Logan C Walker

University of Otago , Taieri, Otago Region, New Zealand

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Publications (31)152.61 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function germline mutations in BRCA1 (MIM #113705) confer markedly increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The full-length transcript codifies for a protein involved in DNA repair pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. Several BRCA1 splicing isoforms have been described in public domain databases, but the physiological role (if any) of BRCA1 alternative splicing remains to be established. An accurate description of 'naturally occurring' alternative splicing at this locus is a prerequisite to understand its biological significance. However, a systematic analysis of alternative splicing at the BRCA1 locus is yet to be conducted. Here, the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germ-Line Mutant Alleles consortium combines RT-PCR, exon scanning, cloning, sequencing and relative semi-quantification to describe naturally occurring BRCA1 alternative splicing with unprecedented resolution. The study has been conducted in blood-related RNA sources, commonly used for clinical splicing assays, as well as in one healthy breast tissue. We have characterized a total of 63 BRCA1 alternative splicing events, including 35 novel findings. A minimum of 10 splicing events (Δ1Aq, Δ5, Δ5q, Δ8p, Δ9, Δ(9,10), Δ9_11, Δ11q, Δ13p and Δ14p) represent a substantial fraction of the full-length expression level (ranging from 5 to 100%). Remarkably, our data indicate that BRCA1 alternative splicing is similar in blood and breast, a finding supporting the clinical relevance of blood-based in vitro splicing assays. Overall, our data suggest an alternative splicing model in which most non-mutually exclusive alternative splicing events are randomly combined into individual mRNA molecules to produce hundreds of different BRCA1 isoforms
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: on behalf of the ENIGMA consortium BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of unclassified se-quence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essen-tial for clinical management and depends on a multi-factorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn re-lies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by mem-bers of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consor-tium. We compared similarities and differences in re-sults derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1,
    Clinical Chemistry 11/2013; · 7.15 Impact Factor
  • Human Mutation 01/2013; · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported molecular karyotype analysis of invasive breast tumour core needle biopsies by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (Walker et al, Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 2008 May;47(5):405-17). That study identified frequently recurring gains and losses involving chromosome bands 8q22 and 8p21, respectively. Moreover, these data highlighted an association between 8q22 gain and typically aggressive grade 3 tumors. Here we validate and extend our previous investigations through FISH analysis of tumor touch imprints prepared from excised breast tumor specimens. Compared to post-surgical tumor excisions, core needle biopsies are known to be histologically less precise when predicting tumor grade. Therefore investigating these chromosomal aberrations in tumor samples that offer more reliable pathological assessment is likely to give a better overall indication of association. A series of 60 breast tumors were screened for genomic copy number changes at 8q22 and 8p21 by dual-color FISH. Results confirm previous findings that 8p loss (39%) and 8q gain (74%) occur frequently in invasive breast cancer. Both absolute quantification of 8q22 gain across the sample cohort, and a separate relative assessment by 8q22:8p21 copy number ratio, showed that the incidence of 8q22 gain significantly increased with grade (p = 0.004, absolute and p = 0.02, relative). In contrast, no association was found between 8p21 loss and tumor grade. These findings support the notion that 8q22 is a region of interest for invasive breast cancer pathogenesis, potentially harboring one or more genes that, when amplified, precipitate the molecular events that define high tumor grade.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e70790. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of unclassified sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essential for clinical management and depends on a multifactorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn relies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting.METHODS: We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by members of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium. We compared similarities and differences in results derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene variants known to alter splicing (BRCA1: c.135-1G>T, c.591C>T, c.594-2A>C, c.671-2A>G, and c.5467+5G>C and BRCA2: c.426-12_8delGTTTT, c.7988A>T, c.8632+1G>A, and c.9501+3A>T). Differences in protocols were then assessed to determine which elements were critical in reliable assay design.RESULTS: PCR primer design strategies, PCR conditions, and product detection methods, combined with a prior knowledge of expected alternative transcripts, were the key factors for accurate splicing assay results. For example, because of the position of primers and PCR extension times, several isoforms associated with BRCA1, c.594-2A>C and c.671-2A>G, were not detected by many sites. Variation was most evident for the detection of low-abundance transcripts (e.g., BRCA2 c.8632+1G>A Delta19,20 and BRCA1 c.135-1G>T Delta5q and Delta3). Detection of low-abundance transcripts was sometimes addressed by using more analytically sensitive detection methods (e.g., BRCA2 c.426-12_8delGTTTT ins18bp).CONCLUSIONS: We provide recommendations for best practice and raise key issues to consider when designing mRNA assays for evaluation of unclassified sequence variants.
