. To further ascertain the role of NDRG2 in insulin-induced cardioprotection, cardiomyocytes were transduced with a lentivirus encoding shRNA targeting NDRG2 (loss-of-function), which rendered the cells more susceptible to I/R injury and significantly blunted the anti-apoptotic effect of insulin. Moreover, the NDRG2 shRNA lentivirus was tested in vivo, and NDRG2 knockdown aggravated myocardial I/R injury and attenuated the insulin-mediated cardioprotection against I/R injury. Taken together, these results suggest a novel role of PI3K/Akt/NDRG2 signaling in the cardioprotective effect of insulin.
    Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 05/2013; 108(3):341. · 7.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae) has been widely prescribed to treat cardiovascular disease in China for centuries. Senkyunolide I is one of the major bioactive components in L. chuanxiong, which shows pharmacological activities against migraines and oxidative damage. In this paper, ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) was applied for the rapid analysis of senkyunolide I metabolites in rats after its intravenous administration. The non-metabolized parent compound and eighteen metabolites from drug-treated samples in rat plasma, urine and bile were identified. Our analysis indicated that methylation, hydration, epoxidation, glucuronidation and glutathione conjugation were the major pathways of senkyunolide I metabolism in vivo. This study provides important information regarding the metabolism of senkyunolide I, which will be helpful for understanding its mechanism of action. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the potential of using UPLC/Q-TOF-MS for the rapid and reliable characterization of the metabolites of natural products.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 04/2013; 81-82C:178-186. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A combinative method using HPLC fingerprinting and quantitative analysis was developed and validated for manufacturer-to-manufacturer quality consistency evaluation of Liuwei Dihuang pills (LDP). Seven bioactive constituents of LDP, including gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, morroniside, paeoniflorin, sweroside, loganin and paeonal, were selected as markers to evaluate the similarities of 20 samples from 16 manufacturers. The similarity values for the 20 LDP samples were all greater than 0.92, indicating that there is a general quality consistency for different manufacturers. Additionally, the 7 selected bioactive compounds were in accordance with the compatibility principle of “the monarch drug, the ministerial drug, the adjunctive drug and the messenger drug” of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescription and the multi components quality evaluation requirements of TCM as well. The detection and quantification limits for these 7 bioactive components were all less than 0.11 μg mL−1 and 0.38 μg mL−1, respectively. The mean recovery for all the investigated constituents was acceptable with an accuracy of 98–102%. The intra- and inter-day precisions of this method were less than 4.73%, and stability and repeatability were less than 3.23%. This method is simple and reliable, and also shows that the combination of the chromatographic fingerprint and quantitative analysis offers an efficient solution to quality consistency evaluation of herbal preparations.
    Analytical methods 04/2013; 5(9):2384-2390. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperthermia is one of the most effective adjuvant treatments for various cancers with few side effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms still are not known. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a tumor suppressor, has been shown to be involved in diverse cellular stresses including hypoxia, lipotoxicity, etc. In addition, Ndrg2 has been reported to be related to progression of gastric cancer. In the current study, our data showed that the apoptosis rate of MKN28 cells increased relatively rapidly to 13.4% by 24 h after treatment with hyperthermia (42°C for 1 h) compared to 5.1% in control cells (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, there was no obvious change in the expression level of total Ndrg2 during this process. Further investigation demonstrated that the relative phosphorylation levels of Ndrg2 at Ser332, Thr348 increased up to 3.2- and 1.9-fold (hyperthermia group vs control group) at 3 h in MKN28 cells, respectively (P < 0.05). We also found that heat treatment significantly increased AKT phosphorylation. AKT inhibitor VIII (10 µM) decreased the phosphorylation level of Ndrg2 induced by hyperthermia. Accordingly, the apoptosis rate rose significantly in MKN28 cells (16.4%) treated with a combination of AKT inhibitor VIII and hyperthermia compared to that (6.8%) of cells treated with hyperthermia alone (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data demonstrated that Ndrg2 phosphorylation could be induced by hyperthermia in an AKT-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, AKT inhibitor VIII suppressed Ndrg2 phosphorylation and rendered gastric cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis induced by hyperthermia.
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 04/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a structured protocol for the classification of wet mass in extrusion-spheronization was developed to predict formation and pellet quality. The wet masses of 120 formulae were prepared taking microcrystalline celluloses as pelletization aid and lactose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose grades, herbal medicines as model drugs. Physical properties of the wet masses such as hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience were tested respectively using a texture analyzer. Particles were produced by spheronization process and the quality of spherical pellets was also evaluated. Data were analyzed by principal component analysis, factor analysis and classification analysis. The wet masses could be classified into five groups taking the ratio of hardness to springiness (Ha/Sp) as the first classification index and chewiness, resilience as the second and the third classification index. The wet masses of different classification could correspondingly form the different shapes. So a new protocol could be devised, for example, if the range of Ha/Sp of the wet masses was 30,992-47,689 g, at the same time the value of chewiness was less than 4,842 and the value of resilience was no more than 0.139, it would form spherical pellets under the experimental condition. These results demonstrate that the proposed protocol could be a valuable asset in a formulation development project to assess the physical properties of wet masses and to predict formation and pellet quality. So the tedious and expensive pre-production (pre-formulation and optimization) work could be considerably reduced.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 04/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To provide a mathematical set-based method for evaluating drug release kinetics of multi-component traditional Chinese medicine preparations. With Fuzheng Huayu prescription as the study model, a mathematical set-based method for evaluating drug release kinetics was established to guide the preparation of drug release system of Fuzheng Huayu prescription, and a quantitative evaluation was made for its multi-component drug release characteristics. Its accuracy was verified by Kalman filtering method. The comparison between the two showed that the sample No. 4 of Fuzheng Huayu drug release system showed synchronized drug release with its reference preparation Fuzheng Huayu capsules. The results verified the accuracy and rationality of the evaluation method based on mathematics set. Meanwhile, it displayed the release of target preparations according to asynchronous coefficient (k) and other parameters, and found the orientation of regulating and improving the unit drug release dosage from relevant error parameters of various characteristic peak information, in order to purposefully regulate relevant components, and enable target preparations to meet the synchronized drug release requirements of the reference preparation. Meanwhile, it provided an effective measure for evaluating the quantitative characterization and synchronized release behavior of multi-component traditional Chinese medicines.
    Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 04/2013; 38(8):1165-71.
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is becoming a health concern worldwide and metformin, a first line anti-diabetic drug, was associated with weight loss under different backgrounds. However, most researches focused on the anti-diabetic mechanism and less attention has been paid on the mechanism of weight loss of metformin. Therefore, we established a metabonomic method to evaluate metformin action in preventing obesity in a high fat diet-induced-obesity (DIO) mice model. 36 male C57BL/6 mice (8-week old) were randomly divided into control group (n=12, normal chow), model group (n=12, high fat chow) and metformin group (n=12, high fat chow and dosed with metformin) over 16 weeks. A urinary metabonomic study using UPLC-TOF/MS was performed in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, indices of body weight and food intake as well as fasting blood glucose, fed blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and plasma insulin were collected. Significant weight loss in metformin-treated mice was achieved and 21 potential biomarkers were identified. Decreased glucose, myristic acid, stearidonic acid, lysoPC (16:0), lysoPC (18:0), l-glutamic acid, l-methionine, l-threonine, l-phenylalanine, l-histidine, l-carnitine, l-malic acid and pantothenic acid in urine indicated that metformin may have exerted effects on energy metabolism. Further, based on the biomarkers, we cautiously propose that tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) may have been compromised by metformin and might contribute to the activation of adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), then AMPK activation led to more ß-oxidation of certain fatty acids and augmented lipolysis and thus induced weight loss. Related cellular and molecular studies are being considered to further investigate the underlying mechanism.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 03/2013; 925C:110-116. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the limitation of science and technology in ancient times, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) could have prepared only in traditional dosage forms, such as pills, powders, ointments and pellets. Though studies on multi-component TCMs have become one of major development orientations of TCM, the druggability of their preparations has always been neglected. On the basis of two key difficulties--the integration of studies on multi-component TCMs and TCM theory as well as the evaluation on their druggability, the essay proposes methods and technologies that can be adopted in studies on multi-component TCM preparations, including the characteristic physicochemical property of multi-component TCMs and its correlation with forming process, the release-modified micro pill preparation technology based on prescription-symptom-dosage, and the evaluation technology on release of release-modified micro pill components based on mathematical set model.
    Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 03/2013; 38(5):629-32.