    Clin Chem. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A characteristic of sporadic and familial breast tumours is genomic instability, resulting from either inherited mutations in genes that control genome integrity or mutations that are acquired in somatic cells during development. It is well established that abnormal chromosome number and structural changes to chromosomes play an important role in the cause and progression of breast cancer. Familial BRCA1 breast tumours are characterised by basal-like phenotype and high-histological grade which are typically associated with increased genomic instability. Consistent with previous studies, the genomes with the greatest number of base pairs covered by copy number change were typically found in basal-like and/or high-histological grade breast tumours within our cohort. Moreover, we show that luminal A tumours that are high grade had significantly less copy number variant (CNV) coverage than the more clinically aggressive high-grade luminal B tumours, suggesting that chromosomal instability rather than cellular differentiation contributes to the aggressive nature of luminal B tumours. It has previously been proposed that germline CNVs may contribute to somatically acquired chromosome changes in the tumour, but this is the first study to address this idea in breast cancer. By comparing germline CNVs and tumour-specific CNVs in matched breast tumour and normal tissue using data from the Illumina Human CNV370 duo beadarray, we provide evidence that germline CNVs do not tend to act as a foundation on which larger chromosome copy number aberrations develop in tumour cells. Further studies are required with increased sequence resolution that will detect smaller CNVs and define CNV breakpoints to comprehensively assess the relationship between inherited genomic variation and genome evolution in breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2012; 134(3):1005-11. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed countries. To identify genetic variants associated with endometrial cancer risk, we performed a genome-wide association study involving 1,265 individuals with endometrial cancer (cases) from Australia and the UK and 5,190 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We compared genotype frequencies in cases and controls for 519,655 SNPs. Forty seven SNPs that showed evidence of association with endometrial cancer in stage 1 were genotyped in 3,957 additional cases and 6,886 controls. We identified an endometrial cancer susceptibility locus close to HNF1B at 17q12 (rs4430796, P = 7.1 × 10(-10)) that is also associated with risk of prostate cancer and is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.
    Nature Genetics 05/2011; 43(5):451-4. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in DNA repair are good candidates to be tested as phenotypic modifiers for carriers of mutations in the high-risk susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. The base excision repair (BER) pathway could be particularly interesting given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the pathway, PARP1, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In this study, we have evaluated the XRCC1 gene that participates in the BER pathway, as phenotypic modifier of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Three common SNPs in the gene, c.-77C>T (rs3213245) p.Arg280His (rs25489) and p.Gln399Arg (rs25487) were analysed in a series of 701 BRCA1 and 576 BRCA2 mutation carriers. An association was observed between p.Arg280His-rs25489 and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers, with rare homozygotes at increased risk relative to common homozygotes (hazard ratio: 22.3, 95% confidence interval: 14.3-34, P<0.001). This association was further tested in a second series of 4480 BRCA1 and 3016 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2. CONCLUSIONS AND INTERPRETATION: No evidence of association was found when the larger series was analysed which lead us to conclude that none of the three SNPs are significant modifiers of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers.
    British Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 104(8):1356-61. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical management of breast cancer families is complicated by identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 sequence alterations of unknown significance. Molecular assays evaluating the effect of intronic variants on native splicing can help determine their clinical relevance. Twenty-six intronic BRCA1/2 variants ranging from the consensus dinucleotides in the splice acceptor or donor to 53 nucleotides into the intron were identified in multiple-case families. The effect of the variants on splicing was assessed using HSF matrices, MaxEntScan and NNsplice, followed by analysis of mRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines. A total of 12 variants were associated with splicing aberrations predicted to result in production of truncated proteins, including a variant located 12 nucleotides into the intron. The posterior probability of pathogenicity was estimated using a multifactorial likelihood approach, and provided a pathogenic or likely pathogenic classification for seven of the 12 spliceogenic variants. The apparent disparity between experimental evidence and the multifactorial predictions is likely due to several factors, including a paucity of likelihood information and a nonspecific prior probability applied for intronic variants outside the consensus dinucleotides. Development of prior probabilities of pathogenicity incorporating bioinformatic prediction of splicing aberrations should improve identification of functionally relevant variants and enhance multifactorial likelihood analysis of intronic variants.
    Human Mutation 03/2011; 32(6):678-87. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA > 3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2 and 95 controls) over 33 months. At the baseline screen (year 1), 7.0% (21/300) underwent a prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in ten individuals, a prevalence of 3.3%. The positive predictive value of PSA screening in this cohort was 47·6% (10/21). One prostate cancer was diagnosed at year 2. Of the 11 prostate cancers diagnosed, nine were in mutation carriers, two in controls, and eight were clinically significant. The present study shows that the positive predictive value of PSA screening in BRCA mutation carriers is high and that screening detects clinically significant prostate cancer. These results support the rationale for continued screening in such men.
    BJU International 01/2011; 107(1):28-39. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews.