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    ABSTRACT: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been documented to be a pro-differentiative and anti-proliferative gene in cancer research. Our previous study found a significant NDRG2 up-regulation in reactive astrocytes of penumbra after transient focal cerebral ischemia, which was parallel to the enhancement of TUNEL-positive signals. However, it is still uncertain whether NDRG2 participates in cellular apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in brain. In this study, we investigated the role of NDRG2 in cellular apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in IL-6-differentiated C6 glioma cells. The results showed that NDRG2 was up-regulated and translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after OGD exposure. NDRG2 over-expression exhibited an anti-proliferative effect and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio after OGD exposure, while NDRG2 silencing promoted the cellular proliferation and attenuated the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The pro-apoptotic effect of p53 was verified by the results in which p53 silencing greatly reduced the percentage of OGD-induced apoptotic cells. p53 silencing also reduced the OGD-induced NDRG2 up-regulation. However, over-expression of p53 did not further improve the NDRG2 up-regulation. In conclusion, NDRG2 is a p53-associated regulator of apoptosis in C6-originated astrocytes after OGD exposure. These findings bring insight to the roles of NDRG2 in ischemic-hypoxic injury and provide potential targets for future clinical therapies on stroke.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57130. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To establish an accurate and simple qualitative analytical method in vivo in the study on HPLC characteristic fingerprint of active components of dachuanxiong fang in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, in order to lay a foundation for studies on components found in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid and provide basis for compatible regularity of initiators. HPLC characteristic fingerprint of active components of dachuanxiong fang in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid was established. The similarity of fingerprints of all of six batches of samples was above 0.85, RSD of their relative retention times in common peaks was less than 2. 0%. The fingerprints of active components of dachuanxiong fang in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were stable and accurate that they can be used in qualitative analysis on in vivo components.
    Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 07/2012; 37(13):2017-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Diincarvilones A-D (1-4), incarvilone A (5), and a known compound, argutosine B (6), were isolated from Incarvillea arguta. The structures, including the absolute configurations of the new compounds, were determined by NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, CD spectroscopy, and a variety of computational methods. The biological properties of these substances, including effects on intracellular Ca(2+) influx, nitric oxide (NO) production, and human cancer cells, were evaluated. The results showed that at the concentration of 10 μM (in HBSS buffer) diincarvilones A and B cause a persistent increase in cytoplasmic calcium levels in A549 cells.
    Journal of Natural Products 05/2012; 75(6):1025-9. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The paper is to report the establishment of an HPLC specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini decoctions and the influence of combination on the specific chromatogram. The RP-HPLC method was used with a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 microm), and acetonitrile-0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (gradient elution) as mobile phase. Flow rate was 0.8 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was set at 232 nm. The temperature of column was 30 degrees C. The method is stable and reliable with a good reproducibility, it can be used to determine the specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions. Twenty peaks were selected as specific peaks in Sini Decoction with liquiritin peak as the reference peak. Six of them were from Glycyrrhiza and the other 6 peaks were from both Glycyrrhiza and Ganjiangfuzi Decoction. The areas of specific peaks of Sini Decoctions were smaller than those in the chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza. The specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions is markedly influenced by Radix Aconiti Carmichaeli and Rhizoma Zingiberis. The areas of the specific peaks in Sini Decoctions were reduced obviously. The method is stable and reliable with a good reproducibility, it can be used to determine the specific chromatogram of Glycyrrhiza in Sini Decoctions.
    Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 04/2012; 47(4):508-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Differentiated macrophages are essential for the innate immune system; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of macrophages remain largely unknown. Here we show that the RNA-binding protein QKI, mainly QKI-5, is transcriptionally activated in the early differentiated monocytic progenitors when CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α is expressed. The forced expression of C/EBPα increases the endogenous expression of QKI. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and reporter assays further confirm that C/EBPα activates the transcription of QKI, primarily by binding to the distal C/EBPα-binding site. Blocking the induction of QKI using RNA interference enhances the expression of endogenous CSF1R and facilitates macrophage differentiation. Further study of the mechanism reveals that QKI-5 facilitates the degradation of CSF1R mRNA by interacting with the distal QRE in the 3' untranslated region. In summary, we show that in committed macrophage progenitors, C/EBPα-activated QKI-5 negatively regulates macrophage differentiation by down-regulating CSF1R expression, forming a negative feedback loop during macrophage differentiation.
    Molecular biology of the cell 03/2012; 23(9):1628-35. · 5.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

338 Citations
199.18 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2014
    • Chongqing Medical University
      Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China
  • 2013
    • Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Nan-ch’ang-shih, Jiangxi Sheng, China
  • 2010–2013
    • Shanghai University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2012
    • Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      • • College of Chinese Materia Medica
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2011
    • Shandong University
      • Department of Neurology
      Jinan, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2003–2010
    • Fourth Military Medical University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Xi’an, Liaoning, China