    Human genetics. 01/2011; 130(5):685-99.
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    ABSTRACT: Current attempts to identify genetic modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated risk have focused on a candidate gene approach, based on knowledge of gene functions, or the development of large genome-wide association studies. In this study, we evaluated 24 SNPs tagged to 14 candidate genes derived through a novel approach that analysed gene expression differences to prioritise candidate modifier genes for association studies. We successfully genotyped 24 SNPs in a cohort of up to 4,724 BRCA1 and 2,693 BRCA2 female mutation carriers from 15 study groups and assessed whether these variants were associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. SNPs in five of the 14 candidate genes showed evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers (P < 0.05). Notably, the minor alleles of two SNPs (rs7166081 and rs3825977) in high linkage disequilibrium (r² = 0.77), located at the SMAD3 locus (15q22), were each associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (relative risk = 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 1.45, P(trend) = 0.004; and relative risk = 1.20, 95% confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.40, P(trend) = 0.018). This study provides evidence that the SMAD3 gene, which encodes a key regulatory protein in the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway and is known to interact directly with BRCA2, may contribute to increased risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This finding suggests that genes with expression associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status are enriched for the presence of common genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk in these populations.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 11/2010; 12(6):R102. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel oncogenetic clinic was established in 2002 at the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust offering advice and specialist follow-up for families with a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The remit of this multidisciplinary clinic, staffed by individuals in both oncology and genetics, is to provide individualised screening recommendations, support in decision making, risk reducing strategies, cascade testing, and an extensive research portfolio. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate uptake of genetic testing, risk reducing surgery and cancer prevalence in 346 BRCA1/BRCA2 families seen between January 1996 and December 2006. 661 individuals attended the clinic and 406 mutation carriers were identified; 85.8% mutation carriers have chosen to attend for annual follow-up. 70% of mutation carriers elected for risk reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO). 32% of unaffected women chose risk reducing bilateral mastectomy. 32% of women with breast cancer chose contralateral risk reducing mastectomy at time of diagnosis. Some women took over 8 years to decide to have surgery. 91% of individuals approached agreed to participate in research programmes. A novel specialist clinic for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers has been successfully established. The number of mutation positive families is increasing. This, and the high demand for RRBSO in women over 40, is inevitably going to place an increasing demand on existing health resources. Our clinic model has subsequently been adopted in other centres and this will greatly facilitate translational studies and provide a healthcare structure for management and follow-up of such people who are at a high cancer risk.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 07/2010; 47(7):486-91. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Missense substitutions in high-risk cancer susceptibility genes create clinical uncertainty in the genetic counseling process. Multifactorial likelihood classification approaches and in vitro assays are useful for the classification of exonic sequence variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, but these currently rely on the assumption that changes in protein function are the major biological mechanism of pathogenicity. This study investigates the potentially pathogenic role of aberrant splicing for exonic variants predicted to encode missense substitutions using patient-derived RNA. No splicing aberrations were identified for BRCA1c.5054C>T and BRCA2c.7336A>G, c.8839G>A, and c.9154C>T. However, RT-PCR analysis identified a major splicing aberration for BRCA1c.4868C>G(p.Ala1623Gly), a variant encoding a missense substitution considered likely to be neutral. Splicing aberrations were also observed for BRCA2c.7988A>T(p.Glu2663Val) and c.8168A>G(p.Asp2723Gly), but both variant and wildtype alleles were shown to be present in full-length mRNA transcripts, suggesting that variant protein may be translated. BRCA2 protein function assays indicated that BRCA2p.Glu2663Val, p.Asp2723Gly and p.Arg3052Trp missense proteins have abrogated function consistent with pathogenicity. Multifactorial likelihood analysis provided evidence for pathogenicity for BRCA1 c.5054C>T(p.Thr1685Ile) and BRCA2c.7988A>T(p.Glu2663Val), c.8168A>G(p.Asp2723Gly) and c.9154C>T(p.Arg3052Trp), supporting experimentally derived evidence. These findings highlight the need for improved bioinformatic prediction of splicing aberrations and to refine multifactorial likelihood models used to assess clinical significance.
    Human Mutation 06/2010; 31(6):E1484-505. · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • Logan C Walker, Nic Waddell
    04/2010; , ISBN: 9780470015902
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic screening of breast cancer patients and their families have identified a number of variants of unknown clinical significance in the breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Evaluation of such unclassified variants may be assisted by web-based bioinformatic prediction tools, although accurate prediction of aberrant splicing by unclassified variants affecting exonic splice enhancers (ESEs) remains a challenge. This study used a combination of RT-PCR analysis and splicing reporter minigene assays to assess five unclassified variants in the BRCA2 gene that we had previously predicted to disrupt an ESE using bioinformatic approaches. Analysis of BRCA2 c.8308 G > A (p.Ala2770Thr) by mRNA analysis, and BRCA2 c.8962A > G (p.Ser2988Gly), BRCA2 c.8972G > A (p.Arg2991His), BRCA2 c.9172A > G (p.Ser3058Gly), and BRCA2 c.9213G > T (p.Glu3071Asp) by a minigene assay, revealed no evidence for aberrant splicing. These results illustrate the need for improved methods for predicting functional ESEs and the potential consequences of sequence variants contained therein.
    BMC Medical Genetics 01/2010; 11:80. · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Logan C Walker, Amanda B Spurdle
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence from different studies has shown that genes harboring sequence variations may modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Current attempts to identify genetic modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated risk have focused on a candidate gene-based approach or the development of large genome-wide association studies. However, both methods have notable limitations. This chapter describes a novel approach for analyzing gene expression differences to prioritize candidate modifier genes for single nucleotide polymorphism association studies. The advantage that gives this strategy an edge over other candidate gene-based studies is its potential to identify candidate genes that interact with exogenous risk factors to cause or modify cancer, without detailed a priori knowledge of the molecular pathways involved.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 653:23-34.
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    ABSTRACT: A large number of rare sequence variants of unknown clinical significance have been identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Laboratory-based methods that can distinguish between carriers of pathogenic mutations and non-carriers are likely to have utility for the classification of these sequence variants. To identify predictors of pathogenic mutation status in familial breast cancer patients, we explored the use of gene expression arrays to assess the effect of two DNA-damaging agents (irradiation and mitomycin C) on cellular response in relation to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status. A range of regimes was used to treat 27 lymphoblastoid cell-lines (LCLs) derived from affected women in high-risk breast cancer families (nine BRCA1, nine BRCA2, and nine non-BRCA1/2 or BRCAX individuals) and nine LCLs from healthy individuals. Using an RNA-pooling strategy, we found that treating LCLs with 1.2 microM mitomycin C and measuring the gene expression profiles 1 hour post-treatment had the greatest potential to discriminate BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX mutation status. A classifier was built using the expression profile of nine QRT-PCR validated genes that were associated with BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX status in RNA pools. These nine genes could distinguish BRCA1 from BRCA2 carriers with 83% accuracy in individual samples, but three-way analysis for BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX had a maximum of 59% prediction accuracy. Our results suggest that, compared to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, non-BRCA1/2 (BRCAX) individuals are genetically heterogeneous. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of RNA pools to compare the expression profiles of cell-lines from BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX cases after treatment with irradiation and mitomycin C as a method to prioritize treatment regimes for detailed downstream expression analysis.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2010; 6(2):e1000850. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic testing for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 has important implications for the clinical management of people found to carry a mutation. However, genetic testing is expensive and may be associated with adverse psychosocial effects. To provide a cost-efficient and clinically appropriate genetic counselling service, genetic testing should be targeted at those individuals most likely to carry pathogenic mutations. Several algorithms that predict the likelihood of carrying a BRCA1 or a BRCA2 mutation are currently used in clinical practice to identify such individuals. We evaluated the performance of the carrier prediction algorithms BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, IBIS, the Manchester scoring system and Myriad tables, using 1934 families seen in cancer genetics clinics in the UK in whom an index patient had been screened for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations. The models were evaluated for calibration, discrimination and accuracy of the predictions. Of the five algorithms, only BOADICEA predicted the overall observed number of mutations detected accurately (ie, was well calibrated). BOADICEA also provided the best discrimination, being significantly better (p<0.05) than all models except BRCAPRO (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve statistics: BOADICEA = 0.77, BRCAPRO = 0.76, IBIS = 0.74, Manchester = 0.75, Myriad = 0.72). All models underpredicted the number of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the low estimated risk category. Carrier prediction algorithms provide a rational basis for counselling individuals likely to carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Their widespread use would improve equity of access and the cost-effectiveness of genetic testing.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 08/2008; 45(7):425-31. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a patient with Bloom syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive condition characterised by chromosomal instability leading to a high risk of cancer at an early age. The diagnosis should be considered in patients with any cancer of significantly early onset, short stature and a photosensitive lupus-like rash on the face. Diagnostic confirmation is obtained from chromosome studies that show significantly increased numbers of sister chromatid exchanges. There are important management implications, including minimising the use of ionising radiation in surveillance and treatment.
    Clinical Oncology 07/2008; 20(5):375-9. · 2.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

310 Citations
152.61 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • University of Otago
      • Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences
      Taieri, Otago Region, New Zealand
  • 2008–2011
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Royal Brisbane Hospital
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2006
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2004
    • Canterbury District Health Board
      Christchurch, Canterbury Region, New Zealand